دفاع شیر خواری

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
Jump to navigation Jump to search

دفاع شیر خواری (Defense of infancy) دفاع کی ایک شکل ہے جس میں مدعا علیہان ایک "شیرخوار" کی تعریف میں شمار لیے جانے کی وجہ سے ان کو ان کے اعمال کے لیے مجرمانہ ذمہ داری سے عذر کے طور سزاوار قرار نہیں دیا جا سکتا۔

مجرمانہ ذمہ داری کی عمر بلحاظ ملک[ترمیم]

ملک عمر حوالہ ملاحظات
Flag of the United States.svg ریاستہائے متحدہ &10000000000000006000000 6-12 [1] [2];[1][3][4],[1][5][6][7]
Flag of India.svg بھارت &10000000000000007000000 7
Flag of Myanmar.svg میانمار &10000000000000007000000 7
Flag of Nigeria.svg نائجیریا &10000000000000007000000 7
Flag of Pakistan.svg پاکستان &10000000000000007000000 7
Flag of Singapore.svg سنگاپور &10000000000000007000000 7
Flag of Sudan.svg سوڈان &10000000000000007000000 7
Flag of Tanzania.svg تنزانیہ &10000000000000007000000 7
Flag of Antigua and Barbuda.svg اینٹیگوا و باربوڈا &10000000000000008000000 8 [8] [9]
Flag of Indonesia.svg انڈونیشیا &10000000000000008000000 8
Flag of Kenya.svg کینیا &10000000000000008000000 8
Flag of Bangladesh.svg بنگلادیش &10000000000000009000000 9
Flag of Ethiopia.svg ایتھوپیا &10000000000000009000000 9
Flag of Iran.svg ایران &10000000000000009000000 9 (لڑکیاں); 15 (لڑکے) [10][11] 9 لڑکیوں کے لیے; 15 لڑکوں کے لیے
Flag of Australia.svg آسٹریلیا &10000000000000010000000 10 [12] [13]
[12][14][15]
Flag of Hong Kong.svg ہانگ کانگ &10000000000000010000000 10 [16]
Flag of Nepal.svg نیپال &10000000000000010000000 10
Flag of New Zealand.svg نیوزی لینڈ &10000000000000010000000 10 [17][18]
Flag of South Africa.svg جنوبی افریقا &10000000000000010000000 10 [19]
Flag of Switzerland.svg سویٹزرلینڈ &10000000000000010000000 10
Flag of Thailand.svg تھائی لینڈ &10000000000000010000000 10
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg مملکت متحدہ &10000000000000010000000 10 [20][21][22][23] [24]
Flag of Afghanistan.svg افغانستان &10000000000000012000000 12 [25] [26]
Flag of Andorra.svg انڈورا &10000000000000012000000 12 [27]
Flag of Canada.svg کینیڈا &10000000000000012000000 12 [28]
Flag of Costa Rica.svg کوسٹاریکا &10000000000000012000000 12 [29] [30]
Flag of Hungary.svg مجارستان &10000000000000012000000 12 [31] [31][32]
Flag of Ireland.svg جمہوریہ آئرلینڈ &10000000000000012000000 12 [33]
Flag of Israel.svg اسرائیل &10000000000000012000000 12
Flag of Morocco.svg مراکش &10000000000000012000000 12
Flag of the Netherlands.svg نیدرلینڈز &10000000000000012000000 12
Flag of Scotland.svg سکاٹ لینڈ (UK) &10000000000000012000000 12 [23] [34]
Flag of Turkey.svg ترکی &10000000000000012000000 12
Flag of Uganda.svg یوگنڈا &10000000000000012000000 12
Flag of Algeria.svg الجزائر &10000000000000013000000 13 [35] [36]
Flag of France.svg فرانس &10000000000000013000000 13
Flag of Albania.svg البانیا &10000000000000014000000 14 [37] [38]
Flag of Angola.svg انگولا &10000000000000014000000 14 [39] [40]
Flag of Austria.svg آسٹریا &10000000000000014000000 14
Flag of Bolivia.svg بولیویا &10000000000000014000000 14 [41][42] [43]
Flag of the People's Republic of China.svg چین &10000000000000014000000 14 [16][44][45]
Flag of Croatia.svg کرویئشا &10000000000000014000000 14 [46] [47]
Flag of Estonia.svg استونیا &10000000000000014000000 14
Flag of Germany.svg جرمنی &10000000000000014000000 14 [48] [49]
Flag of Italy.svg اطالیہ &10000000000000014000000 14 [50]
Flag of Japan.svg جاپان &10000000000000014000000 14 [51]
Flag of Paraguay.svg پیراگوئے &10000000000000014000000 14 [52] [53]
Flag of Romania.svg رومانیہ &10000000000000014000000 14
Flag of Russia.svg روس &10000000000000014000000 14 [54] [55]
Flag of Slovenia.svg سلووینیا &10000000000000014000000 14
Flag of South Korea.svg جنوبی کوریا &10000000000000014000000 14
Flag of Spain.svg ہسپانیہ &10000000000000014000000 14 [56]
Flag of the Republic of China.svg تائیوان &10000000000000014000000 14 [57][58]
Flag of Ukraine.svg یوکرین &10000000000000014000000 14
Flag of Vietnam.svg ویت نام &10000000000000014000000 14
Flag of the Czech Republic.svg چیک جمہوریہ &10000000000000015000000 15 [59]
Flag of Denmark.svg ڈنمارک &10000000000000015000000 15
Flag of Egypt.svg مصر &10000000000000015000000 15
Flag of Finland.svg فن لینڈ &10000000000000015000000 15 [60]
Flag of Iceland.svg آئس لینڈ &10000000000000015000000 15
Flag of Norway.svg ناروے &10000000000000015000000 15 [61]
Flag of the Philippines.svg فلپائن &10000000000000015000000 15 [62][63] [64][65][66][67]
Flag of Poland.svg پولینڈ &10000000000000017000000 15-18 [68] [69][70]
Flag of Sweden.svg سویڈن &10000000000000015000000 15
Flag of Uzbekistan.svg ازبکستان &10000000000000015000000 15
Flag of Argentina.svg ارجنٹائن &10000000000000016000000 16 [71][72]
Flag of Belgium (civil).svg بلجئیم &10000000000000016000000 16 [73]
Flag of Chile.svg چلی &10000000000000016000000 16 [74][75]
Flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.svg جمہوری جمہوریہ کانگو &10000000000000016000000 16 [73]
Flag of Portugal.svg پرتگال &10000000000000016000000 16 [76]
Flag of Brazil.svg برازیل &10000000000000018000000 18 [77][78][79][80]
Flag of Colombia.svg کولمبیا &10000000000000018000000 18 [79]
Flag of Ecuador.svg ایکواڈور &10000000000000018000000 18 [81]
Flag of Mexico.svg میکسیکو &10000000000000018000000 18 [82]
Flag of Peru.svg پیرو &10000000000000018000000 18 [79]
Flag of Uruguay.svg یوراگوئے &10000000000000018000000 18 [83]

حوالہ جات[ترمیم]

  1. ^ ا ب پ "Children in the US Justice System"۔ Amnesty International USA)۔ 
  2. Age determined by each state; the minimum age is 6 (North Carolina)
  3. Don Brash (21 March 2005)۔ "Saving a generation of young people"۔ New Zealand National Party۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 31 October 2012۔ 
  4. however, only 15 states have set minimum ages
  5. which range from 6 to 12 years. States without statutory minimum ages rely on common law, which means that 7
  6. "Old enough to be a criminal?"۔ UNICEF United Nations Children's Fund)۔ 
  7. is the minimum age in most states; for federal crimes the age has been set at 11.
  8. Juvenile Act, Article 8
  9. According to Articles 1 and 3 of the Juvenile Act, Courts must have regard to the welfare of those under 16.
  10. Criminal Responsibility of Children in the Islamic Republic of Iran's New Penal Code
  11. http://www.unmultimedia.org/radio/english/2014/03/iran-urged-to-increase-age-of-criminal-responsibility-for-children/#.VFL3g_nF91Y
  12. ^ ا ب Ages of criminal responsibility in Australian jurisdictions, Australian Governments official website
  13. Age of criminal responsibility in Australia.
  14. Rebuttable presumption of incapacity of committing crime: under 14.
  15. http://www.aic.gov.au/documents/0/0/A/%7B00A92691-0908-47BF-9311-01AD743F01E1%7Dti181.pdf
  16. ^ ا ب Section 3 of the Juvenile Offenders Ordinance 2003 (Chapter 226, Laws of Hong Kong)
  17. 10 years for murder and manslaughter, 12 for crimes with a maximum imprisonment of fourteen years or more; 14 for all other offences.
  18. Children, Young Persons, and Their Families Act 1989 No 24 (as at 23 July 2011), Public Act – New Zealand Legislation
  19. The Child Justice Act 75 of 2008 came into effect 1 April 2010. There is a rebuttable presumption that a child between the ages of 10 and 14 lacks criminal capacity.
  20. The Children and Young Persons Act 1933 (23 & 24 Geo.5 c.12), section 50; as amended by The Children and Young Persons Act 1963 (c.37), section 16(1) [1]
  21. Young offenders section of the UK Governments official website
  22. Report on the Draft Justice (NI) Bill of the Northern Ireland Assembly's official website
  23. ^ ا ب Criminal Justice and Licensing (Scotland) Act 2010
  24. 10 in England, Wales and Northern Ireland; 12 in Scotland
  25. Afghanistan Juvenile Code, Article 10
  26. According to Articles 12 and 45 of the Juvenile Code, children aged 7–12 can be subject to warnings, supervision by social services, or confinement to a rehabilitation centre.
  27. Criminal Code of Andorra, Article 2
  28. Criminal Code of Canada, s. 13; may receive reduced sentencing under the Youth Criminal Justice Act until age 18.
  29. La mayoría de los países de América latina ya tiene un régimen penal juvenil - LA NACION
  30. Even though legal procedures and punishment are different for offenders who are under 18, all offenders who are 12 or older may be sentenced to as much as 15 years of incarceration
  31. ^ ا ب http://www.politics.hu/20120627/justice-ministry-rejects-unicef-criticism-of-new-criminal-code-provisions-on-youthful-offenders/
  32. 12 only for premeditated homicide, voluntary manslaughter and bodily harm leading to death or resulting in life-threatening injuries; 14 for other crimes.
  33. Children and the criminal justice system in Ireland, Irish Government official website
  34. If a compulsory intervention is considered necessary, a child aged between 8 and 12 years may be dealt with through the Children's Hearings system.
  35. Algerian Penal Code, Article 49
  36. Children aged 13–18 are subject to attenuated penalties.
  37. Criminal Code of the Republic of Albania, Article 12.
  38. Article 1 of the Code distinguishes between offences and contraventions. Article 12 mandates that the latter (which are less serious) have a higher age limit of 16.
  39. Criminal Code of Angola, Article 17
  40. Minimum and maximum sentences are reduced by two thirds between 14 and 16, and half between 16 and 18. The needs of rehabilitation and social reintegration are also to be taken into account for under 18s.
  41. http://www.elpotosi.net/2014/07/18/13.php
  42. Bolivia | Edad de responsabilidad penal ordinaria es desde los 18 años - JORNADA
  43. Lowered in July 2014, from 16 to 14
  44. Absolute minimum for acts that constitute the following crimes: homicide, wounding resulting in death, rape, robbery, arson, explosion, planting of toxic substances and trafficking in dangerous drugs. The minimum age for other crimes are 16. In Hong Kong, the minimum age is 10
  45. and in Macau, 16.
  46. [2]
  47. 14 for all crimes under the general provisions of the Criminal Code; special provisions may apply for some crimes up to the age 21.
  48. StGB §19
  49. Minors between 14 and 18 years are sentenced by juvenile justice. An adult between 18 and 21 years may still be sentenced by juvenile justice if considered mentally immature.
  50. Juvenile judiciary system for offenders aged between 14 and 18; separate juvenile jails. Full criminal responsibility from age 18.
  51. Japanese Penal Code (Act No.45 of 1907), article 41 [3]
  52. http://juridicas.unam.mx/sisjur/penal/pdf/11-512s.pdf
  53. Offenders between 14 and 17 can be sentenced to a maximum of 8 years of imprisonment.
  54. Статья 20 (СТ 20 УК РФ). Возраст, с которого наступает уголовная ответственность | Уголовный кодекс РФ
  55. 16 by default, 14 years specifically for crimes as listed in Section 20 of the Criminal code, like murder, rape, robbery, extortion, kidnapping, motor vehicle theft, terror attack, stealing restricted substances like explosives or narcotics, aggravated anti-social behaviour, vandalism, false report of a terror attack.
  56. Ley Orgánica 5/2000, de 12 de enero, reguladora de la responsabilidad penal de los menores (ہسپانوی زبان میں)
  57. Offenders aged 14 to 18 years qualify for reduction of sentence under section 18 of the Criminal Code. The death penalty and imprisonment without term cannot be applied to offenders aged 14 to 18 years.
  58. Criminal Code of the Republic of China
  59. Klaus podpisem stvrdil trestní odpovědnost i legální sex od 15 let - iDNES.cz
  60. Penal Code 3:1 § (39/1889, as changed by 515/2003). Retrieved 10-31-2007.
  61. Penal Code Almindelig borgerlig Straffelov (Straffeloven) § 46 (changed of law 12 Jun 1987 nr. 51). Retrieved 19/7 - 2007.
  62. "RA9344: Juvenile Justice and Welfare Act of 2006"۔ Chan Robles Law Library۔ April 28, 2006۔ 
  63. "PNoy signs law retaining minimum age of criminal liability"۔ Yahoo News۔ October 8, 2013۔ 
  64. A person who is fifteen years old or younger at the time of the offense shall be exempt from criminal liability. However, the minor shall be subjected to an intervention program.
  65. A person who is older than fifteen but younger than eighteen years shall likewise be exempt from criminal liability and be subjected to an intervention program, unless he/she has acted with discernment.
  66. Discernment means the mental capacity to understand the difference between right and wrong and its consequences.
  67. "En Banc Supreme Court resolution on Proposed Rule on Juveniles in Conflict With the Law"۔ Chan Robles Law Library۔ effective April 15, 2002۔ 
  68. "Article 10 of Polish Penal Code of 1997"۔ 
  69. 17 to most crimes, but minors who are 15 or older can be judged as adults if so decided by the Supreme Court, what is done especially in relation to heinous crimes and when "the circumstances of the case and the mental state of development of the perpetrator, his characteristics and personal situation warrant it, and especially when previously applied educational or corrective measures have proved ineffective." On the other hand, the Court may choose to apply juvenile measures for perpetrators between the ages 17 and 18, if "the circumstances of the case and the mental state of development of the perpetrator, his characteristics and personal situation warrant it." Juvenile correctional proceedings responsibility from the age of 13. Juvenile educational and therapeutic proceedings responsibility for all persons below the age of 18 (including persons below 13 years of age).
  70. http://prawo.legeo.pl/prawo/ustawa-z-dnia-26-pazdziernika-1982-r-o-postepowaniu-w-sprawach-nieletnich/dzial-i_przepisy-ogolne/?on=25.03.2014
  71. Debates Over Lowering the Criminal Responsibility Age ‹ The Argentina Independent
  72. http://dialogo-americas.com/en_GB/articles/saii/features/main/2011/02/24/feature-02
  73. ^ ا ب http://www.right-to-education.org/sites/r2e.gn.apc.org/files/age_new.pdf
  74. http://web.derecho.uchile.cl/cej/htm/media/nuevajusticiaadolecentes.pdf
  75. Ministro de Justicia descarta rebaja en edad de responsabilidad penal adolescente | Emol.com
  76. Justiça | Responsabilidade criminal deve passar dos 16 para os 18 anos de idade) | PÚBLICO
  77. Federal Constitution (in Portuguese), Article 228. Retrieved 02-01-2011.
  78. Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente (pt), Seção V. Retrieved 02-05-2013
  79. ^ ا ب پ Progress of Nations 1997 Special Protections - Progress and Disparity
  80. Folha de S.Paulo - Internacional - En - São Paulo - 93% of São Paulo Residents Want Age of Criminal Responsibility to Be Reduced - 17/04/2013
  81. http://www.telegrafo.com.ec/justicia/item/adolescentes-infractores-en-la-mira-de-codigo-penal.html
  82. Tienda de Entretenimiento
  83. http://www.globalpost.com/dispatch/news/agencia-efe/141027/uruguayans-reject-constitutional-reform-criminal-responsibility