انگریز شاہی حکمرانوں کی فہرست

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
یہاں جائیں: رہنمائی، تلاش کریں
انگلستان کا شاہی نشان

یہ انگریز شاہی حکمرانوں کی فہرست (List of English monarchs) ہے۔ روایتی طور پر الفریڈاعظم کو مملکت انگلستان کا بانی تصور کیا جاتا ہے۔ جبکہ ملکہ آن انگلستان کی آخری ملکہ تھی جو مملکت انگلستان اور مملکت سکاٹ لینڈ ضم ہو کر مملکت برطانیہ عظمی بنی اور یوں ملکہ آن پہلی برطانوی ملکہ بنی۔

خاندان ویسکس[ترمیم]

نام تصویر پیدائش شادی وفات
الفریڈاعظم
(Ælfrēd; Ælfrǣd)
871[1]–899[2]
Alfred - MS Royal 14 B VI.jpg 849
بیٹا ایتھلوولف (شاہ ویسکس) اور اوسبرح
Ealhswith
868
پانچ بچے
26 اکتوبر 899
عمر تقریباً 50
ایڈورڈ ایلڈر
Eadweard cyning
26 اکتوبر 899–924
Edward the Elder - MS Royal 14 B VI.jpg c. 874–877
بیٹا الفریڈاعظم اور Ealhswith
(1) Ecgwynn
دو بچے
(2) Ælfflæd
آٹھ بچے
(3) Eadgifu
چار بچے
17 جولائی 924
عمر تقریباً 46–50

متنازع حق جانشینی

[3][4][5][6]

نام تصویر پیدائش شادی وفات
ایلفرڈ
July–اگست
924[7]
c. 901[8]
بیٹا ایڈورڈ ایلڈر اور Ælfflæd[8]
غیر شادی شدہ?
کوئی اولاد نہیں
3 اگست 924[6]
عمر تقریباً 23
Buried at Winchester[9]

نام تصویر پیدائش شادی وفات
ایتھلسٹان
(Æþelstan)
924–939[10]
King of the Anglo-Saxons 924–927
King of the English 927–939
King Athelstan from All Souls College Chapel 895
بیٹا ایڈورڈ ایلڈر اور Ecgwynn
غیر شادی شدہ[10] 27 اکتوبر 939
عمر تقریباً 44[10]
ایڈمنڈ اول
(Eadmund)
28 اکتوبر
939–946[11]
Edmund I - MS Royal 14 B V.jpg c. 921
بیٹا ایڈورڈ ایلڈر اور Eadgifu of Kent[11]
(1) Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury
دو بچے
(2) Æthelflæd of Damerham
کوئی اولاد نہیں[12]
26 مئی 946
پکلچرچ
عمر تقریباً 25
(Killed in a brawl)[11]
ایئڈریڈ
(Eadred)
27 May
946–955[13]
Eadred - MS Royal 14 B VI.jpg c. 923
بیٹا ایڈورڈ ایلڈر اور Eadgifu of Kent
غیر شادی شدہ 23 نومبر 955
فروم
عمر تقریباً 32[14]
ایئڈویگ
(Eadwig)
24 نومبر
955–959[15]
Line engraving of Edwy made by an unknown engraver after an unknown artist c. 940
بیٹا ایڈمنڈ اول اور Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury[16]
Ælfgifu[15] 1 اکتوبر 959
عمر تقریباً 19[15]
ایڈگر پرامن
(Eadgar)
2 اکتوبر
959–975[17]
King Edgar of England 7 اگست 943
Wessex
بیٹا ایڈمنڈ اول اور Ælfgifu of Shaftesbury
(1) Æthelflæd
c. 960
1 son
(2) Ælfthryth
c. 964
2 بیٹے
8 جولائی 975
Winchester
عمر 31[18]
ایڈورڈ شہید
(Eadweard)
9 July
975–978[19]
St. Edward the Martyr c. 962
بیٹا ایڈگر پرامن اور Æthelflæd
غیر شادی شدہ 18 مارچ 978
قلعہ کورف
عمر تقریباً 16
(Assassinated)[19]
ایتھلریڈ غیر مستعد
(Æþelræd Unræd)
19 March
978–1013 (first reign)[20]
Image of Æthelred II with an oversize sword from the illuminated manuscript "The Chronicle of Abingdon" c. 968
بیٹا ایڈگر پرامن اور Ælfthryth
(1) Ælfgifu of York
991
نو بچے
(2) Emma of Normandy
1002
تین بچے[21]
23 اپریل 1016
London
عمر تقریباً 48[20]

خاندان ڈنمارک[ترمیم]

[22]

نام تصویر پیدائش شادی وفات
سوئین فورک بئیرڈ
(Svend Tveskæg)
25 دسمبر[23]
1013–1014[24]
Sweyn Forkbeard, from an architectural element in the Swansea Guildhall, Swansea, Wales c. 960
Denmark
Son of Harald Bluetooth and Gyrid Olafsdottir
(1) Gunhild of Wenden
c. 990
سات بچے
(2) Sigrid the Haughty
c. 1000
1 بیٹی
3 فروری 1014
گیئنزبرو، لنکنشائر
عمر تقریباً 54

خاندان ویسکس (بحال، بار اول)[ترمیم]

[25][26][27]

نام تصویر پیدائش شادی وفات حق جانشینی
ایتھلریڈ غیر مستعد
(Æþelræd Unræd)
3 فروری
1014–1016 (second reign)[20]
Image of Æthelred II with an oversize sword from the illuminated manuscript "The Chronicle of Abingdon" c. 968
بیٹا ایڈگر پرامن اور Ælfthryth
(1) Aelgifu
991
نو بچے
(2) Emma of Normandy
1002
تین بچے[21]
23 اپریل 1016
لندن
عمر تقریباً 48[20]
بیٹا ایڈگر پرامن
ایڈمنڈ آئرن سائڈ
(Eadmund)
24 اپریل –
30 نومبر 1016[26]
Edmund Ironside c. 990
بیٹا ایتھلریڈ غیر مستعد اور Ælfgifu of York[26]
Edith of East Anglia
دو بچے[28]
30 نومبر 1016
گلاسٹںبری
عمر 26[26][28]
بیٹا ایتھلریڈ غیر مستعد

خاندان ڈنمارک (بحال)[ترمیم]

[29][30][31]

نام تصویر پیدائش شادی وفات
کنوٹ
(Knútr)
18 اکتوبر 1016 –
12 نومبر 1035[32]
Cnut.jpg c. 995
بیٹا سوئین فورک بئیرڈ اور Gunhilda of Poland[32]
(1) Aelfgifu of Northampton
دو بچے
(2) Emma of Normandy
1017[32]
دو بچے
12 نومبر 1035
شافٹزبری
عمر تقریباً 40[32]
ہیرالڈ خرگوش پاؤں
(Harald)
13 نومبر 1035 –
17 مارچ 1040[33]
Harold H.jpg c. 1016
بیٹا کنوٹ اور Ælfgifu of Northampton[33]
Ælfgifu?
1 son?[34]
17 مارچ 1040
آکسفرڈ
عمر تقریباً 24
ہارتھاکنوٹ
(Hardeknud)
17 مارچ 1040 –
8 جون 1042[35]
Hardeknut.jpg 1018
بیٹا کنوٹ اور Emma of Normandy[36]
غیر شادی شدہ 8 جون 1042
لیمبیتھ
عمر تقریباً 24[36]
(کثرت شراب نوشی کی وجہ سے ہدل کے دورہ)

خاندان ویسکس (بحال، بار دوم)[ترمیم]

[37]

نام تصویر پیدائش شادی اولاد وفات
ایڈورڈ معترف
(Eadweard)
9 June
1042 – 1066
Edward Confessor.jpg c. 1003
آئسلپ، آکسفورڈ شائر
بیٹا ایتھلریڈ غیر مستعد اور Emma of Normandy
Edith of Wessex
23 جنوری 1045
کوئی نہیں 5 جنوری 1066
ویسٹ منسٹر پیلس
عمر 62
ہیرالڈ گاڈونسن
(Harold Godƿinson)
6 جنوری – 14 اکتوبر 1066
Harold2.jpg c. 1022
بیٹا Godwin, Earl of Wessex اور Gytha Thorkelsdóttir
Edith Swannesha Godwine, Edmund, Magnus, Gunhild, Gytha 14 اکتوبر 1066
ہیسٹینگز
عمر 44
(Died in battle)
Ealdgyth
c. 1064
Harold, Ulf
ایڈگر ایتھلنگ
(Eadgar Æþeling)
15 اکتوبر – 17 دسمبر 1066
Proclaimed, but never crowned[38]
Edgar the Ætheling.jpg c. 1053
Hungary
بیٹا Edward the Exile اور Agatha
غیر شادی شدہ کوئی نہیں c. 1126
عمر تقریباً 73[38]

خاندان نورمینڈی[ترمیم]

[39]

نام تصویر پیدائش شادی وفات حق جانشینی
ولیم اول
William the Bastard
William the Conqueror
(Guillaume le Bâtard)
(Guillaume le Conquérant)

25 دسمبر
1066–1087
William the Conqueror depicted at the Battle of Hastings, on the Bayeux Tapestry c. 1028
Falaise Castle
بیٹا Robert I, Duke of Normandy, اور Herleva
Matilda of Flanders
Chapel Notre Dame of the castle in Eu, نورمینڈی
1053
دس بچے
9 ستمبر 1087
روان
عمر 59 after wounding himself on the saddle when his horse stumbled. Buried at Saint Etienne Abbey (Abbaye aux Hommes) of کان (فرانس)
قیاس وارث نامزد ایڈورڈ معترف 1052
(درحقیقت right of conquest)
ولیم دوم
William Rufus
(Guillaume le Roux)

26 ستمبر
1087–1100
William Rufus depicted in the Stowe Manuscript c. 1058
نورمینڈی
بیٹا William the Conqueror اور Matilda of Flanders
غیر شادی شدہ 2 اگست 1100
نیو فارسٹ
عمر 42 when shot with an arrow, events still unclear.
بیٹا ولیم اول
(تقرری)
ہنری اول
Henry Beauclerc
(Henri Beauclerc)

5 اگست
1100–1135
Henry I ستمبر 1068
Selby
بیٹا William the Conqueror اور Matilda of Flanders
(1) Edith otherwise Matilda of Scotland
ویسٹمنسٹر ایبی
11 نومبر 1100
چار بچے
(2) Adeliza of Louvain
قلعہ ونڈسر
29 جنوری 1121
کوئی اولاد نہیں
1 دسمبر 1135
Castle of لیون لا فوغے (Saint-Denis-en-Lyons)
عمر 67 apparently from eating a surfeit of lampreys. Buried at ریڈنگ ایبی
بیٹا ولیم اول
(تاج پر قابض)

خاندان بلئوا[ترمیم]

[40]

نام تصویر پیدائش شادی وفات حق جانشینی
اسٹیفن
Stephen of Blois
(Estienne de Blois)

22 دسمبر
1135–1154[41]
Stephen c. 1096
Blois
بیٹا Stephen, Count of Blois, اور Adela of Normandy
Matilda of Boulogne
ویسٹمنسٹر
1125
پانچ بچے
25 اکتوبر 1154
قلعہ ڈوور
عمر تقریباً 58
پوتا ولیم اول
(تقرری / غصب)

متنازع حق جانشینی

[42][43]

نام تصویر پیدائش شادی وفات حق جانشینی
میٹلڈا
Empress Matilda
(Mathilde l'emperesse)

7 اپریل 1141–
1 نومبر 1141
Title disputed
Matilda 7 فروری 1102
Sutton Courtenay
بیٹی ہنری اول اور Edith of Scotland[44]
(1) Henry V, Holy Roman Emperor
مینز
6 جنوری 1114
کوئی اولاد نہیں
(2) Geoffrey V, Count of Anjou
لو مینس کیتھیڈرل
22 مئی 1128
تین بچے
10 ستمبر 1167
Notre Dame du Pré in روان
عمر 65
بیٹی ہنری اول
(seizure of the crown)

[45][46]

خاندان اونژو[ترمیم]

[47] [48] [49][50][50][51][52]

نام تصویر نشان پیدائش شادی وفات حق جانشینی
ہنری دوم
Henry Curtmantle
(Henri Court-manteau)

19 دسمبر
1154–1189
Henry II Royal Arms of England (1154-1189).svg 5 مارچ 1133
لو مان
بیٹا Geoffrey V of Anjou اور میٹلڈا, daughter of Henry I
Eleanor of Aquitaine
بوغدو کیتھیڈرل
18 مئی 1152
آٹھ بچے
6 جولائی 1189
شینوں
عمر 56. Buried at فونتوغا ایبے
پوتا ہنری اول
(Treaty of Wallingford)
ہنری نوجوان بادشاہ
(Henri le Jeune Roy)
(co-ruler with his father)
14 June
1170–1183
Henry Royal Arms of England (1154-1189).svg 28 فروری 1155

بیٹا ہنری دوم اور Eleanor of Aquitaine

Margaret of France
ونچیسٹر کیتھیڈرل
27 اگست 1172
one child
11 جون 1183
Martel, لیموژ
عمر 28. Buried at روان کیتھیڈرل (Notre-Dame)
بیٹا ہنری دوم
(تاجپوشی)
رچرڈ اول
Richard the Lionheart
(Richard Cœur de Lion)

3 ستمبر
1189–1199
Richard the Lionheart, an illustration from a 12th-century codex Royal Arms of England.svg 8 ستمبر 1157
بیومونٹ محل
بیٹا ہنری دوم اور Eleanor of Aquitaine
Berengaria of Navarre
لیماسول
12 مئی 1191
کوئی اولاد نہیں
6 اپریل 1199
Châlus
عمر 41 from an arrow wound in the shoulder that became infected. Buried: Heart at روان کیتھیڈرل. Body at فونتوغا ایبے
بیٹا ہنری دوم
(primogeniture)
جان
Lackland
(Jean sans Terre)

27 May
1199–1216
King John Royal Arms of England.svg 24 دسمبر 1166
بیومونٹ محل
بیٹا ہنری اور Eleanor of Aquitaine
(1) Isabel of Gloucester
Marlborough Castle
29 اگست 1189
کوئی اولاد نہیں

(2) Isabella of Angoulême
بوغدو کیتھیڈرل
24 اگست 1200
پانچ بچے

19 اکتوبر 1216
نیوارک آن ٹرینٹ
عمر 49. Buried at وارچیسٹر کیتھیڈرل
رچرڈ اول کا بھائی
(خون کی قربت)

متنازع حق جانشینی

[53]

نام تصویر نشان پیدائش شادی وفات حق جانشینی
لوئی
The Lion
1216–
22 ستمبر 1217
Title disputed
Lehmann - Louis VIII of France.jpg France Ancient Arms.svg 5 ستمبر 1187
Paris
بیٹا فلپ دوم, اور Isabella of Hainault
Blanche of Castile
Portmont
23 مئی 1200
13 بچے
8 نومبر 1226
Montpensier
عمر 39
Right of conquest

خاندان پلانٹیجنیٹ[ترمیم]

[54]

نام تصویر نشان پیدائش شادی وفات حق جانشینی
ہنری سوم
Henry of Winchester
28 اکتوبر
1216–1272
Henry III Royal Arms of England.svg 1 اکتوبر 1207
ونچیسٹر کیسل
بیٹا جان اور Isabella of Angoulême
Eleanor of Provence
کینٹربری کیتھیڈرل
14 جنوری 1236
پانچ بچے
16 نومبر 1272
ویسٹ منسٹر پیلس
عمر 65
بیٹا جان
(primogeniture)
ایڈورڈ اول
Longshanks
20 نومبر
1272–1307
Edward I of England Royal Arms of England.svg 17 جون 1239
Westminster Palace
بیٹا ہنری سوم اور Eleanor of Provence
(1) Eleanor of Castile
سنتا ماریہ لا رے آل دے لاس ہوئے لگاس
18 اکتوبر 1254
16 بچے

(2) Margaret of France
10 ستمبر 1299
تین بچے

7 جولائی 1307
برف بائی سینڈز
عمر 68
بیٹا ہنری سوم
(primogeniture)
ایڈورڈ دوم
Edward of Caernarfon
7 جولائی 1307 –
25 جنوری 1327
Edward II - British Library Royal 20 A ii f10 (detail).jpg Royal Arms of England.svg 25 اپریل 1284
کارناروین قلعہ
بیٹا ایڈورڈ اول اور Eleanor of Castile
Isabella of France
بازیلیکا نوتغو دیم دے بولونیا
25 جنوری 1308
پانچ بچے
21 ستمبر 1327
Berkeley Castle
عمر 43 (murdered)[55]
بیٹا ایڈورڈ اول
(primogeniture)
ایڈورڈ سوم
25 جنوری
1327–1377
Edward III of England (Order of the Garter).jpg Royal Arms of England (1340-1367).svg 13 نومبر 1312
قلعہ ونڈسر
بیٹا ایڈورڈ دوم اور Isabella of France
Philippa of Hainault
یارک منسٹر
24 جنوری 1328
14 بچے
21 جون 1377
رچمنڈ محل
عمر 64
بیٹا ایڈورڈ دوم
(primogeniture)
رچرڈ دوم
21 جون 1377 –
29 ستمبر 1399
Richard II of England.png Royal Arms of England (1395-1399).svg 6 جنوری 1367
بورڈو
بیٹا Edward, the Black Prince اور Joan of Kent
(1) Anne of Bohemia
14 جنوری 1382
کوئی اولاد نہیں

(2) Isabella of Valois
Calais
4 نومبر 1396
کوئی اولاد نہیں

14 فروری 1400
پونٹافریکٹ قلعہ
عمر 33 probably from starvation
پوتا Eایڈورڈ سوم
(primogeniture)

خاندان لنکاسٹر[ترمیم]

[56]

نام تصویر نشان پیدائش شادی وفات حق جانشینی
ہنری چہارم
Bolingbroke
30 ستمبر
1399–1413
Henry IV Royal Arms of England (1340-1367).svg 3 اپریل 1367[57]
بولنگبروک قلعہ
بیٹا John of Gaunt اور Blanche of Lancaster
(1) Mary de Bohun
Arundel Castle
27 جولائی 1380
سات بچے

(2) Joanna of Navarre
ونچیسٹر کیتھیڈرل
7 فروری 1403
کوئی اولاد نہیں

20 مارچ 1413
ویسٹمنسٹر ایبی
عمر 45[57]
grandson اور heir male of ایڈورڈ سوم
(usurpation/ agnatic primogeniture)
ہنری پنجم
The Star of England
20 March
1413–1422
Henry V Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg 16 ستمبر 1386[58]
مانماؤتھ قلعہ
بیٹا ہنری چہارم اور Mary de Bohun
Catherine of Valois
ٹروییس کیتھیڈرل
2 جون 1420
ایک بیٹا
31 اگست 1422
شاتیو دے وانسین
عمر 36
بیٹا ہنری چہارم
(agnatic primogeniture)
ہنری ششم
31 اگست 1422 – 4 مارچ 1461
Henry VI Royal Arms of England (1470-1471).svg 6 دسمبر 1421
قلعہ ونڈسر
بیٹا ہنری پنجم اور Catherine of Valois
Margaret of Anjou
ٹیچفیلڈ ایبی
22 اپریل 1445
ایک بیٹا
21 مئی 1471
ٹاور آف لندن
عمر 49
بیٹا ہنری پنجم
(agnatic primogeniture)

خاندان یورک[ترمیم]

[59]

نام تصویر نشان پیدائش شادی وفات حق جانشینی
ایڈورڈ چہارم
4 مارچ 1461 – 2 اکتوبر 1470
ایڈورڈ چہارم Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg 28 اپریل 1442
روان
بیٹا Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, اور Cecily Neville
Elizabeth Woodville
Grafton Regis
1 مئی 1464
دس بچے
9 اپریل 1483
ویسٹ منسٹر پیلس
عمر 40
great-great-grandson اور heir general of ایڈورڈ سوم
(جنگ گلاباں/cognatic primogeniture)

خاندان لنکاسٹر (بحال)[ترمیم]

نام تصویر نشای پیدائش شادی وفات حق جانشینی
ہنری ششم
30 اکتوبر 1470 – 11 اپریل 1471
Henry VI Royal Arms of England (1470-1471).svg 6 دسمبر 1421
قلعہ ونڈسر
بیٹا ہنری پنجم شاہ انگلستان اور Catherine of Valois
Margaret of Anjou
ٹیچفیلڈ ایبی
22 اپریل 1445
ایک بیٹا
21 مئی 1471
ٹاور آف لندن
عمر 49 (murdered by the York brothers).
بیٹا Henry V
(جنگ گلاباں)

خاندان یورک (بحال)[ترمیم]

نام تصویر نشای پیدائش شادی وفات حق جانشینی
ایڈورڈ چہارم
(second reign)
11 اپریل 1471 – 9 اپریل 1483
Edward IV Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg 28 اپریل 1442
روان
بیٹا Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, اور Cecily Neville
Elizabeth Woodville
Grafton Regis
1 مئی 1464
دس بچے
9 اپریل 1483
ویسٹ منسٹر پیلس
عمر 40
great-great-grandson اور heir general of ایڈورڈ سوم
(جنگ گلاباں/cognatic primogeniture)
ایڈورڈ پنجم
9 اپریل – 25 جون 1483[60]
Edward V Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg 2 نومبر 1470
ویسٹمنسٹر
بیٹا ایڈورڈ چہارم شاہ انگلستان اور Elizabeth Woodville[60]
غیر شادی شدہ c. 1483
لندن
عمر تقریباً 12 (ممکنہ قتل)
بیٹا ایڈورڈ چہارم
(cognatic primogeniture)
رچرڈ سوم
26 June
1483–1485[61]
Richard III Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg 2 اکتوبر 1452
Fotheringhay Castle
بیٹا Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, اور Cecily Neville
Anne Neville
ویسٹمنسٹر ایبی
12 جولائی 1472
ایک بیٹا
22 اگست 1485
Bosworth Field
عمر 32 (killed in battle). Re-interred Leicester Cathedral, 26 مارچ 2015
great-great-پوتا ایڈورڈ سوم
(Titulus Regius);
بھائی ایڈورڈ چہارم شاہ انگلستان

خاندان ٹیوڈر[ترمیم]

[62] [63] [64]

نام تصویر نشان پیدائش شادی وفات حق جانشینی
ہنری ہفتم
22 اگست
1485–1509
Henry VII, by Michel Sittow, 1505 Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg 28 جنوری 1457
پیمبروک قلعہ
بیٹا Edmund Tudor اور Lady Margaret Beaufort
Elizabeth of York
ویسٹمنسٹر ایبی
18 جنوری 1486
آٹھ بچے
21 اپریل 1509
رچمنڈ محل
عمر 52
great-great-great-پوتاEdward III
(right of conquest)
ہنری ہشتم
21 اپریل
1509–1547
Henry VIII, by Hans Holbein, c.1536 Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg 28 جون 1491
Greenwich Palace
بیٹا ہنری ہفتم شاہ انگلستان اور Elizabeth of York
Catherine of Aragon
گرینچ
11 جون 1509
ایک بیٹی
28 جنوری 1547
وائٹ ہال محل
عمر 55
بیٹا Henry VII
(primogeniture)
Anne Boleyn
ویسٹ منسٹر پیلس
25 جنوری 1533[65]
ایک بیٹی
Jane Seymour
وائٹ ہال محل
30 مئی 1536
ایک بیٹا
Anne of Cleves
گرینچ محل
6 جنوری 1540
Catherine Howard
ہیمپٹن کورٹ محل
28 جولائی 1540
Catherine Parr
ہیمپٹن کورٹ محل
12 جولائی 1543
ایڈورڈ ششم
28 جنوری
1547–1553
Edward VI, by Hans Eworth Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg 12 اکتوبر 1537
ہیمپٹن کورٹ محل
بیٹا ہنری ہشتم شاہ انگلستان اور Jane Seymour
غیر شادی شدہ 6 جولائی 1553
Greenwich Palace
عمر 15
بیٹا Henry VIII
(primogeniture)

متنازع حق جانشینی

[66]

نام تصویر نشان پیدائش شادی وفات حق جانشینی
لیڈی جین گرے
10–19 جولائی 1553
Title disputed
Streathamladyjayne.jpg Arms of Grey Family.svg اکتوبر 1537
Bradgate Park
daughter of Henry Grey, 1st Duke of Suffolk, اور Lady Frances Brandon
Lord Guildford Dudley
اسٹرینڈ، لندن
21 مئی 1553
کوئی اولاد نہیں[67]
12 فروری 1554
ٹاور آف لندن
عمر 16 (سر قلم)
great-granddaughter of Henry VII
(ایڈورڈ ششم شاہ انگلستان)

نام تصویر نشان پیدائش شادی وفات حق جانشینی
میری اول
19 July
1553–1558
Mary I, by Antonius Mor, 1554 Royal Arms of England (1554-1558).svg 18 فروری 1516
Greenwich Palace
daughter of Henry VIII اور Catherine of Aragon
فیلیپ دوم شاہ ہسپانیہ
ونچیسٹر کیتھیڈرل
25 جولائی 1554
کوئی اولاد نہیں
17 نومبر 1558
سینٹ جیمز محل
عمر 42
daughter of Henry VIII
(Third Succession Act)
فیلیپ دوم[68]
25 جولائی 1554 –
17 نومبر 1558
(jure uxoris)
King Philip of England Royal Arms of England (1554-1558).svg 21 مئی 1527
بلدولید, Spain
بیٹا کارلوس خامس، مقدس رومی شہنشاہ, اور Isabella of Portugal
(2) میری اول ملکہ انگلستان
ونچیسٹر کیتھیڈرل
25 جولائی 1554
کوئی اولاد نہیں
three other marriages
and سات بچے
13 ستمبر 1598
ٰایل ایسکو, Spain
عمر 71
husband of Mary I
(Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain)
Coat of arms of Mary I

[69][70][71][72][72][73][74][75][76][77][78][79][80][81][82][83]

نام تصویر نشان پیدائش شادی وفات حق جانشینی
ایلزبتھ اول
17 نومبر
1558–1603
Elizabeth I, by Darnley Royal Arms of England (1399-1603).svg 7 ستمبر 1533
Greenwich Palace
daughter of Henry VIII اور Anne Boleyn
غیر شادی شدہ 24 مارچ 1603
Richmond Palace
عمر 69
daughter of Henry VIII
(Third Succession Act)

خاندان اسٹورٹ[ترمیم]

[84][85]

نام تصویر نشان پیدائش شادی وفات حق جانشینی
جیمز اول
24 مارچ
1603–1625
James I, by Paulus van Somer Royal Arms of England (1603-1707).svg 19 جون 1566
قلعہ ایڈنبرا
بیٹا Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, اور Mary I, Queen of Scots
Anne of Denmark
اوسلو
23 نومبر 1589
سات بچے
27 مارچ 1625
تھیوبالڈس ہاؤس
عمر 58
great-great-grandson اور heir general of ہنری ہفتم شاہ انگلستان
چارلس اول
27 مارچ
1625–1649
Charles I, by Anthony van Dyck Royal Arms of England (1603-1707).svg 19 نومبر 1600
ڈنفئرلین
بیٹا James I اور Anne of Denmark
Henrietta Maria of France
سینٹ آکسٹائن ایبی
13 جون 1625
نو بچے
30 جنوری 1649
وائٹ ہال محل
عمر 48 (سر قلم)
بیٹا James I (cognatic primogeniture)

وقفہ حُکمرانی[ترمیم]

[86]

لارڈز محافظ
نام تصویر نشان پیدائش شادی وفات
اولیور کرامویل
Old Ironsides
16 دسمبر
1653–1658[87]
Oliver Cromwell Arms of the Protectorate (1653–1659).svg 25 اپریل 1599
ہنٹنگڈن[87]
بیٹا Robert Cromwell اور Elizabeth Steward[88]
Elizabeth Bourchier
in St Giles[89]
22 اگست 1620
نو بچے[87]
3 ستمبر 1658
Whitehall
عمر 59[87]
رچرڈ کرامویل
Tumbledown Dick
3 ستمبر 1658
– 7 مئی 1659[90]
Richard Cromwell, c.1650 Arms of the Protectorate (1653–1659).svg 4 اکتوبر 1626
ہنٹنگڈن
بیٹا Oliver Cromwell اور Elizabeth Bourchier[90]
Dorothy Maijor
مئی 1649
نو بچے[90]
12 جولائی 1712
چیزہنٹ
عمر 85[91]

خاندان اسٹورٹ (بحال)[ترمیم]

[92]

نام تصویر نشان پیدائش شادی وفات حق جانشینی
چارلس دوم
29 مئی 1660–1685[93]
Recognised by Royalists in 1649
Charles II of England.jpeg Royal Arms of England (1603-1707).svg 29 مئی 1630
سینٹ جیمز محل
بیٹا Charles I اور Henrietta Maria of France
Catherine of Braganza
پورٹسماؤتھ
21 مئی 1662
کوئی اولاد نہیں
6 فروری 1685
وائٹ ہال محل
عمر 54
بیٹا Charles I (cognatic primogeniture; English Restoration)
جیمز دوم
6 فروری 1685 –
23 دسمبر 1688 (معزول)
James II (Gennari Benedetto).jpg Royal Arms of England (1603-1707).svg 14 اکتوبر 1633
سینٹ جیمز محل
بیٹا Charles I اور Henrietta Maria of France
(1) Anne Hyde
اسٹرینڈ
3 ستمبر 1660
آٹھ بچے

(2) Mary of Modena
ڈوور
21 نومبر 1673
سات بچے

16 ستمبر 1701
Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye
عمر 67
بیٹا Charles I (cognatic primogeniture)
میری دوم
13 فروری
1689–1694
Mary II - Kneller 1690.jpg Royal Arms of England (1689-1694).svg 30 اپریل 1662
سینٹ جیمز محل
daughter of James II اور Anne Hyde
سینٹ جیمز محل
4 نومبر 1677
کوئی اولاد نہیں
28 دسمبر 1694
کنسنگٹن محل
عمر 32
grandchildren of Charles I (offered the crown by Parliament)
ولیم سوم
William of Orange
13 فروری
1689–1702
King William III of England, (1650-1702) (lighter).jpg Royal Arms of England (1694-1702).svg 4 نومبر 1650
ہیگ
بیٹا William II, Prince of Orange, اور Mary, Princess Royal[94]
8 مارچ 1702
کنسنگٹن محل
عمر 51 after breaking his collarbone from falling off his horse
این
8 مارچ
1702–1 مئی 1707[95]
فہرست برطانوی شاہی حکمرانان
1 مئی 1707–1 اگست 1714
Anne1705.jpg Royal Arms of England (1603-1707).svg 6 فروری 1665
سینٹ جیمز محل
daughter of James II اور Anne Hyde
George of Denmark
سینٹ جیمز محل
28 جولائی 1683
5 children
1 اگست 1714
کنسنگٹن محل
عمر 49
daughter of James II (cognatic primogeniture; Bill of Rights 1689)
1707 کے بعد کے حکمرانوں کے لیے دیکھیے فہرست برطانوی شاہی حکمرانان

قوانین اتحاد[ترمیم]

[96][97][98]

1707ء کے بعد کے حکمرانوں کے لیے دیکھیے فہرست برطانوی شاہی حکمرانان.

بیرونی روابط[ترمیم]

حوالہ جات[ترمیم]

  1. "Kings اور Queens of England". 
  2. Pratt, David (2007). "The political thought of King Alfred the Great". Cambridge Studies in Medieval Life اور Thought: Fourth Series 67. Cambridge University Press, p. 106. ISBN 978-0-521-80350-2.
  3. There is some evidence that ایلفرڈ مئی have been king for four weeks in 924, between his father Edward the Elder اور his brother Æthelstan, although he was not crowned.
  4. Yorke, Barbara. Bishop Æthelwold: His Career اور Influence. Woodbridge, 1988. p. 71
  5. However, this is not accepted by all historians. Also, it is unclear whether Ælfweard was declared king of the whole kingdom or of Wessex only: there is evidence that when Edward died, Ælfweard was declared king in Wessex اور Æthelstan in Mercia.
  6. ^ 6.0 6.1 Simon Keynes, 'Rulers of the English, c 450–1066', in Michael Lapidge et al ed., The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England, 2001, p. 514
  7. Sean Miller, Æthelstan, in Michael Lapidge et al ed., The Blackwell Encyclopaedia of Anglo-Saxon England, 2001, p. 16
  8. ^ 8.0 8.1 Simon Keynes, 'Edward, King of the Anglo-Saxons', in N. J. Higham & D. H. Hill eds., Edward the Elder, Routledge, 2001, pp. 50–51
  9. Alan Thacker, 'Dynastic Monasteries اور Family Cults', in N. J. Higham & D. H. Hill eds., Edward the Elder, Routledge, 2001, p. 253
  10. ^ 10.0 10.1 10.2 Aethelstan @ Archontology.org. Retrieved 15 مارچ 2007.
  11. ^ 11.0 11.1 11.2 EADMUND (Edmund) @ Archontology.org. Retrieved 17 مارچ 2007.
  12. English Monarchs – Kings اور Queens of England – Edmund the Elder. Retrieved 17 مارچ 2007.
  13. EADRED (Edred) @ Archontology.org. Retrieved 17 مارچ 2007.
  14. BritRoyals – King Edred. Retrieved 17 مارچ 2007.
  15. ^ 15.0 15.1 15.2 EADWIG (Edwy) @ Archontology.org. Retrieved 17 مارچ 2007.
  16. Catholic Encyclopedia: Edwy. Retrieved 17 مارچ 2007.
  17. EADGAR (Edgar the Peacemaker) @ Archontology.org. Retrieved 17 مارچ 2007.
  18. Family of Edgar +* اور Aelfthryth +* of DEVON. Retrieved 21 جنوری 2016.
  19. ^ 19.0 19.1 EADWEARD (Edward the Martyr) @ Archontology.org. Retrieved 17 مارچ 2007.
  20. ^ 20.0 20.1 20.2 20.3 Æthelred the Unready was forced to go into exile in the summer of 1013, following Danish attacks, but was invited back following Sweyn Forkbeard's death. AETHELRED (the Unready) @ Archontology.org. Retrieved 17 مارچ 2007.
  21. ^ 21.0 21.1 English Monarchs – Kings اور Queens of England – Ethelred II, the Redeless. Retrieved 17 مارچ 2007.
  22. England came under the control of Sweyn Forkbeard, a Danish king, after an invasion in 1013, during which Æthelred abandoned the throne and went into exile in Normandy.
  23. "English Monarchs". اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 27 اکتوبر 2007. 
  24. "Sweyn (Forkbeard) - Archontology.org". اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 27 اکتوبر 2007. 
  25. Following the death of Sweyn Forkbeard, Æthelred the Unready returned from exile and was again proclaimed king on 3 فروری 1014. His son succeeded him after being chosen king by the citizens of London and a part of the Witan,
  26. ^ 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 EADMUND (Edmund the Ironside) @ Archontology.org. Retrieved 17 مارچ 2007.
  27. despite ongoing Danish efforts in wresting the crown from the اینگلو سیکسن.
  28. ^ 28.0 28.1 English Monarchs – Kings and Queens of England – Edmund Ironside. Retrieved 17 مارچ 2007.
  29. Following the decisive Battle of Assandun on 18 اکتوبر 1016, King Edmund signed a treaty with Cnut in which all of England except for Wessex would be controlled by Cnut.
  30. Edmund II (king of England) @ Britannica.com. Retrieved 25 مارچ 2010.
  31. Upon Edmund's death on 30 نومبر, Cnut ruled the whole kingdom as its sole king.
  32. ^ 32.0 32.1 32.2 32.3 CNUT (Canute) @ Archontology.org. Retrieved 21 مارچ 2007.
  33. ^ 33.0 33.1 Harold was only recognised as regent until 1037, when was recognised as king. "Harold (Harefoot) - Archontology.org". اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 27 اکتوبر 2007. 
  34. "Harold I". Oxford Online Dictionary of National Biography. اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 20 فروری 2012. 
  35. "Harthacnut - Archontology.org". اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 28 اکتوبر 2007. 
  36. ^ 36.0 36.1 "Harthacnut". Oxford Online Dictionary of National Biography. اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 20 فروری 2012. 
  37. After Harthacnut, there was a brief Saxon Restoration between 1042 and 1066.
  38. ^ 38.0 38.1 After reigning for approximately 9 weeks, Edgar the Atheling submitted to William the Conqueror, who had gained control of the area to the south and immediate west of London ("Eadgar (the Ætheling) - Archontology.org". اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 26 اکتوبر 2007. ).
  39. In 1066, several rival claimants to the Throne emerged. Among them were Harold Godwinson, elected king by the Witenagemot after the death of Edward the Confessor, as well as Harald Hardrada, King of ناروے who claimed to be the rightful heir of Harthacnut, and William II, Duke of Normandy, descendant of Rollo, founder of the royal خاندان نورمینڈی, vassal to the King of France, and first-half-cousin once-removed of ایڈورڈ معترف. Harald and William both invaded separately in 1066. Godwinson successfully repelled the invasion by Hardrada, but ultimately lost the throne of England in the Norman conquest of England. After the Battle of Hastings, William the Conqueror made permanent the recent removal of the capital from ونچیسٹر to لندن. Following the death of Harold Godwinson on 14 اکتوبر, the Anglo-Saxon Witenagemot elected as king Edgar the Ætheling, the son of Edward the Exile and grandson of Edmund Ironside, but the young monarch was unable to resist the invaders and was never crowned. William was crowned King William I of England on Christmas Day 1066, in ویسٹمنسٹر ایبی, and is today known as William the Conqueror, William the Bastard or William I.
  40. Henry I left no legitimate male heirs, his son William Adelin having died in the White Ship disaster. This ended the direct Norman line of kings in England. Henry named his eldest daughter, the dowager Empress Matilda as his heir. Prior to naming Matilda as heir, however, he had been in negotiations to name his nephew Stephen of Blois as his heir. When Henry died, Stephen invaded England, and in a مسلح بغاوت had himself crowned instead of Matilda. The period which followed is known as The Anarchy, as parties supporting each side fought in open warfare on both Britain and on the continent for the better part of two decades.
  41. "STEPHEN (of Blois) - Archontology.org". اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 25 اکتوبر 2007. 
  42. Empress Matilda was declared heir presumptive by her father, Henry I, after the death of her brother on the White Ship, and acknowledged as such by the barons. However, upon Henry I's death, the throne was seized by Matilda's cousin, Stephen of Blois. The Anarchy ensued, with Matilda being a de facto ruler for a few months in 1141—the first woman so to be—but she was never crowned and is rarely listed as a monarch of England.
  43. Matilda is not listed as a monarch of England in many genealogies within texts, including David Carpenter's A Struggle for Mastery (2003) pg. 533, W.L. Warren's Henry II (1973) pg. 176, and John Gillingham's The Angevin Empire (1984) pg. x.
  44. "MATILDA (the Empress) - Archontology.org". اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 27 اکتوبر 2007. 
  45. Count Eustace IV of Boulogne (c. 1130 – 17 اگست 1153) was appointed co-king of England by his father, King Stephen, on 6 اپریل 1152, in order to guarantee his succession to the throne (as was the custom in France, but not in England). However, the بطریق اعظم and the Church would not agree to this, and Eustace was not crowned. Eustace died the next year عمر 22, during his father's lifetime, and so never became king in his own right.
  46. Ashley, Mike (1999). The Mammoth Book of British Kings and Queens, London: Robinson Publishing Ltd. p. 516. ISBN 1-84119-096-9
  47. Stephen came to an agreement with Matilda in نومبر 1153 with the signing of the Treaty of Wallingford, where Stephen recognised Prince Henry, son of Matilda and her second husband Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, as the heir-apparent to the throne in lieu of his own son, who had died that اگست. The royal house descended from Matilda and Geoffrey is widely known by two names, the House of Anjou (after Geoffrey's title as Count of Anjou) or the House of Plantagenet, after his sobriquet. Some historians prefer to group the subsequent kings into two groups, before and after the loss of the Angevin Empire, although they are not different royal houses.
  48. The Angevins ruled over the Angevin Empire during the 12th and 13th centuries, an area stretching from the Pyrenees to Ireland. They did not regard England as their primary home until most of their continental domains were lost by جان شاہ انگلستان. Though the Angevin Dynasty was short-lived, their male line descendants included the House of Plantagenet, the House of Lancaster and the House of York.
  49. The Angevins formulated England's royal coat of arms, which usually showed other kingdoms held or claimed by them or their successors, although without representation of Ireland for quite some time. Dieu et mon droit has generally been used as the motto of English monarchs since being adopted by ایڈورڈ سوم,
  50. ^ 50.0 50.1 Pine، Leslie Gilbert (1983). A Dictionary of mottoes. Routledge. صفحہ۔53. 
  51. but it was first used as a battle cry by رچرڈ اول (انگلینڈ) in 1198 at the Battle of Gisors, when he defeated the forces of فلپ ثانی, after which, he made it his motto.
  52. Norris، Herbert (1999). Medieval Costume and Fashion (illustrated, reprint ed.). Courier Dover Publications. صفحہ۔312. 
  53. لوئی ہشتم شاہ فرانس briefly ruled about half of England from 1216 to 1217 at the conclusion of the First Barons' War against جان شاہ انگلستان. On marching into London he was openly received by the rebel barons and citizens of London and proclaimed (though not crowned) king at St Paul's cathedral. Many nobles, including Alexander II of Scotland for his English possessions, gathered to give homage to him. However, in signing the Treaty of Lambeth in 1217, Louis conceded that he had never been the legitimate king of England.
  54. The House of Plantagenet takes its name from Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou, husband of the Empress Matilda and father of Henry II. The name Plantagenet itself was unknown as a family name per se until Richard of York adopted it as his family name in the 15th century. It has since been retroactively applied to English monarchs from Henry II onward. It is common among modern historians to refer to Henry II and his sons as the "Angevins" due to their vast continental Empire, most of the Angevin kings prior to John spent more time in their continental possessions than in England. It is from the time of Henry III, after the loss of most of the family's continental possessions, when the Plantagenet kings became more English in nature. The Houses of Lancaster and York are cadet branches of the House of Plantagenet.
  55. The date of Edward II's death is disputed by Ian Mortimer in his book "The Perfect King: The Life of Edward III, Father of the English Nation," which argues that he مئی not have been murdered, but held imprisoned in Europe for several more years: ISBN 0-09-952709-X
  56. This house descended from Edward III's third surviving son, John of Gaunt. Henry IV seized power from Richard II (and also displaced the next in line to the throne, Edmund Mortimer (then عمر 7), a descendant of Edward III's second son, Lionel of Antwerp).
  57. ^ 57.0 57.1 Mortimer، Ian (2007). "Henry IV's date of birth and the royal Maundy". Historical Research (University of London) 80 (210): 567–576. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2281.2006.00403.x. آئی ایس ایس این 0950-3471. 
  58. Allmand، Christopher (ستمبر 2010). "Henry V (1386–1422)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford, England, UK: Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/12952. 
  59. The House of York inherited its name from the fourth surviving بیٹا Edward III, Edmund, 1st Duke of York, but claimed the right to the throne through Edward III's second surviving son, Lionel of Antwerp. The جنگ گلاباں (1455–1485) saw the throne pass back and forth between the rival houses of Lancaster and York.
  60. ^ 60.0 60.1 Edward V was deposed by Richard III, who usurped the throne on the grounds that Edward was illegitimate. "EDWARD V - Archontology.org". اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 25 اکتوبر 2007. 
  61. "RICHARD III - Archontology.org". اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 25 اکتوبر 2007. 
  62. The Tudors descended matrilineally from John Beaufort, one of the illegitimate children of John of Gaunt (third surviving son of Edward III), by Gaunt's long-term mistress Katherine Swynford. Those descended from English monarchs only through an illegitimate child would normally have no claim on the throne, but the situation was complicated when Gaunt and Swynford eventually married in 1396 (25 years after John Beaufort's birth). In view of the marriage, the church retroactively declared the Beauforts legitimate via a papal bull the same year (also enshrined in an Act of Parliament in 1397). A subsequent proclamation by John of Gaunt's legitimate son, ہنری چہارم شاہ انگلستان, also recognised the Beauforts' legitimacy, but declared them ineligible ever to inherit the throne. Nevertheless, the Beauforts remained closely allied with Gaunt's other descendants, the Royal خاندان لنکاسٹر.
  63. John Beaufort's granddaughter Lady Margaret Beaufort was married to Edmund Tudor. Tudor was the son of Welsh courtier Owain Tudur (anglicised to Owen Tudor) and Catherine of Valois, the widowed queen consort of the Lancastrian ہنری پنجم شاہ انگلستان. Edmund Tudor and his siblings were either illegitimate, or the product of a secret marriage, and owed their fortunes to the goodwill of their legitimate half-brother ہنری ششم شاہ انگلستان. When the House of Lancaster fell from power, the Tudors followed. By the late 15th century, the Tudors were the last hope for the Lancaster supporters. Edmund Tudor's son became king as ہنری ہفتم شاہ انگلستان after defeating Richard III at the Battle of Bosworth Field in 1485, ending the Wars of the Roses. King Henry married Elizabeth of York, daughter of Edward IV, thereby uniting the Lancastrian and York lineages.
  64. With ہنری ہشتم شاہ انگلستان's break from the Roman Catholic Church, the monarch became the Supreme Head of the Church of England and of the Church of Ireland. ایلزبتھ اول's title became the Supreme Governor of the Church of England.
  65. Edward Hall and Raphael Holinshed both record an earlier secret wedding between Henry and Anne, which was conducted in ڈوور on 15 نومبر 1532.
  66. Edward VI named لیڈی جین گرے as his heir presumptive, overruling the order of succession laid down by Parliament in the Third Succession Act. Four days after his death on 6 جولائی 1553, Jane was proclaimed queen—the first of three Tudor women to be proclaimed queen regnant. Nine days after the proclamation, on 19 July, the Privy Council switched allegiance and proclaimed Edward VI's Catholic half-sister میری اول ملکہ انگلستان. Jane was executed in 1554, عمر 16. Many historians do not consider her to have been a legitimate monarch.
  67. "Lady Jane Grey: Marriage". اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 25 اکتوبر 2007. 
  68. Philip was not meant to be a mere consort; rather, the status of Mary I's husband was envisioned as that of a co-monarch during her reign. See Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain. However the extent of his authority and his status are ambiguous. The Act says that Philip shall have the title of king and "shall aid her Highness ... in the happy administration of her Grace's realms and dominions," but elsewhere says that Mary shall be the sole Queen.
  69. Under the terms of the marriage treaty between فیلیپ دوم شاہ ہسپانیہ (Philip II of Spain from 15 جنوری 1556) and Queen Mary I, Philip was to enjoy Mary's titles and honours for as long as their marriage should last. All official documents, including Acts of Parliament, were to be dated with both their names, and Parliament was to be called under the joint authority of the couple. An Act of Parliament gave him the title of king and stated that he "shall aid her Highness ... in the happy administration of her Grace's realms and dominions"
  70. "Act for the Marriage of Queen Mary to Philip of Spain (1554)". 
  71. (although elsewhere the Act stated that Mary was to be "sole queen"). Nonetheless, Philip was to co-reign with his wife.
  72. ^ 72.0 72.1 Louis Adrian Montrose, The subject of Elizabeth: authority, gender, and representation, University of Chicago Press, 2006
  73. As the new King of England could not read English, it was ordered that a note of all matters of state should be made in Latin or Spanish.
  74. A. F. Pollard, The History of England – From the Accession of Edward VI. to the Death of Elizabeth (1547–1603), READ BOOKS, 2007
  75. Wim de Groot, The Seventh Window: The King's Window Donated by Philip II and Mary Tudor to Sint Janskerk in Gouda (1557), Uitgeverij Verloren, 2005
  76. Coins were minted showing the heads of both Mary and Philip, and the coat of arms of England (right) was impaled with Philip's to denote their joint reign.
  77. Richard Marks, Ann Payne, British Museum, British Library; British heraldry from its origins to c. 1800; British Museum Publications Ltd., 1978
  78. American Numismatic Association, The Numismatist, American Numismatic Association, 1971
  79. Acts which made it high treason to deny Philip's royal authority were passed in England
  80. Treason Act 1554
  81. and Ireland.
  82. Robert Dudley Edwards, Ireland in the age of the Tudors: the destruction of Hiberno-Norman civilisation, Taylor & Francis, 1977
  83. In 1555, Pope Paul IV issued a papal bull recognising Philip and Mary as rightful King and Queen of Ireland.
  84. Following the death of Elizabeth I in 1603 without issue, her cousin, جیمز اول, اسکاٹش شاہی حکمرانوں کی فہرست, succeeded to the English throne as James I in the Union of the Crowns. James was descended from the Tudors through his great-grandmother, Margaret Tudor, the eldest daughter of Henry VII. In 1604, he adopted the title King of Great Britain. However, the two parliaments remained separate until the Acts of Union 1707.
  85. Article 3 of the Act of Union 1707
  86. No monarch reigned between the execution of Charles I in 1649 and the Restoration of چارلس دوم شاہ انگلستان in 1660. Between 1649 and 1653, there was no single English head of state, as England was ruled directly by the Rump Parliament during a period known as the انگلستان کی دولت مشترکہ. After a مسلح بغاوت in 1653, اولیور کرامویل forcibly took control of England from Parliament. He dissolved the Rump Parliament at the head of a military force and England entered a period known as The Protectorate, under the direct control of a single individual known as the Lord Protector. While not officially monarchs, the holder of the office of Lord Protector wielded great, almost absolute and آمر power over England, and the office became de facto hereditary when it passed from Oliver Cromwell to his son Richard. Richard lacked both the ability to rule and confidence of the Army, and he was forcibly removed by the English Committee of Safety under the leadership of Charles Fleetwood in مئی 1659. England again lacked any single head of state during several months of conflict between Fleetwood's party and that of George Monck. Monck took de facto control of the country in دسمبر 1659, and after almost a year of anarchy, the monarchy was formally restored when چارلس دوم شاہ انگلستان returned from France to accept the throne of England following the Declaration of Breda and an invitation to reclaim the throne from the Convention Parliament of 1660.
  87. ^ 87.0 87.1 87.2 87.3 "Oliver Cromwell 1599–1658". اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 25 اکتوبر 2007. 
  88. "Oliver Cromwell – Faq 1". اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 25 اکتوبر 2007. 
  89. "New Page 1". اصل سے جمع شدہ 29 ستمبر 2007 کو. اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 25 اکتوبر 2007. 
  90. ^ 90.0 90.1 90.2 "Richard Cromwell, Lord Protector, 1626–1712". اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 25 اکتوبر 2007. 
  91. "CROMWELL, Richard - Archontology.org". اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 25 اکتوبر 2007. 
  92. Following the restoration of the Monarchy, England came under the rule of چارلس دوم شاہ انگلستان whose reign was relatively peaceful domestically, given the tumultuous time of the Interregnum years. Tensions still existed between Catholics and Protestants however, and with the ascension of his son, the openly Catholic جیمز دوم شاہ انگلستان, England again was sent into a period of political turmoil. James II was ousted by Parliament less than three years after ascending to the throne, and the throne was offered jointly to his daughter میری دوم ملکہ انگلستان and her husband (also his first cousin once removed) ولیم سوم (انگلستان) during the Glorious Revolution. While James and his descendants would continue to claim the throne, all Catholics (such as James and his son Charles) were barred from the throne by the Act of Settlement 1701, enacted by آن، ملکہ برطانیہ عظمی, another of James' Protestant daughters. After the Acts of Union 1707, England as a sovereign state ceased to exist, replaced by the new مملکت برطانیہ عظمی.
  93. "Oliver Cromwell (1649-1658 AD)". 
  94. "WILLIAM III - Archontology.org". اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 25 اکتوبر 2007. 
  95. "Anne (England) - Archontology.org". اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 25 اکتوبر 2007. 
  96. The Acts of Union 1707 were a pair of Parliamentary Acts passed during 1706 and 1707 by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland to put into effect the Treaty of Union agreed on 22 جولائی 1706. The Acts joined the مملکت انگلستان and the مملکت سکاٹ لینڈ (previously separate خود مختار ریاستs, with separate legislatures but with the same monarch) into the مملکت برطانیہ عظمی.
  97. Welcome parliament.uk. Retrieved 7 اکتوبر 2008.
  98. England, Scotland, and Ireland had shared a monarch for more than a hundred years, since the Union of the Crowns in 1603, when جیمز اول inherited the English and Irish thrones from his first cousin twice removed, ایلزبتھ اول. Although described as a Union of Crowns, until 1707 there were in fact two separate Crowns resting on the same head. There had been attempts in 1606, 1667, and 1689, to unite England and Scotland by Acts of Parliament, but it was not until the early eighteenth century that the idea had the support of both political establishments behind it, albeit for rather different reasons.

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