تیموری شاہی سلسلہ

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
(تیموری خاندان سے رجوع مکرر)
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تیموری خاندان
House of Timur
خاندان تیموری
تیموری
तैमूरी वंश
Timur reconstruction03.jpg
مورث خاندان برلاس
ملک تیموری سلطنت
مغلیہ سلطنت
نسلیت ترک-مغل (بعد میں ترک-فارسی اور برصغیر میں ہند-فارسی)
قیام 1370
بانی امیر تیمور
موجودہ سربراہ یعقوب حبیب الدین طوسی
آخری حکمران بہادر شاہ ظفر
القاب
معزولی تیموری سلطنت
1507
مغلیہ سلطنت
1857

تیموری شاہی سلسلہ یا تیموری خاندان یا خاندان تیموری (انگریزی: Timurid dynasty; فارسی: تیموریان‎) ایک ترک مغل قبیلے کا سنی مسلم شاہی خاندان تھا جو امیر تیمور کی اولاد ہیں۔[1][2][3][4][5] تیموری مغل سلطنت کے بانی چنگیز خان [6] کے خاندان سے تھے۔ تیموری خاندان نے فارسی ثقافت پر بہت اثر ڈالا اور دو اہم سلطنتیں قائم کیں۔ جن میں ایک تیموری سلطنت (1370-1507) ایران اور وسط ایشیا میں جبکہ دوسری مغلیہ سلطنت (1526-1857) برصغیر میں تھی۔

حکمرانوں کی فہرست[ترمیم]

تیموری سلطنت[ترمیم]

لقب ذاتی نام دور
Timur ruled over the خانیت چغتائی with Soyurghatmïsh Khan as nominal Khan followed by Sultan Mahmud Khan۔ He himself adopted the Muslim Arabic title of امیر۔ In essence the Khanate was finished and the تیموری سلطنت was firmly established.
امیر
امیر
تیمور لنگ
تیمور لنگ
امیر تیمور
تیمور بیگ گورکانی
1370–1405
امیر
امیر
پیر محمد بن جہانگیر بن امیر تیمور
پیر محمد بن جہانگیر میرزا
1405–1407
امیر
امیر
خلیل سلطان
خلیل سلطان بن میران شاہ
1405–1409
امیر
امیر
شاہ رخ تیموری
شاھرخ میرزا
1405–1447
امیر
امیر
الغ بیگ
الغ بیگ
الغ بیگ
میرزا محمد طارق
1447–1449
تیموری سلطنت کی تقسیم
ما وراء النہر Khurasan/Herat/Fars/Iraq-e-Ajam
عبداللطیف مرزا
میرزا عبداللطیف
Padarkush
(Father Killer)
1449–1450
Abdallah Mirza
میرزا عبد اللہ
1450–1451
Mirza Abul-Qasim Babur bin Baysonqor
میرزا ابوالقاسم بابر بن بایسنقر
1451–1457
Mirza Shah Mahmud
میرزا شاہ محمود
1457
Ibrahim Mirza bin Ala-ud-Daulah
ابراھیم میرزا
1457–1459
ابو سعید میرزا
ابو سعید میرزا
(Although Abu Sa'id Mirza re-united most of the Timurid heartland in Central Asia with the help of ازبکستان Chief, ابو الخیر خان (grandfather of محمد شیبانی خان)، he agreed to divide ایران with the قرہ قویونلو under Jahan Shah، but the آق قویونلو under Uzun Hassan defeated and killed first Jahan Shah and then Abu Sa'id. After Abu Sa'id's death another era of fragmentation follows.)
1451–1469
**ما وراء النہر is divided سلطان حسین مرزا بایقرا
سلطان حسین میرزا بایقرا
1469 1st reign
Yadgar Muhammad Mirza
میرزا یادگار محمد
1470 (6 weeks)
سلطان حسین مرزا بایقرا
سلطان حسین میرزا بایقرا
1470–1506 2nd reign
Uzbeks under محمد شیبانی خان Conquer ہرات
سمرقند بخارا حصار فرغانہ بلخ کابل
Sultan Ahmad Mirza
سلطان احمد میرزا
1469–1494
عمر شیخ مرزا
عمر شیخ میرزا ثانی
1469–1494
Sultan Mahmud Mirza
سلطان محمود میرزا
1469–1495
Ulugh Beg Mirza II
میرزا الغ بیگ
1469–1502
Sultan Baysonqor Mirza bin Mahmud Mirza
بایسنقر میرزا بن محمود میرزا
1495–1497
Sultan Ali bin Mahmud Mirza
سلطان علی بن محمود میرزا
1495–1500
Sultan Masud Mirza bin Mahmud Mirza
سلطان مسعود بن محمود میرزا
1495 – ?
ظہیر الدین محمد بابر
ظہیر الدین محمد بابر
1494–1497
Khusroe Shah خسرو شاہ
(Usurper)
? – 1503
Mukim Beg Arghun مقیم ارغون
(Usurper)
? – 1504
Uzbeks under محمد شیبانی خان
محمد شایبک خان ازبک
1500–1501
Jahangir Mirza II
جہانگیر میرزا
(puppet of Sultan Ahmed Tambol)
1497 – ?
ظہیر الدین محمد بابر
ظہیر الدین محمد بابر
1503–1504
Uzbeks under محمد شیبانی خان
محمد شایبک خان ازبک
1503–1504
ظہیر الدین محمد بابر
ظہیر الدین محمد بابر
1504–1511
ظہیر الدین محمد بابر
ظہیر الدین محمد بابر
(Never till his conquest of India were the dominions of Babur as extensive as at this period. Like his grandfather ابو سعید میرزا، he managed to re-unite the Timurid heartland in Central Asia with the help of Shah of Iran, اسماعیل صفوی۔ His dominions stretched from the بحیرہ قزوین and the کوہ اورال to the farthest limits of Ghazni and comprehended کابل and غزنی;قندوز and حصار، تاجکستان; سمرقند and بخارا; فرغانہ; تاشقند and سیرام)
1511–1512
Uzbeks under Ubaydullah Sultan عبید اللہ سلطان re-conquer ما وراء النہر and Balkh
1512
ظہیر الدین محمد بابر
ظہیر الدین محمد بابر
1512–1530
Timurid Empire in Central Asia becomes extinct under the خانیت بخارا of the Uzbeks۔ However, Timurid dynasty moves on to conquer بھارت under the leadership of ظہیر الدین محمد بابر in 1526 C.E. and established the مغلیہ سلطنت کے حکمرانوں کی فہرست۔

مغلیہ سلطنت[ترمیم]

شہنشاہ پیدائش دور حکومت وفات نوٹس
ظہیر الدین محمد بابر 23 فروری 1483 1526–1530 26 دسمبر 1530 Was a direct descendant of چنگیز خان through his mother and was descendant of امیر تیمور through his father. Founded the Mughal Empire after his victories at the پانی پت کی پہلی لڑائی and the Battle of Khanwa۔
نصیر الدین محمد ہمایوں 6 مارچ 1508 1530–1540 Jan 1556 Reign interrupted by سلطنت سور۔ Youth and inexperience at ascension led to his being regarded as a less effective ruler than usurper, شیر شاہ سوری۔
شیر شاہ سوری 1472 1540–1545 مئی 1545 Deposed Humayun and led the سلطنت سور۔
اسلام شاہ سوری c. 1500 1545–1554 1554 Second and last ruler of the سلطنت سور، claims of sons Sikandar and Adil Shah were eliminated by Humayun's restoration.
نصیر الدین محمد ہمایوں 6 مارچ 1508 1555–1556 Jan 1556 Restored rule was more unified and effective than initial reign of 1530–1540; left unified empire for his son, جلال الدین اکبر۔
جلال الدین اکبر 15 اکتوبر 1542 1556–1605 27 اکتوبر 1605 He and بیرم خان defeated Hemu during the پانی پت کی دوسری لڑائی and later won famous victories during the Siege of Chittorgarh and the Siege of Ranthambore; He greatly expanded the Empire and is regarded as the most illustrious ruler of the Mughal Empire as he set up the empire's various institutions; he married جودھا بائی، a Rajput princess. One of his most famous construction marvels was the قلعہ لاہور and Agra Fort.[7]
نورالدین جہانگیر اکتوبر 1569 1605–1627 1627 Jahangir set the precedent for sons rebelling against their emperor fathers. Opened first relations with the برطانوی ایسٹ انڈیا کمپنی۔ He conquered the Himalayan range from Kashmir to Nepal.
شاہ جہاں 5 جنوری 1592 1627–1658 1666 Under him, Mughal art and architecture reached their zenith; constructed the تاج محل، جامع مسجد دہلی، لال قلعہ، مقبرہ جہانگیر، and شالامار باغ in لاہور۔ Deposed by his son Aurangzeb.
اورنگزیب عالمگیر 21 اکتوبر 1618 1658–1707 3 مارچ 1707 He reinterpreted شریعت and presented the فتاویٰ ہندیہ (عالمگیری); he captured the diamond mines of the قطب شاہی سلطنت; he spent the major part of his last 27 years in the war with the Maratha rebels; at its zenith, his conquests expanded the empire to its greatest extent; the over-stretched empire was controlled by منصبدارs, and faced challenges after his death. He is known to have transcribed copies of the قرآن using his own styles of فن خطاطی۔ He died during a campaign against the ravaging مراٹھاs in the سطح مرتفع دکن۔
بہادر شاہ اول 14 اکتوبر 1643 1707–1712 Feb 1712 First of the Mughal emperors to preside over an empire ravaged by uncontrollable revolts. After his reign, the empire went into steady decline due to the lack of leadership qualities among his immediate successors.
جہاندار شاہ 1664 1712–1713 فروری 1713 The son of Bahadur Shah I, he was an unpopular incompetent titular figurehead; he attained the throne after his father's death by his victory in battle over his brother, who was killed.
فرخ سیر 1683 1713–1719 1719 His reign marked the ascendancy of the manipulative Syed Brothers، execution of the rebellious Banda۔ In 1717 he granted a Firman to the برطانوی ایسٹ انڈیا کمپنی granting them duty-free trading rights in بنگال۔ The Firman was repudiated by the notable Murshid Quli Khan the Mughal appointed ruler of Bengal.
رفیع الدرجات Unknown 1719 1719  
شاہ جہاں دؤم Unknown 1719 1719  
نیکوسیر Unknown 1719 1743  
Muhammad Ibrahim Unknown 1720 1744  
محمد شاہ 1702 1719–1720, 1720–1748 1748 Got rid of the Syed Brothers۔ Tried to counter the emergence of the مراٹھاs but his empire disintegrated. Suffered the invasion of نادر شاہ of Persia in 1739.[8]
احمد شاہ بہادر 1725 1748–54 1775
عالمگیر ثانی 1699 1754–1759 1759 He was murdered according by the وزیر Imad-ul-Mulk and مراٹھا associate سداشو راؤ بھاؤ۔
شاہ جہاں سوم Unknown In 1759 1772 Was ordained to the imperial throne as a result of the intricacies in Delhi with the help of Imad-ul-Mulk۔ He was later deposed by Maratha Sardars.[9][مکمل حوالہ درکار][10]
شاہ عالم ثانی 1728 1759–1806 1806 He was proclaimed as Mughal Emperor by the Marathas.[9] Later, he was again recognised as the مغلیہ سلطنت کے حکمرانوں کی فہرست by احمد شاہ ابدالی after the پانی پت کی تیسری لڑائی in 1761.[11] 1764 saw the defeat of the combined forces of Mughal Emperor, Nawab of Oudh and Nawab of Bengal and Bihar at the hand of East India Company at the بکسر کی لڑائی۔ Following this defeat, Shah Alam II left Delhi for Allahabad, ending hostilities with the معاہدہ الٰہ آباد (1765)۔ Shah Alam II was reinstated to the throne of Delhi in 1772 by Mahadaji Shinde under the protection of the Marathas.[12] He was a ازروئے قانون emperor. During his reign in 1793 British East India company abolished Nizamat (Mughal suzerainty) and took control of the former Mughal province of Bengal marking the beginning of British reign in parts of Eastern India officially.
اکبر شاہ ثانی 1760 1806–1837 1837 He became a British pensioner after the defeat of the Marathas in the third Anglo-Maratha war who were until then the protector of the Mughal throne. Under the East India company's protection, his imperial name was removed from official coinage after a brief dispute with the برطانوی ایسٹ انڈیا کمپنی۔
بہادر شاہ ظفر 1775 1837–1857 1862 The last Mughal emperor was deposed in 1858 by the British East India company and exiled to میانمار following the جنگ آزادی ہند 1857ء after the fall of Delhi to the company troops. His death marks the end of the Mughal dynasty but not of the family.

بیرونی روابط[ترمیم]

حوالہ جات[ترمیم]

  1. Maria E. Subtelny, Timurids in Transition: Turko-Persian Politics and Acculturation in Medieval Persia, Vol. 7, (Brill, 2007), 201.
  2. B.F. Manz, "Tīmūr Lang", in دائرۃ المعارف الاسلامیہ, Online Edition, 2006
  3. دائرۃ المعارف بریطانیکا, "Timurid Dynasty", Online Academic Edition, 2007. (Quotation:...Turkic dynasty descended from the conqueror Timur (Tamerlane), renowned for its brilliant revival of artistic and intellectual life in Iran and Central Asia....Trading and artistic communities were brought into the capital city of Herat, where a library was founded, and the capital became the centre of a renewed and artistically brilliant Persian culture...)
  4. "Timurids"۔ The Columbia Encyclopedia (اشاعت Sixth۔)۔ New York City: Columbia University۔ مورخہ 25 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2006-11-08۔
  5. دائرۃ المعارف بریطانیکا article: Consolidation & expansion of the Indo-Timurids, Online Edition, 2007.
  6. THE MAN BEHIND THE MOSQUE
  7. Klingelhofer، William G. (1988). "The Jahangiri Mahal of the Agra Fort: Expression and Experience in Early Mughal Architecture". Muqarnas 5: 153–169. doi:10.2307/1523115. آئی ایس ایس این 0732-2992. 
  8. S. N. Sen۔ History Modern India۔ New Age International۔ صفحات 11–13, 41–43۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-81-224-1774-6۔
  9. ^ ا ب Advanced Study in the History of Modern India 1707–1813، p. 140
  10. S.R. Sharma۔ Mughal Empire in India: A Systematic Study Including Source Material۔ صفحہ 765۔ آئی ایس بی این 9788171568192۔
  11. S.R. Sharma۔ Mughal Empire in India: A Systematic Study Including Source Material۔ صفحہ 767۔ آئی ایس بی این 9788171568192۔
  12. N. G. Rathod, The Great Maratha Mahadaji Scindia، (Sarup & Sons, 1994)، 8:[1]