دفاع شیر خواری
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دفاع شیر خواری (Defense of infancy) دفاع کی ایک شکل ہے جس میں مدعا علیہان ایک "شیرخوار" کی تعریف میں شمار لیے جانے کی وجہ سے ان کو ان کے اعمال کے لیے مجرمانہ ذمہ داری سے عذر کے طور سزاوار قرار نہیں دیا جا سکتا۔
مجرمانہ ذمہ داری کی عمر بلحاظ ملک[ترمیم]
- ^ ا ب پ "Children in the US Justice System". Amnesty International USA). مورخہ 25 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. Check date values in:
- Age determined by each state; the minimum age is 6 (North Carolina)
- Brash، Don (21 March 2005). "Saving a generation of young people". New Zealand National Party. مورخہ 25 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 31 اکتوبر 2012. Check date values in:
- however, only 15 states have set minimum ages
- which range from 6 to 12 years. States without statutory minimum ages rely on common law, which means that 7
- "Old enough to be a criminal?". UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund). مورخہ 25 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. Check date values in:
- is the minimum age in most states; for federal crimes the age has been set at 11.
- Juvenile Act, Article 8
- According to Articles 1 and 3 of the Juvenile Act, Courts must have regard to the welfare of those under 16.
- Criminal Responsibility of Children in the Islamic Republic of Iran's New Penal Code
- ^ ا ب Ages of criminal responsibility in Australian jurisdictions, Australian Governments official website
- Age of criminal responsibility in Australia.
- Rebuttable presumption of incapacity of committing crime: under 14.
- ^ ا ب Section 3 of the Juvenile Offenders Ordinance 2003 (Chapter 226, Laws of Hong Kong)
- 10 years for murder and manslaughter, 12 for crimes with a maximum imprisonment of fourteen years or more; 14 for all other offences.
- Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Act 1989 No 24 (as at 23 July 2011), Public Act – New Zealand Legislation
- The Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 came into effect 1 April 2010. There is a rebuttable presumption that a child between the ages of 10 and 14 lacks criminal capacity.
- The Children and Young Persons Act 1933 (23 & 24 Geo.5 c.12), section 50; as amended by The Children and Young Persons Act 1963 (c.37), section 16(1) 
- Young offenders section of the UK Governments official website
- Report on the Draft Justice (NI) Bill of the Northern Ireland Assembly's official website
- ^ ا ب Criminal Justice and Licensing (Scotland) Act 2010
- 10 in England, Wales and Northern Ireland; 12 in Scotland
- Afghanistan Juvenile Code, Article 10
- According to Articles 12 and 45 of the Juvenile Code, children aged 7–12 can be subject to warnings, supervision by social services, or confinement to a rehabilitation centre.
- Criminal Code of Andorra, Article 2
- Criminal Code of Canada, s. 13; may receive reduced sentencing under the Youth Criminal Justice Act until age 18.
- La mayoría de los países de América latina ya tiene un régimen penal juvenil - LA NACION
- Even though legal procedures and punishment are different for offenders who are under 18, all offenders who are 12 or older may be sentenced to as much as 15 years of incarceration
- ^ ا ب http://www.politics.hu/20120627/justice-ministry-rejects-unicef-criticism-of-new-criminal-code-provisions-on-youthful-offenders/
- 12 only for premeditated homicide, voluntary manslaughter and bodily harm leading to death or resulting in life-threatening injuries; 14 for other crimes.
- Children and the criminal justice system in Ireland, Irish Government official website
- If a compulsory intervention is considered necessary, a child aged between 8 and 12 years may be dealt with through the Children's Hearings system.
- Algerian Penal Code, Article 49
- Children aged 13–18 are subject to attenuated penalties.
- Criminal Code of the Republic of Albania, Article 12.
- Article 1 of the Code distinguishes between offences and contraventions. Article 12 mandates that the latter (which are less serious) have a higher age limit of 16.
- Criminal Code of Angola, Article 17
- Minimum and maximum sentences are reduced by two thirds between 14 and 16, and half between 16 and 18. The needs of rehabilitation and social reintegration are also to be taken into account for under 18s.
- Bolivia | Edad de responsabilidad penal ordinaria es desde los 18 años - JORNADA
- Lowered in July 2014, from 16 to 14
- Absolute minimum for acts that constitute the following crimes: homicide, wounding resulting in death, rape, robbery, arson, explosion, planting of toxic substances and trafficking in dangerous drugs. The minimum age for other crimes are 16. In Hong Kong, the minimum age is 10
- and in Macau, 16.
- 14 for all crimes under the general provisions of the Criminal Code; special provisions may apply for some crimes up to the age 21.
- StGB §19
- Minors between 14 and 18 years are sentenced by juvenile justice. An adult between 18 and 21 years may still be sentenced by juvenile justice if considered mentally immature.
- Juvenile judiciary system for offenders aged between 14 and 18; separate juvenile jails. Full criminal responsibility from age 18.
- Japanese Penal Code (Act No.45 of 1907), article 41 
- Offenders between 14 and 17 can be sentenced to a maximum of 8 years of imprisonment.
- Статья 20 (СТ 20 УК РФ). Возраст, с которого наступает уголовная ответственность | Уголовный кодекс РФ
- 16 by default, 14 years specifically for crimes as listed in Section 20 of the Criminal code, like murder, rape, robbery, extortion, kidnapping, motor vehicle theft, terror attack, stealing restricted substances like explosives or narcotics, aggravated anti-social behaviour, vandalism, false report of a terror attack.
- Ley Orgánica 5/2000, de 12 de enero, reguladora de la responsabilidad penal de los menores (ہسپانوی میں)
- Offenders aged 14 to 18 years qualify for reduction of sentence under section 18 of the Criminal Code. The death penalty and imprisonment without term cannot be applied to offenders aged 14 to 18 years.
- Criminal Code of the Republic of China
- Klaus podpisem stvrdil trestní odpovědnost i legální sex od 15 let - iDNES.cz
- Penal Code 3:1 § (39/1889, as changed by 515/2003). Retrieved 10-31-2007.
- Penal Code Almindelig borgerlig Straffelov (Straffeloven) § 46 (changed of law 12 Jun 1987 nr. 51). Retrieved 19/7 - 2007.
- "RA9344: Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act of 2006". Chan Robles Law Library. April 28, 2006. مورخہ 25 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. Check date values in:
- "PNoy signs law retaining minimum age of criminal liability". Yahoo News. October 8, 2013. مؤرشف من الأصل في 25 دسمبر 2018. روابط خارجية في
- A person who is fifteen years old or younger at the time of the offense shall be exempt from criminal liability. However, the minor shall be subjected to an intervention program.
- A person who is older than fifteen but younger than eighteen years shall likewise be exempt from criminal liability and be subjected to an intervention program, unless he/she has acted with discernment.
- Discernment means the mental capacity to understand the difference between right and wrong and its consequences.
- "En Banc Supreme Court resolution on Proposed Rule on Juveniles in Conflict With the Law". Chan Robles Law Library. effective April 15, 2002. مورخہ 25 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. Check date values in:
- "Article 10 of Polish Penal Code of 1997" (PDF).
- 17 to most crimes, but minors who are 15 or older can be judged as adults if so decided by the Supreme Court, what is done especially in relation to heinous crimes and when "the circumstances of the case and the mental state of development of the perpetrator, his characteristics and personal situation warrant it, and especially when previously applied educational or corrective measures have proved ineffective." On the other hand, the Court may choose to apply juvenile measures for perpetrators between the ages 17 and 18, if "the circumstances of the case and the mental state of development of the perpetrator, his characteristics and personal situation warrant it." Juvenile correctional proceedings responsibility from the age of 13. Juvenile educational and therapeutic proceedings responsibility for all persons below the age of 18 (including persons below 13 years of age).
- Debates Over Lowering the Criminal Responsibility Age ‹ The Argentina Independent
- ^ ا ب http://www.right-to-education.org/sites/r2e.gn.apc.org/files/age_new.pdf
- Ministro de Justicia descarta rebaja en edad de responsabilidad penal adolescente | Emol.com
- Justiça | Responsabilidade criminal deve passar dos 16 para os 18 anos de idade) | PÚBLICO
- Federal Constitution (in Portuguese), Article 228. Retrieved 02-01-2011.
- Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente (pt), Seção V. Retrieved 02-05-2013
- ^ ا ب پ Progress of Nations 1997 Special Protections - Progress and Disparity
- Folha de S.Paulo - Internacional - En - São Paulo - 93% of São Paulo Residents Want Age of Criminal Responsibility to Be Reduced - 17/04/2013
- Tienda de Entretenimiento