اینٹی-ایڈمنسٹریشن پارٹی (ریاستہائے متحدہ)

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
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اینٹی-ایڈمنسٹریشن پارٹی
Anti-Administration Party
رہنماجیمز میڈیسن،
ٹامس جیفرسن،
Henry Tazewell
تاسیس1789ء (1789ء)
تحلیل1792 (1792)
جانشینڈیموکریٹک ریپبلکن پارٹی
صدر دفترفلاڈیلفیا، پنسلوانیا
اخبارNational Gazette
نظریاتAnti-Federalism
Independent Treasury

اینٹی-ایڈمنسٹریشن پارٹی (Anti-Administration party) جیمز میڈیسن اور ٹامس جیفرسن کی طرف سے بنائی گئی ایک غیر رسمی جماعت تھی جس نے جارج واشنگٹن کے پہلے صدارتی دور میں انتظامیہ کی مخالفت کی۔

کتابیات[ترمیم]

  • Banning, Lance. The Jeffersonian Persuasion: Evolution of a Party Ideology (1978)
  • Bordewich, Fergus M. The First Congress: How James Madison, George Washington, and a Group of Extraordinary Men Invented the Government (2016) on 1789-91.
  • Bowling, Kenneth R. and Donald R. Kennon, eds. Perspectives on the History of Congress, 1789–1801. (2000)
  • Charles, Joseph. The Origins of the American Party System (1956), reprints articles in William and Mary Quarterly
  • Cunningham, Noble E., Jr. Jeffersonian Republicans: The Formation of Party Organization: 1789–1801 (1957), highly detailed party history
  • Elkins, Stanley and Eric McKitrick. The Age of Federalism (1995) online version, the standard highly detailed political history of 1790s
  • Hoadley, John F. "The Emergence of Political Parties in Congress, 1789–1803." American Political Science Review (1980) 74(3): 757–779. in JSTOR Looks at the agreement among members of Congress in their roll-call voting records. Multidimensional scaling shows the increased clustering of congressmen into two party blocs from 1789 to 1803, especially after the Jay Treaty debate; shows politics was moving away from sectionalism to organized parties.
  • Libby, O. G. "Political Factions in Washington's Administration," NDQ: North Dakota Quarterly (1913) vol 3#3 pp 293–318 full text online, looks at votes of each Congressman