شہروں کی فہرست بلحاظ قدامت

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
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یہ اُن شہروں کی فہرست ہے جو لمبے عرصے سے مسلسل آباد ہیں َ۔ دنیا کے بہت سے شہروں کے شہری قدیم ترین شہر کے باسی ہونے کا دعویٰ کرتے ہیں۔ ان میں (بلخ, جبیل, حلب, دمشق, اور اریحا) شامل ہیں۔

افریقہ، شمارلی[ترمیم]

نام تاریخی علاوہ مقام جب سے مسلسل آباد ہے Notes
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فیوم (as Shediet, Crocodilopolis, Ptolemais Euergetis, Arsinoe) زیریں مصر Egyptمحافظہ فیوم, مصر -4000 ! c. 4000 BC[1]
الاقصر (as Waset, better known by its Greek name Thebes) قدیم مصر مصر -3200 c. 3200 BC First established as capital of بالائی مصر, Thebes later became the religious capital of the nation until its decline in the Roman period.
Zeila/Avalite Bilad al-Barbar صومالیہ -400 !c. 9th century BC Major trading city in the قرن افریقہ
قرطاج تونس 814 BC Founded by the فونیقی.[2]
Yeha D'mt ایتھوپیا -700 !c. 700 BC One of the oldest site of continuous habitation in افریقہ جنوب صحرا.[3]
Cape Guardafui Bilad al-Barbar صومالیہ -400 !c. 500 BC Referred to as Aromata promontorium by the قدیم یونان, Guardafui was described as early as the 1st century AD in the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, along with other flourishing commercial settlements on the northern Somali littoral.[4]
Axum مملکت اکسوم ایتھوپیا -400 !c. 400 BC Ancient capital of the Kingdom of Axum
بربرہ Bilad al-Barbar صومالیہ -400 !c. 400 BC The city was described as 800 stadia beyond the city of the Avalites, described in the eighth chapter of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, which was written by a Greek merchant in the 1st century AD
اسکندریہ مصر -332 !332 BC Founded by سکندر اعظم[5]
Djenné-Jeno مالی -200 !c. 200 BC One of the oldest known cities in ذیلی صحارائی افریقا[6]
Ghadames (as Cydamus) لیبیا -19 !19 BC Roman town founded in 19 BC but "archaeological evidence shows occupation of the area in the Paleolithic and Neolithic eras"[7]
Old Cairo مصر 100 !c. 100 Babylon Fortress moved to its current location in the reign of تراجان, forming the core of Old or Coptic Cairo[8]
کیسمایو Bilad al-Barbar, after the 14th century part of the سلطنت اجوران صومالیہ 100 ! 4th century The Kismayo area was originally a small fishing settlement and expendad to a major trading city on the Somali coast.[9]
موغادیشو سلطنت موغادیشو صومالیہ 900 !c. 700 Successor of the ancient trading power of Sarapion
فاس (as Fes-al-Bali) مراکش 789 !789 Founded as the new capital of the ادریسی سلطنت[10]
مراکش (شہر) (Murakuc) مراکش 1070 !1070 Founded by the دولت مرابطین[11]

Africa, Southern[ترمیم]

Name Historical region Location Continuously inhabited since Notes
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Igodomigodo سلطنت بینن نائجیریا -400 !c. 400 BC City of Benin, one of the oldest cities in Nigeria
Ife اوسون ریاست Nig نائجیریا -350 !c. 350 BC Earliest traces of habitation date to the 4th century BC.[12]
Sofala موزمبیق 900 !c. 700 One of the oldest harbours documented in جنوبی افریقہ (خطہ),
Lamu کینیا 1300 !c. 1300 Founded by Swahili settlers some time in the 14th century[13]
کیپ ٹاؤن Cape colony جنوبی افریقا 1652 Founded by Dutch settlers from ولندیزی ایسٹ انڈیا کمپنی and is the oldest city in South Africa
کوماسی سلطنت اشانتی گھانا c. 1680 Founded as Akan village and capital of the Kumaseman State, later becoming capital of Ashanti Empire,

America, Middle[ترمیم]

Name Historical region Location Continuously inhabited since Notes
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Cholula Old Cholula میکسیکو -150 !c. 2nd century BC Pre-Columbian Cholula grew from a small village to a regional center during the 7th century. Oldest still-inhabited city in the Americas.
میکسیکو شہر Mexica culture Mexico 1325 Founded as twin cities Tenōchtitlān (1325) and Tlāltelōlco (1337) by the Mexica. Named changed to Ciudad de México (Mexico City) after the Spanish conquest of the city in 1521. Several other pre-Columbian towns such as Azcapotzalco, Tlatelolco, زو کچی ملکو and Coyoacán have been engulfed by the still growing metropolis and are now part of modern Mexico City. Oldest capital city in the Americas.
سانتو دومنگو ہسپانیولا جمہوریہ ڈومینیکن 1496 Oldest European settlement in the New World
San Juan نیا ہسپانیہ پورٹو ریکو (US) 1508 Oldest continuously inhabited city in a US territory
Nombre de Dios, Colón New Granada پاناما 1510 Oldest European settlement on the mainlands of the Americas
باراکوا New Spain کیوبا 1511 Oldest European settlement in Cuba
Vera Cruz New Spain Mexico 1519 Oldest continuously inhabited European established settlement continental America.
پاناما شہر New Granada پاناما 1519 Oldest city in the Americas on the Pacific Ocean and oldest European settlement on the Pacific.

America, North[ترمیم]

Name Historical region Location Continuously inhabited since Notes
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Acoma Pueblo and Taos Pueblo, نیو میکسیکو Pueblo culture US c. 1075 Among the oldest continuously inhabited settlements in the US (although not "cities")
Oraibi, Arizona Hopi culture US c. 1100 Among the oldest continuously inhabited settlements in the US (although not a "city")
سینٹ جانز، نیوفنلینڈ اور لیبراڈار Newfoundland Colony کینیڈا 1540s Oldest city in Canada, and oldest English-speaking city in the Americas
سینٹ آگسٹین، فلوریڈا New Spain US 1565 Oldest continuously inhabited European-founded city within the United States
جیمز ٹاون، ورجینیا Colony of Virginia US 1607 First permanent English established settlement in the Americas.
سانتا فے، نیو میکسیکو New Spain US 1607 Oldest continuously inhabited state or territorial capital in the continental United States.
کیوبک شہر نیا فرانس Canada 1608 Second oldest city in Canada and oldest French-speaking city in the Americas.
البانی، نیو یارک New Netherlands US 1614 Followed by جرسی شہر، نیو جرسی (Communipaw) in 1617 and New York City (as New Amsterdam) in 1624 or 1625. (Note: While there was an abandonment in 1617 or 1618 of the Albany settlement, it was re-established within a few years; also, the Jersey City settlement was a factorij or trading post in the 1610s and didn't become a "homestead" (bouwerij) until the 1630s. Settlements in New Netherlands sometimes moved around in the early years.)
پلایماؤت، میساچوسٹس پلایماؤت کالونی US 1620 Fourth oldest continuously inhabited European-founded city in the United States[14]
Saint John New France Canada 1631 Third oldest city in Canada
ترو-ریویائر New France Canada 1634 Fourth oldest city in Canada
مانٹریال New France Canada 1642 Fifth oldest city in Canada
سو سینٹ ماری، مشی گن New France US 1668 Oldest European-founded city in the Midwestern United States and third oldest American city west of the Appalachian Mountains.
سان ڈیگو New Spain US 1769 Birthplace of کیلی فورنیا and oldest city on the West Coast of the United States

America, South[ترمیم]

Name Historical region Location Continuously inhabited since Notes
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Upper Xingu Xingu culture برازیل c. 800 AD A network of settlements continuously inhabited since the late 1st millennium AD. A highly urbanized Kuikuro settlement was home to upwards of 10,000 people in the densely forested Upper Xingu. Their numbers declined sharply after contacts with Europeans in the 16th century.
کیٹو Quitu culture ایکواڈور 980 Quito's origins date back to 2000 BC,[متنازع] when the Quitu tribe occupied the area.
کوزکو انکا پیرو c. 1100 The Killke occupied the region from 900 to 1200, prior to the arrival of the انکا in the 13th century. Carbon-14 dating of Saksaywaman, the walled complex outside Cusco, has demonstrated that the Killke culture constructed the fortress about 1100.[15]
سانتا مارتا New Granada کولمبیا 1525 Oldest still-inhabited city founded by Spaniards in Colombia.
São Vicente, São Paulo Governorate General of Brazil برازیل 1532 First Portuguese settlement in South America
بوگوتا New Granada کولمبیا 1538 Oldest European-founded capital city in South America.
سانتیاگو دل استرو Río de la Plata ارجنٹائن 1553 Oldest continuously inhabited city in ارجنٹائن

Asia, Central and Southern[ترمیم]

Name Historical region Location Continuously inhabited since Notes
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بلخ (as Bactra) باختر Afgصوبہ بلخ, افغانستان -1500 ! 1500 BC
بنارس ہندوستان کا آہنی دور Indاتر پردیش, India -1100 !c. 1200–1100 BC[16] ہندوستان کا آہنی دور foundation (Painted Grey Ware culture).
اوجین (As Avanti) مالوہ India -800 ! c. 800 BC[17] Rose to prominence in ca 700 BC as capital of Avanti during India's second wave of urbanization. Walled in ca 600 BC.
سمرقند سغد ازبکستان -700 ! 700 BC[حوالہ درکار]
Rajagriha (راجگیر) سلطنت مگدھ Indبہار (بھارت), India -600 ! 600 BC[حوالہ درکار]
مدورائے پانڈیہ شاہی سلسلہ Indتمل ناڈو, India -500 ! 500 BC[حوالہ درکار] There are accounts of Megasthenes (c. 350 – 290 BC) a Greek ethnographer in the Hellenistic period, author of the work Indica, having visited Madurai (then, a bustling city and capital of Pandya Kingdom). Mahavamsa, the Sri Lankan chronicle mentions that King Vijaya married a princess from Madurai, and his period is mentioned to be around 543 BC.
ضلع ویشالی سلطنت مگدھ Indبہار (بھارت), India -500 ! 500 BC[18]
پٹنہ سلطنت مگدھ Indبہار (بھارت), India -450 ! 5th century BC[19] As Pataliputra was founded by اجاتشترو.
پشاور گندھارا Pakخیبر پختونخوا, پاکستان -350 !c. 400–300 BC[20] Ongoing excavations in the گور کھٹری region have given proof of the ancient foundations of the city and have established Peshawar as one of the oldest settlements in Central and South Asia.
Mahasthangarh, بوگرا Pundravardhana Banبوگرا ضلع, بنگلہ دیش - 300BC ! 4th century BC[21] Remains of the ancient city of Pundranagara.
تھانجاور Early Chola kingdom Indتمل ناڈو, India -300 ! 300 BC Some scholars believe that the city has been existing since the Sangam Period
Bamyan باختر Afgصوبہ بامیان, افغانستان - 1st century AD ! 1st century AD
کھٹمنڈو-پاٹن، نیپال نیپال کھٹمنڈو valley, نیپال - 2nd century AD ! c. 2nd century AD The epigraphically attested history of Kathmandu valley begins in the 2nd century. Folklore speaks of a hoarier past.[حوالہ درکار]

Asia, Eastern[ترمیم]

Name Historical region Location Continuously inhabited since Notes
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لوویانگ (as Zhenxun, Xibo) شیا خاندان Chiہینان, China -2070 !c. 2070 BC
شیان (as Haojing, Fenghao, Chang'an, Daxing) چو Chiشانسی, China -1100 !c. 1100 BC
Beijing Ji, Yan Chiبیجنگ, China -1000 !c. 1045 BC
سوژو (as Gusu, Wu) Wu Chiجیانگسو, China -514 !514 BC
چینگدو Shu Chiسیچوان, China -400 !c. 400 BC The 9th Kaiming king of the ancient Shu moved his capital to the city's current location from today's nearby Pixian.
نانجنگ (as Yecheng, Jianye, Jiankang, Jinling) Wu Chiجیانگسو, China -495 !c. 495 BC Fu Chai, Lord of the State of Wu, founded a fort named Yecheng (冶城) in today's Nanjing area.
کائفینگ (as Daling, Bianzhou, Dongjing, Bianjing) Wei Chiہینان, China -364 !c. 364 BC The State of Wei founded a city called Daliang (大梁)as its capital in this area.
گوانگژو (as Panyu) چن خاندان Chiگوانگڈونگ, China -214 !214 BC[حوالہ درکار]
ہانگژو (as Lin'an) چن خاندان Chiژجیانگ, China -200 !c. 200 BC The city of Hangzhou was founded about 2,200 years ago during the Qin Dynasty.
پیانگ یانگ (as Wanggeom-seong) Gojoseon شمالی کوریا 194 BC Built as the capital city of Gojoseon in 194 BC.
گیونگ جو Silla جنوبی کوریا 57 BC Built as the capital city of Silla in 57 BC.
سیول (as Wiryeseong) Baekjae جنوبی کوریا 18 BC Built as the capital city of Baekjae in 18 BC.
اوساکا (as Naniwa) جاپان جاپان c. 400 AD It was inhabited as early at the 6th-5th centuries BC, and became a port city during the Kofun period. It temporarily served as the capital of Japan from 645 to 655.
Nara (as Heijō-kyō) جاپان جاپان 710 AD Built as a new capital city in 710.
کیوٹو (as Heian-kyō, and sometimes known in the west as Miyako) جاپان جاپان 794 AD Shimogamo Shrine was built in the 6th century, but the city was officially founded as Heian-kyō when it became the capital in 794.

Asia, Southeastern[ترمیم]

Name Historical region Location Continuously inhabited since Notes
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ہنوئی Jiaozhou ویتنام 454 AD First mentioned as Tống Bình in 454 AD, the Đại La citadel was built in 767 during the reign of Emperor Daizong of Tang; Ly Cong Uan renamed it Thăng Long in 1010.
پالمبانگ Srivijaya انڈونیشیا 600 !c. 600 AD Oldest city in the Malay Archipelago, capital of the Srivijaya empire.
لوانگ پرابانگ Muang Sua لاؤس 600 ! 698 AD[حوالہ درکار]
سیئم ریئپ سلطنت خمیر کمبوڈیا 800 ! 801 AD[22] Capital of the سلطنت خمیر.
Bagan Kingdom of Pagan میانمار 800 ! 849 AD[23]
منیلا Kingdom of Tondo and Kingdom of Maynila فلپائن 900 !900 AD[24] Oldest known settlement in the Philippines as documented by the Laguna Copperplate Inscription; when the Spanish, led by Miguel Lopez de Legazpi, arrived, it was still inhabited and led by at least one datu.
بندر سری بگاوان Kingdom of Po-ni برونائی دار السلام 900 ! 977 AD[25] Oldest city in بورنیو.
بوتوان Kingdom of Butuan فلپائن 1000 ! 1001 AD[26][27] Oldest city in مینداناؤ.
Kediri Kediri Kingdom انڈونیشیا 600 ! 1042 AD[28] Along with changes in name, it is essentially a union of the two capitals of Panjalu Kingdom and Janggala Kingdom. The settlements are always interspersed along both banks of Brantas River. Administratively, the Government of انڈونیشیا divides Kediri into two political entities, Kediri Regency and the Town of Kediri which is located in the middle of the regency. Nevertheless, archaeological remains exist beyond administrative boundaries and settlements often spread disregarding administrative boundaries between both entities.
سنگاپور مملکت سنگاپورہ سنگاپور 1100 ! 1170 AD[29]

Asia, Western[ترمیم]

Continuous habitation since the Chalcolithic (or Copper Age ) is vaguely possible but highly problematic to prove archaeologically for several سرزمین شامine cities (اریحا, جبیل, حلب, دمشق, صیدا and بیروت).

Cities became more common outside the زرخیز ہلال with the آہنی دور from about 1100 BC. The foundation of Rome in 753 BC is conventionally taken as one of the dates initiating Classical Antiquity.[حوالہ درکار]

Name Historical region Location Continuously inhabited as a "city" since Notes
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اربیل بین النہرین Iraqعراقی کردستان, عراق -2300 ! 6000 BC or earlier[30][31] The Citadel of Arbil is a fortified settlement in Erbil, Iraqi Kurdistan. The city corresponds to ancient Arbela. Urban life at Erbil (kurdish: Hewlêr) can be dated back to at least 6000 BC, and it is one of the oldest continuously inhabited cities in the world.
جبیل (Jubayl) سرزمین شام لبنان -5000 ! Chalcolithic (5000 BC or earlier)[32] Settled from the Neolithic (carbon-dating tests have set the age of earliest settlement around 7000[33]), a city since the 3rd millennium BC.[32] Byblos had a reputation as the "oldest city in the world" in Antiquity (according to Philo of Byblos).
Aleppo سرزمین شام شام -4,300 BC ! Chalcolithic (4,300 BC or earlier)[34] Evidence of habitation at the current site of Aleppo dates to about c. 8,000 years ago, although excavations at Tell Qaramel, 25 kilometers north of the city show the area was inhabited about 13,000 years ago,[35] the Temple of Hadad inside the Citadel date to c. 2400 BC.[36]
دمشق سرزمین شام شام -3000 !Chalcolithic Damascus is often claimed to be the oldest continuously inhabited city in the world, and evidence exists of a settlement in the wider Barada basin dating back to 9000 BC. However, within the area of Damascus, there is no evidence for large-scale settlement until the 2nd millennium BC.[37]
Susa (Shush) صوبہ خوزستان ایران -4200 ! 4200 BC Archaeological excavations indicate that the site has been inhabited since at least 5000 BC.[38] The emergence of acropolis in سوسن (شہر) is determined by C14 dating from 4395-3955 BC,[39] roughly dated about 4200 BC as time of foundation.[40] Susa was a large city during Ancient and Medieval periods, but marginalized in 13th century[38] due to Mongol invasion. The city further degraded from 15th century when a majority of its population moved to دزفول and it remained as a small settlement until the 20th century.[41]
صیدا سرزمین شام لبنان -4000 ! 4000 BC[42] There is evidence that Sidon was inhabited from as long ago as 4000 BC, and perhaps, as early as Neolithic times (6000 – 4000 BC).
غازی انتیپ اناطولیہ Turkeyجنوب مشرقی اناطولیہ علاقہ, ترکی -3650 ! c. 3650 BC[43] Although most modern scholars place the Classical Antiochia ad Taurum at Gaziantep, some maintain that it was located at Aleppo. Furthermore, that the two cities occupy the same site is far from established fact.[44] Assuming this to be the case, the founding date of the present site would be about 1000 BC.[45]
اریحا سرزمین شام مغربی کنارہ -3000 ! Chalcolithic (3000 BC or earlier) Traces of habitation from 9000 BC.[46][47] Fortifications date to 6800 BC (or earlier), making Jericho the earliest known walled city.[48]

Archaeological evidence indicates that the city was destroyed and abandoned several times (sometimes remaining uninhabited for hundreds of years at a time), with later rebuilding and expansion.[49][50]

Rey ماد ایران -3000 ! 3000 BC[51] A settlement at the site goes back to the 3rd millennium BC. Rey (also Ray or Rayy) is mentioned in the اوستا (an important text of prayers in زرتشتیت) as a sacred place, and it is also featured in the کتاب طوبیاہ.[51]
بیروت سرزمین شام لبنان -3000 ! 3000 BC[52]
Jerusalem (Old City) سرزمین شام مغربی کنارہ -2800 ! 2800 BC[53]
Tyre سرزمین شام لبنان -2750 ! 2750 BC[54]
جنین، مغربی کنارہ سرزمین شام مغربی کنارہ -2450 ! c. 2450 BC[55] Jenin's history goes back to 2450 BC, when it was built by the کنعان. After 1244, Jenin flourished economically because of its location on the trade route, until a major earthquake completely destroyed the city.[56]
کرکوک (as Arrapha) بین النہرین Iraqمحافظہ کرکوک, Iraq -2200 ! 3000–2200 BC[57]
یافا سرزمین شام اسرائیل -2000 ! c. 2000 BC Archaeological evidence shows habitation from 7500 BC.[58]
الخلیل سرزمین شام مغربی کنارہ -1500 ! c. 1500 BC "Hebron is considered one of the oldest cities and has been continuously inhabited for nearly 3500 years."[59]
Gaza سرزمین شام غزہ پٹی -1000 ! c. 1000 BC While evidence of habitation dates back at least 5,000 years, it is said to be continuously inhabited for a little more than 3,000 years.[60][61]
ہمدان (as ہگمتانہ) ماد ایران -800 ! c. 800 BC[62]
نابلس (as سکم، مقام بائبل) سرزمین شام مغربی کنارہ -100 ! c. 100 Nablus is a کنعانite city. It was inhabited since the 4th millennium BC. In 724 BC it has been ruined by Assyria and after revival in the 3rd and 2nd centuries, it has been finally destroyed by the Hasmonean Hyrcanus in 128 BC. 200 years later the new Roman city was founded next to the ruined settlement.[63]
عمان (شہر)
(as عمان (شہر))
سرزمین شام اردن 1878 ! c. 1878 Amman has been inhabited by several civilizations. The first civilization on record is during the جدید زمانہ پتھر period, around 7500 BC, when archaeological discoveries in 'Ain Ghazal. It was then destroyed by several earthquakes and natural disasters in the Middle Ages, and remained a small village and a pile of ruins for about 500 years, until the چیرکاسیاn settlement in 1878.[64]

Europe[ترمیم]

Name Historical region Location Continuously inhabited since Notes
!a !a !a −9e99
~z ~z ~z 9e99
Amesbury جدید زمانہ پتھر, جزیرہ برطانیہ عظمی UK (England) -8000 !8th millennium BC. Continuously inhabited settlement, for the past 10,800 years,[65][66]
Provadia جدید زمانہ پتھر, Danubian Plain Bulgaria -4700 !4700 BC. Solnitsata, the oldest town in Europe was estabilished in 4700 BC[67][68][69]
آرگوس جدید زمانہ پتھر, Mycenaean Greece Greece -5000 !5th millennium BC. Continuously inhabited mostly as an urban settlement, for the past 7,000 years,[70] historical, recorded history since second half of 1st millennium BC.
ایتھنز Neolithic, Mycenaean Greece Greعتیقیہ, Greece -4500 !5th–4th Millennium BC[71][صفحہ درکار] Earliest human presence 11th–7th millennium BC,[72] recorded history begins in 1400 BC.
پلوودیف تھریس Bulپلوودیف صوبہ, بلغاریہ -3000 !3000[73] – 4000 BC[74][75] Thracian foundation. Earliest evidence of a settlement dates back to 6000 BC.[76][77]
کوتائیسی Colchis ایمرتی province, Georgia -2000 !c. 2000 BC Founded as Aia. Archeological evidence indicates that the city functioned as the capital of the kingdom of Colchis as early as the 2nd millennium BC. It is widely believed by historians that when Apollonius Rhodius was writing about جاسن and the آرگوناٹ and their legendary journey to Colchis, Kutaisi/Aia was the final destination of the Argonauts and the residence of King Aeëtes.
خانیا کریٹ Greکریٹ, Greece -1400 !c. 1400 BC مینوسی تہذیب foundation as کیدونیا
لارناکا Alashiya قبرص -1400 !c. 1400 BC Mycenaean, then فونیقیn colony
تھیبیس، یونان Mycenaean Greece Greبوتیہ, Greece -1400 !c. 1400 BC Mycenaean foundation
تریکالا Mycenaean Greece Greثیسالیا, Greece -1201 !before 1200 BC founded as Trikke
خالسیس Mycenaean Greece Greece -1201 !before 1200 BC mentioned by ہومر
لزبن Iron Age Iberia Portugal -1200 !c. 1200 BC A settlement since the جدید زمانہ پتھر. Allis Ubbo, arguably a فونیقیn name, became Olissipo(-nis) in Greek and لاطینی زبان (also Felicitas Julia after Roman conquest in 205 BC).
کادیز Iron Age Iberia Spaاندلوسیا, Spain -1100 !1100 BC founded as فونیقیn Gadir, "Europe's oldest city"[78][79]
پاتراس Mycenaean Greece Greece -1100 !c. 1100 BC founded by Patreus
متسختا Caucasian Iberia Georgia 1000 !c. 1000 BC Remains of towns at this location have been dated to earlier than the year 1000 BC, and Mtskheta was capital of the early Georgian Kingdom of Iberia during the 3rd century BC – 5th century AD. It was the site of early Christian activity, and the location where Christianity was proclaimed the state religion of Georgia in 337.
Mytilene Lesbos Greشمالی ایجیئن, Greece -950 !10th century BC
Chios خیوس Greشمالی ایجیئن, Greece -1100 !c. 1100 BC
یریوان Urartu آرمینیا -800 ! 782 BC [80] Founded as Erebuni. The Shengavit Settlement in the southwestern district of Yerevan was founded in the late 4th millennium BC, during the Calcolithic period.
اشبیلیہ Iron Age Iberia Spa اندلوسیا, Spain -750 ! 8th century BC founded as Tartessian Spal.[81]
مالقہ Iron Age Iberia Spa اندلوسیا, Spain -750 ! 8th century BC founded as فونیقیn Malaka.[82]
کالیاری ساردینیا Itaساردینیا, Italy -750 ! 8th century BC Founded by فونیقیns from Tyre as Krly, Caralis in roman times, Callaris in middle ages.
روم Latium Itaلاتزیو, Italy -753 !753 BC Continuous habitation since approximately 1000 BC.; pastoral village on the northern part of the Palatine Hill dated to the 9th century BC; see also History of Rome and Founding of Rome.
میسینا (as Zancle) صقلیہ Itaصقلیہ -750 !8th century BC
Reggio di Calabria (as Rhégion) Magna Graecia Itaکلابریا, Italy -743 !743 BC[83] Continuous habitation since approximately 1500 BC, as we have notice about the Ausonian-Italic pre-Greek settlement and about the sculptor Léarchos of Reggio (early 15th century BC)[83] and King Iokastos (late 13th century BC).[83]
Syracuse صقلیہ Itaصقلیہ, Italy -734 !734 BC A colony of the Greek city of کورینتھ
وولتیرا تسکانہ Itaتسکانہ, Italy -725 !c. 725 BC An Etruscan mining settlement [84]
کروتونے (as Kroton) کلابریا ItaMagna Graecia, Italy -710 !710 BC
تارانتو (as Taras) Magna Graecia Itaپلیہ, Italy -706 !706 BC
Corfu, Kerkyra کورفو Greایونی جزائر, Greece -700 !700 BC
ناپولی Magna Graecia Italy -680 !c. 680 BC[85] Actually the date at which an older settlement close by, called Parthenope, was founded by settlers from Cumae. This eventually merged with Neapolis proper, which was founded c. 470 BC.
استنبول/Byzantion تھریس اناطولیہ ترکی -667 ! 685 BC Anatolia
667 BC Thrace
Neolithic site dated to 6400 BC, over port of Lygos by Thracians c. 1150 BC
دراج Illyria البانیا -627 !627 BC Founded[86] by settlers from کورفو & کورینتھ as Epidamnos
Kerch جزیرہ نما کریمیا روس/یوکرین -600 !7th century BC
Feodosiya (as Theodosia) جزیرہ نما کریمیا روس/یوکرین -600 !7th century BC
ایدیسا، یونان Macedonia Greece -601 !before the 6th century BC capital of Macedonia up to 6th century BC
مارسیلز (as Massilia) گول علاقہ France -600 !600 BC A colony of the Greek city of Phocaea
وارنا تھریس BulBulgarian Black Sea Coast, بلغاریہ -570 !585 BC – 570 BC founded[87] as Odessos by settlers from تھیلز
Sant Martí d'Empúries (as Emporion) جزیرہ نما آئبیریا کاتالونیا, Spain -575 !ca. 575 BC A colony of the Greek city of Phocaea. Present Sant Martí is on the ancient Palaiopolis of Emporion, in an island next to the coast; in 550 BC, the inhabitants moved to the mainland, creating the Neapolis: Palaiapolis remained as a small neighbourhood.
کاوالا Macedonia Greece -550 !6th century BC founded as Neapolis
Mangalia Dacia رومانیہ -550 !6th century BC founded as Callatis
کونستانتسا Dacia رومانیہ -550 !6th century BC founded as Tomis
مانتووا Po Valley Itaلومباردیہ, Italy -550 !6th century BC Village settlement since c. 2000 BC; became an Etruscan city in the 6th century BC.
Bilhorod-Dnistrovskyi Bessarabia یوکرین -550 !6th century BC founded as Tyras
سیرس Macedonia Greece -450 !5th century BC first mentioned in the 5th century BC as Siris
Lamia Greece Greece -501 !before the 5th century BC first mentioned 424 BC
ویروئا Macedonia Greece -432 !c. 432 BC first mentioned by تھوسی ڈائڈز in 432 BC
Rhodes رودوش, بحیرہ ایجیئن Greجزائر دؤدیکانیز, Greece -408 !c. 408 BC
صوفیہ Moesia BulSofia Valley, بلغاریہ -350 !4th century BC کیلٹ foundation as Serdica.[88]
میتز گول علاقہ France -350 !4th century BC founded as the oppidum of کیلٹ Mediomatrici. However, Human permanent presence has been established in the site since 2500 BC.
Roses (as Rhode) جزیرہ نما آئبیریا Spaکاتالونیا, Spain -350 !4th century BC The exactly origin of the city is unknown, but there are remains of a Greek colony from the 4th century BC, although some historians consider the foundation earlier, at the 8th century BC. However, permanent human presence has been established in the site since 3000 BC as evidenced by the different megalithic monuments surrounding the city.
قابالا (as Kabalaka) Caucasian Albania آذربائیجان -350 !4th century BC Archeological evidence indicates that the city functioned as the capital of the Caucasian Albania as early as the 4th century BC.[89]
ستارا زاگورا تھریس بلغاریہ -342 !342 BC It was called Beroe in ancient times and was founded by فلپ دوم مقدونی[90][91][92][93] although a Thracian settlement neolithic inhabitation have been discovered as well.
تھیسالونیکی مقدونیہ (قدیم مملکت) Greece -315 !315 BC founded as a new city in the same place of the older city Therme.
بیرات مقدونیہ (قدیم مملکت) البانیا -314 !314 BC Founded[94] by Cassander as بیرات
ووکووار Illyria کرویئشا 3500 BC3500 BC Vučedol culture
زغرب Illyria کرویئشا 1 st century1 st century In the region of today's Zagreb, Romans founded the city Andautonia.
بلغراد Illyria سربیا -279 !279 BC Vinča culture prospered around Belgrade in the 6th millennium BC. Founded as Singidunum.
نیش Illyria سربیا -279 !279 BC Founded as Navissos. Neolithic settlements date to 5000–2000 BC.
Cartagena (as Carthago Nova) جزیرہ نما آئبیریا Spain -228 !228 BC Carthaginian colony, founded by Hasdrubal Barca
Barcelona (as Barcino) جزیرہ نما آئبیریا Spaکاتالونیا, Spain -250 !3rd century BC Unknown origin. Several neolithics tombs (5000-4500 BC) and remains from the Iberian period have been found, as well as several drachma coins inscribed with the word "Barkeno". There is also a hypothesis about a small Greek settlement called Kallípolis to have existed in the area. However, the first archaeological remains of buildings are from the Roman period.
تاریگؤنا (as Tarraco) جزیرہ نما آئبیریا Spaکاتالونیا, Spain -250 !218 BC Roman colony, founded by Gnaeus and Publius Cornelius Scipio
Stobi/Gradsko Macedonia جمہوریہ مقدونیہ -217 !217 BC founded as Stobi by Philip V of Macedon
سرمسکا میترووتسا Illyria سربیا -50 !1st century BC Founded as Sirmium. Neolithic settlements date to 5000 BC and are with other archeological findings evidence to continuous habitation.
سمیدیریوو Illyria سربیا -50 !1st century BC Founded as Semendria.
لیوبلیانا اطالیہ سلووینیا 50 BC !50 BC Area first settled by people living in pile dwellings around 2000 BC. Around 50 BC, the Romans built a military encampment that later became a permanent settlement called Iulia Aemona.
Ptuj Pannonia سلووینیا 1st century BC !1st century BC Ptuj is the oldest city in Slovenia. There is evidence that the area was settled in the Stone Age. In the Late Iron Age it was settled by Celts. By the 1st century BC, the settlement was controlled by Ancient Rome.
Évora Lusitania Portugal -53 !53 BC (Roman conquest) Evidence of Lusitanian settlement prior to Roman occupation.
پیرس Lutetia France -52 !52 BC Archaeological evidence indicates human habitation as early as 4200 BC.[95] During the Gallic Wars, Caesar's armies set fire to Lutetia "a town of the Parisii, situated on an island on the river Seine."[96] While only a garrison at best on the Île de la Cité during some periods after 1st and 2nd century, was renamed Paris in 360 AD[97][98]
زیورخ (Lindenhof) گول علاقہ Switzerland -50 !c. 50 BC lakeside settlement traces dating to the Neolithic.
ترئیر Gallia Belgica Germany -30 !30 BC Oldest city in Germany.
نیمیخن Germania Inferior Netherlands -19 !19 BC Oldest city in the Netherlands.
کؤر Raetia Prima Swiگراوبوندن, Switzerland -15 !15 BC habitation since the 4th millennium BC (Pfyn culture).
Worms Germania Superior Germany -14 ! 14 BC The name of the city derives from the Latin designation Borbetomagus which is of Celtic origin.
Tongeren Germania Inferior Belgium -10 !10 BC Oldest city in Belgium.
زولوتورن گول علاقہ Switzerland 20 !c. 20 AD Evidence of pre-Roman, Celtic settlement; newly founded by the Romans between 14 and 37 AD, called the "oldest city in Gaul besides Trier" in a verse on the city's clock tower.
لندن (as لوندینیوم) رومی برطانیہ UK (England) 43 !43 AD Archaeological evidence near Vauxhall Bridge indicates that the wider area has been occupied for at least 3,500 years.[99]
Bath (as Aquae Sulis) رومی برطانیہ UK (England) 43 !43 AD The city was established as a spa town by the قدیم روم in 43 AD[100]
کولون (علاقہ) Germania Inferior Germany 50 ! 50 AD Founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, a Germanic tribe, as Oppidum Ubiorum. In 50 AD, the Romans adopted the location as Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium and the city became in 85 AD the capital of the Roman province.
ونچیسٹر (as Venta Belgarum) رومی برطانیہ UK (England) 70 !c. 70 AD Winchester was built as a Roman town in c. 70 AD.[101]
یورک (as ایبروراکوم) رومی برطانیہ UK (England) 72 !c. 72 AD The city was founded in or around AD 72 when the 9th Roman Legion set up camp there.[102]
اسکوپیہ Macedonia (Roman province) جمہوریہ مقدونیہ 96 !81–96 AD Founded in the time of دومیتیان as Scupi.
نووی ساد Illyria سربیا 50 !1st century AD Founded as Cusum.
باکو آذربائیجان Absheron peninsula The 1st century AD. The first written evidence for Baku dates to the 1st century AD.[103]
وردون Lotharingia France 350 !4th century seat of the bishop of Verdun from the 4th century, but populated earlier.
کیف Medieval East Slavic civilization یوکرین 482 !482 AD Founded by Slavic tribe leader Kyi. Some sources suggest Kiev was founded in 640 BC.
تبلیسی Caucasian Iberia Kartli province, Georgia 500 !c. 500 According to the widely accepted legend the city was founded by King Vakhtang I Gorgasali of Georgia. New archaeological studies of the region have revealed that the territory of Tbilisi was settled by humans as early as the 4th millennium BC. The earliest actual (recorded) accounts of settlement of the location come from the 4th century, when a fortress was built during King Varaz-Bakur's reign.
ابرڈین Pictland UK (Scotland) 580 !c. 580 A settlement was established by c. 580 when records show the city's first church was built then. However, there is archaeological evidence of settlements in the area dating back to 6000BC.[104]
ایڈنبرا as Din Eidyn Gododdin UK (Scotland) 580 !c. 580 Edinburgh is mention as a settlement in the poem Y Gododdin, traditionally dated to the around the late 6th and early 7th century.[105] The Poem uses The Brythonic name Din Eidyn (Fort of Eidyn) for Edinburgh and describes it as the capital of Gododdin. It is not until around 638 that the city starts being referred to as Edin-burh or Edinburgh, after the city was conquered by the Angles of Bernicia[106]
پراگ بوہیمیا Czech Republic 550 !c. 6th century The first written record dates back to the 10th century.
اینورنس Pictland UK (Scotland) 550 !c. 6th century A settlement was established by the 6th century when St Columba visited the Pictish King Brude at his fortress there.[107]
گلاسگو Dál Riata or Alt Clut UK (Scotland) 550 !c. 6th century A settlement was founded in the 6th century[108] by St Mungo, who is the city's patron Saint.[109]
ایونیا بازنطینی سلطنت Greece 565 !527–565 founded by emperor جسٹینین اول
کراکوف (Wawel Hill) Lesser Poland Poland 650 !7th century[110] The first written record dates back to the 10th century.
آرہس Denmark 700 !c. 770[حوالہ درکار]
Ribe Jutland ڈنمارک 710 ! 704–710 [111] Oldest town in Denmark
Staraya Ladoga Russia 753 !753
ایراکلیون کریٹ Greece 824 !824 founded by the Saracens
ڈبلن Ireland IreIreland 841 !841 Dublin was founded as a city by the وائى كنگ in the 9th century, but there were two older Irish settlements which existed on the same spot several centuries before they arrived; Áth Cliath ("ford of hurdles") and Duiblinn ("Black Pool").
ویلیکی نووگورود Russia 859 !859
پولوتسک Belarus 862 !862
ریکیاوک آئس لینڈ آئس لینڈ 871 !c. 871[112]
کسانتھی تھریس Greece 878 !before 879 first medieval reference as Xantheia
ویٹبسک Belarus 947 !947
Skara Sweden 988 !988
لونڈ Denmark Sweden 990 !c. 990[113]
ترونہائیم ناروے ناروے 997 !997 Founded by king Olav Tryggvason. Archaeological findings of city settlement back to the 8th century.

اوشیانہ[ترمیم]

نام تاریخی علاقہ مقام جب سے مسلسل آباد ہے نوٹس
!a !a !a −9e99
~z ~z ~z 9e99
تیرنات شہر Sultanate of Ternate انڈونیشیا 1100 ! 1109 AD[114] Twin of Tidore, oldest surviving Papuan cities.
تیدور Sultanate of Tidore انڈونیشیا 1100 ! 1109 AD[114] Twin of Ternate, oldest surviving Papuan cities.
سڈنی نیو ساؤتھ ویلز آسٹریلیا 1788 آسٹریلیا اور اوشیانہ کا قدیم ترین شہر،آسٹریلیا کا دارالحکومتl
ہوبارٹ تسمانیا Australia 1803 Second oldest city in Australia, State Capital
Newcastle New South Wales Australia 1804 Third oldest city in Australia
Launceston Tasmania Australia 1806 Fourth oldest city in Australia
Kerikeri Northland نیوزی لینڈ 1818 !c. 1818 Oldest European settlement in New Zealand
برسبین کوئنزلینڈ Australia 1825 Fifth oldest city in Australia, State Capital
Albany مغربی آسٹریلیا Australia 1827 Oldest city in the West Coast of Australia
پرتھ Western Australia Australia 1829 State Capital
ملبورن Victoria Australia 1835 State Capital
ایڈیلیڈ جنوبی آسٹریلیا Australia 1836 State Capital
Darwin شمالی علاقہ (آسٹریلیا) Australia 1869 State Capital
کینبرا آسٹریلوی دارالحکومت علاقہ Australia 1913 Capital city of Australia

مزید دیکھیے[ترمیم]

حوالہ جات[ترمیم]

  1. Overy et al. (1999:43); Aldred (1998:42,44)
  2. "Archaeological Site of Carthage - UNESCO World Heritage Centre"۔ Whc.unesco.org۔ مورخہ 25 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2013-01-19۔
  3. David W. Phillipson, Ancient Churches of Ethiopia (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2009), p. 36
  4. James Hingston Tuckey, Maritime geography and statistics, or A description of the ocean and its coasts, maritime commerce, navigation, &c, (Printed for Black, Parry, and Co.: 1815), p.30.
  5. "Historic cities - Africa"۔ City Mayors۔ مورخہ 25 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2013-01-19۔
  6. McIntosh، Susan Keech; McIntosh، Roderick J.. Jenne-jeno, an ancient African city. Rice University Anthropology. http://anthropology.rice.edu/Content.aspx?id=500 
  7. "Ghadames"۔ Archnet.org۔ مورخہ 25 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2013-01-19۔
  8. "Fort Babylon In Cairo"۔ Touregypt.net۔ مورخہ 25 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2013-01-19۔
  9. Lee V. Cassanelli, The shaping of Somali society: reconstructing the history of a pastoral people, 1600-1900, (University of Pennsylvania Press: 1982), p.75.
  10. "Fes". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2007. Britannica Concise Encyclopedia. 3 March 2007
  11. "Embassy of The Kingdom of Morocco in London"۔ Moroccanembassylondon.org.uk۔ مورخہ 25 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2013-01-19۔
  12. "Ife (from ca. 350 B.C.) | Thematic Essay | Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History | The Metropolitan Museum of Art"۔ Metmuseum.org۔ مورخہ 25 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2013-01-19۔
  13. "Lamu Old Town - UNESCO World Heritage Centre"۔ Whc.unesco.org۔ مورخہ 25 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2013-01-19۔
  14. Santa Fe, New Mexico, which is sometimes cited for this, was abandoned due to Indian raiding from 1680 to 1692, and its inhabitants did not succeed in living in the area continuously until after 1692.
  15. Kelly Hearn, "Ancient Temple Discovered Among Inca Ruins", National Geographic News, 31 March 2008, accessed 12 January 2010
  16. Vidula Jayaswal۔ Ancient Varanasi: an archaeological perspective (excavations at Aktha)۔ Aryan Books International۔ صفحہ 205۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-81-7305-355-9۔ مورخہ 25 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 31 اکتوبر 2012۔ [R]emains of Period I at Aktha which have been dated to circa twelfth/eleventh century BC is [sic] so far the earliest known archaeological horizon of Varanasi area.
  17. Indiasite.com
  18. Irows.ucr.edu
  19. "Pataliputra"۔ Encyclopædia Britannica۔ مورخہ 25 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 30 جنوری 2011۔
  20. World-archaeology.com
  21. Prof. Sirajul Islam۔ "Pundranagara"۔ Banglapedia۔ مورخہ 25 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2013-01-19۔
  22. "Angkor National Museum website"۔ Angkornationalmuseum.com۔ مورخہ 25 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2011-01-31۔
  23. http://www.economist.com/news/special-report/21578171-why-investors-still-need-proceed-caution-promiseand-pitfalls Business: The promise—and the pitfalls
  24. "Expert on past dies; 82"۔ Philippine Daily Inquirer۔ مورخہ 25 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2008-11-17۔
  25. History for Brunei۔ History for Brunei Darussalam: Sharing our Past۔ Curriculum Development Department, Ministry of Education۔ آئی ایس بی این 99917-2-372-2۔
  26. "Timeline of history"۔ مورخہ 25 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2009-10-09۔
  27. Scott, William Prehispanic Source Materials: For the Study of Philippine History, p. 66
  28. Nigel Bullough۔ Mujiyono PH, ویکی نویس.۔ Historic East Java: Remains in Stone۔ Jakarta: ADLine Communications۔ صفحہ 19۔
  29. Haji Ismail Abdul Rahman؛ Ghazali Abdullah Zakaria؛ Abdul Rahman Zulkanain، A New Date on the Establishment of Melaka Malay Sultanate Discovered (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)، Institut Kajian Sejarah dan Patriotisme ( Institute of Historical Research and Patriotism )، اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2012-11-04
  30. Lexic Orient
  31. "Revitalization Project of Erbil Citadel"۔ UNESCO۔ UNESCO۔ مورخہ 25 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2014-10-16۔
  32. ^ ا ب Michael Dumper؛ Bruce E. Stanley؛ Janet L. Abu-Lughod۔ Cities of the Middle East and North Africa۔ ABC-CLIO۔ صفحہ 104۔ آئی ایس بی این 1-57607-919-8۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2009-07-22۔ Archaeological excavations at Byblos indicate that the site has been continually inhabited since at least 5000 B.C.
  33. Antonia Ciasca۔ "Phoenicia"۔ بہ Sabatino Moscati۔ The Phoenicians۔ I.B.Tauris۔ صفحہ 170۔ آئی ایس بی این 1-85043-533-2۔
  34. [1], Aleppo - telegraph.co.uk
  35. [2], tell qaramel
  36. [3], hadad temple
  37. Ross Burns۔ Damascus: A History۔ Routledge۔ صفحہ 2۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-415-41317-6۔
  38. ^ ا ب Jona Lendering۔ "Susa"۔ Livius۔ Amsterdam۔ مورخہ 25 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔
  39. Daniel T. Potts۔ Archaeology of Elam: Formation and Transformation of an Ancient Iranian State۔ Cambridge; New York: Cambridge University Press۔ صفحات 45–46۔ آئی ایس بی این 9780521564960۔ او سی ایل سی 51240487۔ مورخہ 25 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔
  40. Paul A. Tucci, Mathew T. Rosenberg۔ Handy Geography Answer Book۔ Detroit: Visible Ink Press۔ صفحہ 92۔ آئی ایس بی این 9781578592159۔ او سی ایل سی 262886502۔ مورخہ 25 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔
  41. M. Streck, Clifford Edmund Bosworth۔ دائرۃ المعارف الاسلامیہ, San-Sze۔ Leiden: Brill۔ صفحات 898–899۔ آئی ایس بی این 9789004104228۔
  42. Sidon
  43. The world's oldest cities, telegraph.co.uk
  44. Gaziantep
  45. Gaziantep
  46. Charles Gates۔ "Near Eastern, Egyptian, and Aegean Cities"۔ Ancient Cities: The Archaeology of Urban Life in the Ancient Near East and Egypt, Greece and Rome۔ Routledge۔ صفحہ 18۔ آئی ایس بی این 0-415-01895-1۔ Jericho, in the Jordan River Valley in Israel, inhabited from ca. 9000 BC to the present day, offers important evidence for the earliest permanent settlements in the Near East.
  47. Hazel Mary Martell۔ "The Fertile Crescent"۔ The Kingfisher Book of the Ancient World: From the Ice Age to the Fall of Rome۔ Kingfisher Publications۔ صفحہ 18۔ آئی ایس بی این 0-7534-5397-5۔ People first settled there from around 9000 B.C., and by 8000 B.C., the community was organized enough to build a stone wall to defend the city.
  48. Michal Strutin, Discovering Natural Israel (2001), p. 4.
  49. Donald P. Ryan۔ "Digging up the Bible"۔ The Complete Idiot's Guide to Lost Civilizations۔ Alpha Books۔ صفحہ 137۔ آئی ایس بی این 0-02-862954-X۔ The city was walled during much of its history and the evidence indicates that it was abandoned several times, and later expanded and rebuilt several times.
  50. Kenneth Kitchen, "On the Reliability of the Old Testament" (Eerdmans 2003), pp.187
  51. ^ ا ب "Rayy", Encyclopædia Britannica
  52. Under Beirut's Rubble, Remnants of 5,000 Years of Civilization
  53. David Noel Freedman۔ Eerdmans Dictionary of the Bible۔ Wm B. Eerdmans Publishing۔ صفحات 694–695۔ آئی ایس بی این 0-8028-2400-5۔ |access-date= requires |url= (معاونت)
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