غیر تسلیم شدہ تاریخی ریاستوں کی فہرست
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یہ فہرست تاریخی غیر تسلیم شدہ ریاستیں ہے۔
تاریخی غیر تسلیم شدہ یا جزوی تسلیم شدہ ریاستیں جنہیں اپنے علاقے پر درحقیقت اختیار تھا[ترمیم]
|Republic of Acre||1899–1903||اب حصہ برازیل||A trio of attempts to free Acre from Bolivia. Each attempt was defeated, but part of Acre was turned over to Brazilian control after the final attempt.|
|Republic of Airrecú||1993||اب حصہ نکاراگوا||Relations between کوسٹاریکا and نکاراگوا have traditionally been strained. This situation was not improved when the Costa Rican government granted land rights to settlers along the San Juan River, which forms part of the border between Costa Rica and Nicaragua. A dispute ended with Costa Rica acknowledging that the territory in fact belonged to Nicaragua, and promising to remove the settlers. The settlers, however, refused to leave. In June 1993, they declared their independence as the Republic of Airrecú, which means "friendship" in a local Indian language. The Nicaraguan Army immediately descended upon the area and escorted the Republic into Costa Rica.|
|Republic of Anguilla||1967–1969||Now a برطانوی سمندر پار علاقے||Created due to opposition to a union with modern سینٹ کیٹز و ناویس. It ceased to exist after being occupied by the برطانوی فوج.|
|Alabama Republic||1861||Now حصہ the United States||Secessionist republic declared January 11, 1861 when Alabama seceded from the United States. It only lasted a month before being a founding member of the Confederate States of America.|
|Kingdom of Araucanía and Patagonia||1860–1862||اب حصہ ارجنٹائن and چلی||Set up by a French adventurer who tried to gain legitimacy for his state only to be denied. The self-proclaimed kingdom was mostly a legal fiction and did only loosely controlled a small portion of the territory of it claimed. In fact the Mapuche warlords that submitted to it were totally autonomous, and used the kingdom only as pretext to obtain foreign support. It was conquered and partitioned by Chile and Argentina.|
|جمہوریہ باجا کیلیفورنیا||1853–1854||اب حصہ میکسیکو||The filibuster William Walker took control of La Paz, the capital of the sparsely populated Baja California, and 200 more men joined him. Walker declared La Paz the capital of a new Republic of Baja California, with himself as president and a constitution copied from that of لوویزیانا. Although he never gained control of سونورا, less than three months later, he pronounced Baja California part of the larger Republic of Sonora.|
|Republic of Sonora||1854||اب حصہ میکسیکو||A lesser to William Walker's جمہوریہ باجا کیلیفورنیا, it was a merger between that and سونورا.|
|California Republic||1846||اب حصہ ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکا||Formed during an Anglo-American revolt in Mexican California during the Mexican-American War. This "state" never actually possessed a high level of organization, and was only in existence for a matter of weeks before the rebels deferred to the US government and American troops.|
|Confederate States of America||1861–1865||اب حصہ ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکا||Originally formed by seven states (جنوبی کیرولائنا, مسیسپی, فلوریڈا, الاباما, Georgia, ٹیکساس, and لوویزیانا). After the امریکی خانہ جنگی began, the states of ورجینیا, ٹینیسی, آرکنساس, and شمالی کیرولائنا joined. Though not recognized as a sovereign nation, the Confederacy was recognized by some nations as a "belligerent power". Reintegrated into the United States.|
|Republic of Florida||1861||اب حصہ United States||Secessionist state established January 10, 1861, when Florida seceded from the United States. Only lasted a month before being a founding member of the Confederate States of America.|
|Republic of Independent Guyana||1886–1891||حصہ اماپا, برازیل||Established by French settlers in defiance of both France and Brazil|
|Republic of Indian Stream||1832–1835||اب حصہ ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکا||Annexed by the United States. Within the state of نیو ہیمپشائر.|
|Juliana Republic||1839||حصہ برازیل||Today's سانتا کاتارینا (ریاست)|
|Republic of Los Altos||1837–1840, 1847||اب حصہ گواتیمالا||The United Provinces of Central America were riven by strife for much of their existence. گواتیمالا’s ruling class was appalled by the thought of an illiterate and brutish peasant Governor Rafael Carrera, and led the six western provinces into secession. The new state of Los Altos, under Liberal leadership, appealed for recognition to the UPCA. In January of 1840, Carrera reconquered Los Altos, and then defeated the UPCA’s army in March, sounding the death knell for the United Provinces. Los Altos rebelled again when Carrera declared گواتیمالا an independent republic in 1847, but was again rapidly crushed.|
|Republic of Louisiana||1861||اب حصہ United States||Secessionist state formed on January 11, 1861 when Louisiana seceded from the United States. It only lasted two and a half weeks before joining the Confederate States of America on February 8, 1861.|
|Republic of Madawaska||1827–1842||Now divided between کینیڈا and the ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکا||Within the provinces of نیو برنزویک and کیوبیک and the state of مینے|
|Republic of Manitobah||1867–1869||اب حصہ کینیڈا||Within the province of مانیٹوبا|
|Republic of Mississippi||1861||اب حصہ United States||Secessionist state established January 9, 1861 when Mississippi seceded from the United States. It only lasted a month before joining the Confederate States of America|
|State of Muskogee||1799–1802||حصہ the ریاستہائے متحدہ امریکا||A ریاستہائے متحدہ میں مقامی امریکی state in فلوریڈا; consisted of several tribes of Creeks and Seminoles. Annexed by the United States.|
|Piratini Republic||1836–1845||حصہ Brazil||Today's جنوبی ریو گرانڈی|
|Republic of the Río Grande||1840||اب حصہ United States and Mexico||Consisted part of southern ٹیکساس and the 3 Mexican states of كواہويلا, نیوو لیون and تاماولیپاس|
|Republic of South Carolina||1860-61||اب حصہ United States||Secessionist state established on December 20, 1860 when South Carolina became the first state to secede from the United States. It lasted a month and a half before being a founding member of the Confederate States of America|
|Republic of South Haiti||1810||اب حصہ Haiti||Haiti declared its independence in 1804 under Jean Jacques Dessalines. That same year, Dessalines declared himself Emperor. After his assassination in 1806, Haiti was divided between the Republic of ہیٹی in the south and the Kingdom of ہیٹی, under Henry Christophe, in the north. The situation was further complicated by the secession of South Haiti in the southwest corner of the country under André Rigaud in 1810. His own republic contained the former Maroon enclave of La Grande'Anse under Goman, who was allied with King Henry. A few months after Rigaud seized power, he died, and South Haiti rejoined the Republic. In 1820, Henry Christophe committed suicide. ہیٹی was reunited soon afterwards.|
|1836–1839||اب حصہ Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay, Ecuador and Peru||The Peru–Bolivian Confederation (or Confederacy) was a confederate state that existed in South America between 1836 and 1839. Its first and only head of state, titled "Supreme Protector", was the Bolivian president, Marshal Andrés de Santa Cruz. The confederation was a loose union between the states of پیرو (by this time divided into a Republic of North Peru and a Republic of South Peru, which included the capital تاکنا) and بولیویا.|
|Republic of Texas||1861||اب حصہ United States||Texas seceded from the United States on February 1, 1861 and lasted as an independent state for a month before joining the Confederate States of America.
Not to be confused with the earlier (1836–1845), partially recognized جمہویہ ٹیکساس.
|Principality of Trinidad||1893–1895||حصہ Brazil||American James Harden-Hickey divorced his wife in 1893 (1894?) and announced his intention to move to India and take up a life of Hindu asceticism. On the trip there, a storm forced his ship aground on the island of Trinidad (no relation to the Caribbean Trinidad) in the South Atlantic. Seeing that the island was uninhabited, Harden-Hickey declared himself Prince James I of Trinidad and advertised for settlers in the London Times. The following year, the برطانیہ annexed the island in order to anchor a transatlantic telegraph cable. Prince James was encouraged, hoping that the cable would bring the attention he needed to start his reign. However, the plan was scrapped and برازیل annexed the island again in 1897.|
|Vermont Republic||1777–1791||اب حصہ United States||Became the State of ورمونٹ|
|Watauga Association||1772–1778||اب حصہ United States||Annexed into the State of شمالی کیرولائنا|
|Free and Independent Republic of West Florida||1810||اب حصہ United States||Republic consisting of parts of لوویزیانا, مسیسپی and الاباما. Annexed during the presidency of جیمز میڈیسن.|
|سانچہ:Country data Republic of Yucatán||1841–1843 & 1846–1848||حصہ Mexico||A state from 1841 to 1848, it was proclaimed after the Mexican government tried to centralize and tried to join the US during the Mexican-American War it was rejected and joined a federal Mexico after the war ended. A revolt in یوکتان in 1916, led by Felipe Cerillo but with active Mayan involvement, effectively separated the region from the weak Mexican state. On 3 April 1916 Carillo declared the independence of the Socialist Republic of Yucatan, but the Republic failed to garner much support, and was quickly overrun by Mexican forces.|
|23x15px Sultanate of Aceh||1874–1904||اب حصہ انڈونیشیا||A سلطانate in modern Indonesia it was later conquered by the Dutch after four hundred years.|
|الاش خود مختاری||1917–1920||اب حصہ قازقستان and کرغیزستان||درحقیقت self-governing autonomous region.|
|جمہوریہ ارارات||1927–1930||اب حصہ ترکی||One of the first Kurdish republics in history, founded in صوبہ آغری, Turkey.|
|23x15px Republic of Aras||1918–1919||اب حصہ آذربائیجان||Established during the روسی خانہ جنگی, this state only lasted several months.|
|Azerbaijan People's Government||1945–1946||اب حصہ ایران||Soviet puppet state set up in آذربائیجان (ایران) but later reclaimed by Iran.|
|سانچہ:Country data Bangsamoro Republik Bangsamoro Republik||2013||اب حصہ فلپائن||Following the defeat in Zamboanga City by the فلپائن on September 28, 2013, the مورو قومی محاذ آزادی no longer controls any territory openly anywhere and the Bangsamoro Republic has ceased to exist.|
|Republic of Biak-na-Bato||1897||اب حصہ فلپائن||Secessionist state that later joined the First Philippine Republic.|
|چینی سوویت جمہوریہ||1931–1937||اب حصہ چین||Recognised by the چین (1949 - ) as a "rehearsal" of the PRC and a "cradle" in which the Communist Party seized power.|
|دادرا و نگر حویلی||1954–1961||اب حصہ بھارت||Territory made up of two former exclaves of the دمن ضلع، بھارت (پرتگیزی ہند). In 1954, it was invaded and occupied by supporters of their integration in the Indian Union. Thereafter and until formal annexation by India in 1961, it enjoyed a de facto independence. Portugal continued to consider Dadra and Nagar Haveli as Portuguese territory until 1974. The native citizens of the territory continued to be entitled to the grant of Portuguese citizenship until 2006.|
|Democratic Republic of Yemen||1994||اب حصہ یمن||Breakaway state formed during the 1994 civil war in Yemen. It only lasted six weeks before being reconquered.|
|مشرقی تیمور||1975||Now independent||Former پرتگیزی سلطنت of پرتگال. Declaration of independence in November 28, 1975, recognized by six states (Albania, Cape Verde, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Mozambique, São Tomé and Príncipe). Invaded and annexed by Indonesia in December, 1975. اقوام متحدہ, Portugal and most of the states didn't recognized Indonesian annexation and continued to consider East Timor as Portuguese territory until its definitive independence in 2002.|
|جمہوریہ شرقی ترکستان اول||1933–1934||اب حصہ چین||Set up as part of the movement for an independent مشرقی ترکستان it was defeated by the Nationalists.|
|جمہوریہ شرقی ترکستان دوم||1944–1949||اب حصہ چین||Soviet satellite state set up in East Turkestan; the Soviets later turned against it and approved its annexation by China.|
|23x15px Republic of Ezo||1869||اب حصہ جاپان||Set up in ہوکائیدو by supporters of the Tokugawa clan following the fall of the توکوگاوا شوگون شاہی after the Boshin War and بحالی میجی; they received support from France but only lasted five months.|
|جمہوریہ فارموسا||1895||Now base of the Taiwan, تائیوان||Declared independence upon cession of جمہوریۂ چین to Japan following the پہلی چین جاپانی جنگ.|
|Free Lebanon State||1979–1984||اب حصہ لبنان||In 1976, as a result of the ongoing civil war, the Lebanese army began to break up. Major Saad Haddad, commanding an army battalion in the south which had been part of the Army of Free Lebanon, broke away and founded a group known as the Free Lebanon Army (FLA). The FLA fought against various groups including the تنظیم آزادی فلسطین (PLO), the Amal Movement and (after the جنگ لبنان 1982) the emerging حزب اللہ. The جنوبی لبنان تنازعہ 1978ء allowed the Free Lebanon Army to gain control over a much wider area in southern Lebanon. On April 18, 1979 Haddad proclaimed the area controlled by his force "Independent State of Free Lebanon" (Dawlet Lebnaan El Horr El Mest’ell) with the capital بیروت, though his actual headquarters were in Marjayoun. In May 1980, " Free Lebanon Army" was renamed "South Lebanon Army". The statehood claim was downplayed following the death of Haddad in 1984, though his successor Antouan Lahed continued to exercise some authority in Southern Lebanon until the year 2000. On 24 May 2000, following Israeli withdrawal and final collapse of the SLA, Lebanese forces occupied the small town Marjayoun, which was the "capital" of southern Lebanon.|
|Inner Mongolian People's Republic||1945||اب حصہ چین||During the دوسری جنگ عظیم when the Japanese support in اندرونی منگولیا was established puppet state Mengjiang. Once in August 1945 it was destroyed by Soviet and Mongolian troops, September 9, 1945 in Sunid Yutsi - held Congress of People's Representatives and aimags khoshuns Inner Mongolia. Held three days of the Congress proclaimed the establishment of the People's Republic of Inner Mongolia and elected interim government. In November the Chinese Communist Party managed to bring the situation under control, and reorganized the Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Inner Mongolia in Mongolian Autonomous Government.|
|Fujian People's Government||1933–1934||اب حصہ چین||Formed following the Fuijian Incident, when the formerly 19th Route Army of the قومی انقلابی فوج broke with commander چیانگ کائی شیک and declared a new government. Although originally enjoying popular support the government lost favour and was crushed by Kuomintang forces in 1934.|
|مملکت آصفیہ||1947–1948||Now is split up among تلنگانہ, مہاراشٹر and کرناٹک states of بھارت||One of Britain's numerous client rulers in central India, the Prince of Hyderabad, being Muslim, refused to acknowledge the new Indian government following independence in 1947. Indian troops invaded Hyderabad and rapidly forced its capitulation in 1948.|
|خانیت قلات||1947–1948||اب حصہ بلوچستان (خطہ) province in پاکستان||Kalat was a نوابی ریاست in بلوچستان ایجنسی, the one of the agencies of برطانوی ہند کے صوبے اور علاقے. The Khan of Baluchistan declared his nation's independence on August 15, 1947, one day after بھارت and پاکستان declared independence. From 15 August 1947 to 27 March 1948, the region was de facto independent before acceding to Pakistan on 27 March 1948. After intense diplomatic pressure, the Khan relented and acceeded Baluchistan to Pakistan in 1948.|
|مملکت کردستان||1921–1924||اب حصہ عراق||Establishment by Kurdish nationalists following the collapse of Ottoman Turkey but were defeated by Britain and incorporated into the British Mandate of Mesopotamia.|
|Lanfang Republic||1777–1884||اب حصہ انڈونیشیا||Established by Chinese in Indonesia as the Dutch began to conquer Indonesia to protect the ethnic Chinese it was a tributary state of the چنگ خاندان in Imperial China; but the Qing Dynasty weakened and it was conquered by the Dutch who added it to colonies.|
|جمہوریہ مہاباد||1946–1947||اب حصہ ایران||Declared independence from Iran, but then occupied by Iran after the withdraw of the Soviet سرخ فوج from northern Iran and Demolishing of Azerbaijan People's Government.|
|مانچوکؤ||1932–1945||حصہ چین||Puppet state under Japanese control.|
|منگولیا||1932–1945||Now independent||Was not recognized by several countries from 1940 to 1960 due to being claimed as an integral part of the Republic of China.|
|Republic of Mountainous Armenia||1921||اب حصہ آرمینیا and the de facto جمہوریہ نگورنو کاراباخ||Was an anti-Soviet Armenian state existed from 26 April until 13 July 1921, roughly corresponding with the territory that is now the present-day آرمینیاn provinces of Vayots Dzor and Syunik, and some parts of the present-day جمہوریہ نگورنو کاراباخ.|
|Cantonal Republic of Negros||1898–1901||اب حصہ فلپائن.||Declared independence and aligned itself with the First Philippine Republic. Later, it was recognized by the United States, however the government was dissolved by the Americans in 1901.|
|فارسی اشتراکی سوویت جمہوریہ||1920–1921||Now صوبہ جیلان province in Iran||Created by local guerilleros (Jangali) when Red Army troops entered Iran, but failed to spread the revolutionary movement over the whole Iran|
|First Philippine Republic||1899–1901||اب حصہ فلپائن||Existed as an unrecognized independent state from its declaration on June 12, 1898, up to the Treaty of Paris on December 10, by which Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States. It was formally established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on January 23, 1899, in Malolos, Bulacan, and pursued an unsuccessful war of independence against the United States in the فلپائن پر امریکی قبضہ|
|Second Philippine Republic||1943–1945||Now the فلپائن||The Second Philippine Republic, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines or known in the Philippines as Japanese-sponsored Philippine Republic, was a puppet state established on October 14, 1943, during the Japanese occupation.|
|Kingdom of Sedang||1888–1889||اب حصہ Socialist Republic of Vietnam||Charles David Mayréna was born in فرانس in 1842, he stopped in ویتنام 1884 and started a plantation. In 1888, the King of Siam began claiming territory west of French territory. Anxious, the Governor of the Indochinese Union agreed to Mayréna's proposed expedition to the interior. When Mayréna reached the central highlands, he organized the local tribes into the Kingdom of Sedang, and declared himself King Marie I. He offered to cede his kingdom to France in exchange for monopoly rights. When the French government became understandably chilly, Mayréna approached the English at ہانگ کانگ. When he was rebuffed there, Mayréna went to Belgium. In 1889, a Belgian financier named Somsy offered arms and money to Mayréna in exchange for mineral rights. Unfortunately, the French Navy blockaded Vietnamese ports to prevent his return, and his arms were seized as contraband at سنگاپور.|
|1950||اب حصہ انڈونیشیا||the Moluccas formed part of the United States of Indonesia (27 December 1949- 17 August 1950), but declared independence in April 1950 in reaction of centralizing tendencies from Jakarta. It was quickly conquered by Indonesian troops, but maintains a government in exile in the Netherlands.|
|سانچہ:Country data United Suvadive Republic Suvadive Islands||1959–1963||اب حصہ مالدیپ||Attempted break-away state it was supported by Britain briefly before being abandoned.|
|مملکت شام||1920||Now independent||Lasted 4 months at the end of World War I until dissolved by the French who took control.|
|Sovereign Tagalog Nation||1896–1897||اب حصہ فلپائن.||Succeeded by the First Philippine Republic.|
|Tagalog Republic||1902–1906||اب حصہ فلپائن.||Revolutionary body set up during the Philippine Revolution and the فلپائن پر امریکی قبضہ.|
|سانچہ:Country data Tannu Tuva||1921–1944||اب حصہ Russia||Attempt by Tuvans to gain independence following years of domination by China and Imperial Russia it was put under Soviet control and later formally annexed.|
|Tibet||1912–1951||اب حصہ People's Republic of China, Invasion of Tibet||In 1913, تیرہواں دلائی لاما of Tibet proclaimed independence from چنگ خاندان, which was only recognized by منگولیا (however, there have been doubts over the authority of the Tibetan representative to sign the treaty, and thus its validity). One year later the Dalai Lama signed a UK-drafted treaty accepting Chinese suzerainty and adjusting the border in favor of British India. The 14ویں دلائی لاما acknowledged Chinese بادشاہی in the Seventeen Point Agreement of 1951, but China continues to reject the 1914 UK-drafted treaty and claims جنوبی تبت (now part of India's اروناچل پردیش).|
|Wang Jingwei Government||1940–1945||حصہ China||Puppet government dissolved at the end of World War II. Recognized by Imperial Japan and its allies.|
|Republic of Zamboanga||1899–1903||اب حصہ فلپائن.||República de Zamboanga was a revolutionary republic, founded shortly after the collapse of Spanish colonial rule in the Philippines.|
|Republic of Timor||1961||اب حصہ مشرقی تیمور||In early 1961 the Battle Office for the Liberation of Timor (Bureau de Luta pela Libertação de Timor) was formed under the leadership of Maoclao and backed by انڈونیشیا. A republic was proclaimed in the border town of Batugade on 9 April 1961. It was quickly put down by Portuguese troops.|
|Couto Misto||10th century – 1868||حصہ ہسپانیہ and پرتگال||De facto independent microstate on the border between Galicia (Spain) and Northern Portugal. By the 1864 Treaty of Lisbon, its territory was partitioned between Spain and Portugal.|
|مملکت کورسیکا||1736||حصہ France||Seceded from جمہوریہ جینوا|
|جمہوریہ کورسیکائی||1755–1769||حصہ France||Seceded from جمہوریہ جینوا; annexed by فرانس. Recognized only by Bey of Tunis|
|Republic of Liège||1789–1791||حصہ بلجئیم||Republic formed following the Liège Revolution|
|مملکت اینگلو کورسیکائی||1794–1796||حصہ France||Independent kingdom under British King جارج سوم، مملکت متحدہ, formed on the Irish model|
|The Gozitan Nation||1798–1801||حصہ Malta||Provisional government set up by Francesco Saverio Cassar after French troops on the island capitulated to rebels. It became part of the British protectorate of Malta in 1801.|
|کوناکٹ||1798||حصہ Ireland||French client republic|
|Republic of Goust||1827||حصہ France||A French hamlet which was considered for a long time independent due to it never being formally annexed by France.|
|Kingdom of Tavolara||1836–1962?||حصہ Italy||Recognized by the مملکت ساردینیا and the Kingdom of Italy; acknowledged by ملکہ وکٹوریہ.|
|Canton of Cartagena||1873–1874||حصہ ہسپانیہ||In 1873 Cartagena was proclaimed as an independent canton, called the Canton of Cartagena. This proclamation started the Cantonal Revolution in ہسپانیہ, during the First Spanish Republic. It was the beginning of the cantonalism, a movement that tried Spain become a federal state composed by cantons. Some cities and territories joined the cantonal cause and were declared independents too, but they surrendered a few days later. The only canton with an organized government as state, control on its territory and military power was Cartagena, which declared war and faced the Spanish central government during six months, until it was invaded.|
|Republic of Tamrash||1878–1886||حصہ بلغاریہ||The Republic of Tamrash was a self-governing administrative structure of the Pomaks, living in the Tamrash region of the Rhodope Mountains.|
|Kruševo Republic||1903||حصہ Macedonia||Republic established in Kruševo, Macedonia|
|Chita Republic, Krasnoyarsk Republic, Novorossiysk Republic, Sochi Republic, Starobuyanskaya Republic||1905–1906||حصہ روس||The Chita Republic was a workers and peasants' dictatory republic in Chita during the Russian Revolution of 1905, installed by actual seizure of power in Chita RSDLP Committee and the Council of Soldiers 'and Cossacks' Deputies in November 1905 - January 1906. The Krasnoyarsk Republic - government, organized by the Joint Board of Workers 'and Soldiers' Deputies in کراسنویارسک during the First Russian Revolution. Lasted from 9 to 27 December 1905. The Novorossiysk Republic - the worker-peasant self-government established by the Council of Workers' Deputies in Novorossiysk December 12, 1905 lasted until 26 December of the same year. The Sochi Republic - political education social democratic sense, arising from the modern city of سوچی as a result of the revolutionary uprisings of 1905. Lasted from December 28, 1905 to January 5, 1906 (i.e., about 9 days). The Starobuyanskaya Republic - peasant self-government established during the First Russian Revolution in the village of Stary Buyan. Lasted from 12 to 26 November 1905.|
|Gurian Republic||1905–1906||حصہ Georgia||The Gurian Republic or the Gurian peasant republic was an insurrection that took place in the western Georgian province گوریا (جارجیا) (then part of the سلطنت روس) prior to and during the Russian Revolution of 1905. Republic existed from the November 1905 to January 10, 1906.|
|Liubotyn Republic and Shuliavka Republic||1905||حصہ یوکرین||The Lyubotinskaya Republic - proclaimed in December 1905, independent workers' state in the armed insurrection of the workers and railwaymen in Lyubotin during the Russian Revolution of 1905. Republic existed from the December 26 to 30, 1905. The Shuliavka Republic was an early 20th-century worker-based quasi-government organization in the city of کیف, Ukraine, whose main task was self-defence. The uprising lasted a total of four days, from December 12–16 (o.s., in the Gregorian Calendar, 26 - 29), 1905.|
|Markovo Republic||1905–1906||حصہ روس||Markovo Republic was a self-proclaimed peasant state, located in Russia, in the Volokolamsk area. It was proclaimed on October 18, 1905, when during the Russian Revolution of 1905 peasants took control of the local government in the village Markovo and 5 other villages. It had existed until July 18, 1906.|
|Republika Ostrowiecka||1905–1906||حصہ پولینڈ||The Ostrovetskaya Republic (Republika Ostrowiecka) - government set December 27, 1905 during the First Russian Revolution in cities Ostrowiec, Iłżę, Ćmielów and locality. Republic fell in the middle of January 1906.|
|Republika Zagłębiowska and Republika Sławkowska||1905||حصہ پولینڈ||Polish towns Zagłębie Dąbrowskie and Sławków taken over by revolutionary during the Russian Revolution of 1905. Both republics existed in November - December 1905, each about 10–12 days.|
|Republic of Central Albania||1913–1914||حصہ البانیا||The Republic of Central Albania was a republic declared following the pullout of Ottoman forces from the former Albanian Vilayet. Declared by Essad Pasha Toptani, the republic's existence came to an end when the troops of Wilhelm of Wied took control of the country.|
|Ukrainian People's Republic||1917–1920||حصہ یوکرین||An independent republic and direct predecessor of modern یوکرین established right after the بالشویک پارٹی coup-d'etat against the روسی جمہوریہ government. During 1918 due to own coup-d'etat had its government swapped between socialists and conservatives while officially referred to as the Ukrainian State. In 1919 by the Unification Act, Ukraine united with the West Ukrainian People's Republic. At that time Ukraine was recognized by numerous countries in Europe.|
|ریاست ایدل اورال||1917–1918||حصہ تاتارستان and باشکورتوستان (Russia)||Suppressed by the سرخ فوج.|
|State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs||1918||حصہ سلووینیا, کرویئشا, Bosnia-Hercegovina, سربیا (وئوودینا) and مونٹینیگرو (Boka Kotorska)||Temporary state of the آسٹریا-مجارستان South Slavs, declared on October 29, 1918, and merged with the مملکت سربیا on December 1, 1918, into the مملکت یوگوسلاویہ (یوگوسلاویہ)|
|Republic of Tarnobrzeg||1918–1919||حصہ پولینڈ||The Republic of Tarnobrzeg was proclaimed November 6, 1918 in the Polish town of Tarnobrzeg. Disestablished Spring 1919.|
|سانچہ:Country data Kuban Kuban People's Republic||1918–1920||حصہ Russia||A territory in Russia, it was declared by Kuban Cossacks in 1918. It supported the سفید تحریک and was overrun by the بالشویک پارٹی in 1920.|
|West Ukrainian People's Republic||1918–1919||حصہ یوکرین||Established in eastern Galicia it controlled cities once part of the پولینڈ-لتھوانیا دولت مشترکہ and with large numbers of ethnic Poles leading to a losing war with Poland after which it was partitioned by Poland, the Kingdom of Romania, Czechoslovakia, and the Ukrainian People's Republic.|
|Komancza Republic||1918–1919||حصہ Ukraine||An association of 30 pro-Ukrainian villages, it planned to merge with the West Ukrainian People's Republic but was suppressed by Poland during the Polish-Ukrainian War|
|Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic||1918||حصہ فن لینڈ||Lasted only three months during the فنلینڈی خانہ جنگی, but was recognized by روسی سوویت وفاقی اشتراکی جمہوریہ.|
|Republic of Vorarlberg||1918||حصہ آسٹریا||Amidst the chaos in collapse of the Austro-Ungarian empire the Vorarlbergers proclaimed themselves a separate non-Austrian, Germanic people and declared on 3 November 1918 the independence as Republic of Vorarlberg. The secession was blocked by the alies and the new Austrian republican government. In April 1919, over 80% of the Vorarlbergers voted to secede from آسٹریا and attach themselves to سویٹزرلینڈ, but they were again blocked.|
|Alsace Soviet Republic (Republic of Alsace-Lorraine)||1918||حصہ فرانس||The Soviet Republic, existed in الزاس from 10 to 22 November 1918.|
|Banat Republic||1918||حصہ رومانیہ, سربیا, and مجارستان||Established in the Banat region of modern Serbia by members of ethnic groups in the region, it was only recognized by Hungary. It was invaded by Serbia and in 1919 partitioned between Hungary, Romania, and the newly created Yugoslavia.|
|Republic of Venezia-Giulia||1918||حصہ اطالیہ and سلووینیا||Centered on the port of ریئکا, now called ریئکا by the Croatian inhabitants, Venezia-Giulia was an important staging area for the Austro-Hungarian Empire's Adriatic trade. After the war, both یوگوسلاویہ and اطالیہ claimed the area. The inhabitants refused to join either nation, preferring to remain independent and retain the cosmopolitan, multi-ethnic nature of the area. After Fiume's seizure by Italian nationalists in 1919, the Republic was partitioned.|
|جمہوریہ ڈان||1918–1920||حصہ روس (روستوف اوبلاست)||Republic that was recognized by the Ukrainian State. In 1919 it was part of the Armed Forces of South Russia and eventually overran by بالشویک پارٹی with its annexation to the روسی سوویت وفاقی اشتراکی جمہوریہ.|
|Belarusian People's Republic||1918||Independent بیلاروس||Attempt by Belorussian قوم پرستی but reincorporated into the سوویت اتحاد. Still exists today as a government-in-exile.|
|Republic of German-Austria||1918–1919||Austria and part of the چیک جمہوریہ||Brief state declared following the collapse of آسٹریا-مجارستان. The پہلی جنگ عظیم کے اتحادی opposed it and it was succeeded by the First Austrian Republic.|
|جمہوریہ of Perloja||1918–1923||حصہ لتھووینیا||In the chaos after World War I, responding to such situation the locals established a self-governing parish committee, often called the Republic of Perloja. The Republic of Perloja had its own court, police, prison, currency (Perloja litas), and an army of 300 men.|
|The Republic of North Ingria||1919-1920||حصہ روس||The Republic of North Ingria was a state of Ingrian Finns in the southern part of the Karelian Isthmus, which seceded from روسی سوویت وفاقی اشتراکی جمہوریہ after the انقلاب اکتوبر. Its aim was to be incorporated into فن لینڈ. It ruled parts of Ingria from 1919 until 1920. With the Peace Treaty of Tartu it was re-integrated into Russia. Established -January 23, 1919. Disestablished - December 5, 1920.|
|Hutsul Republic||1919||حصہ Ukraine||A state formed from territory in the former Lands of the Crown of Saint Stephen, it was invaded by the Hungarian Soviet Republic in June 1919 and then became part of the First Czechoslovak Republic. It originally intended to join the Western Ukrainian National Republic|
|Bavarian Soviet Republic and Bremen Soviet Republic||1919||حصہ جرمنی||The Bavarian Soviet Republic, also known as the Munich Soviet Republic was, as part of the German Revolution of 1918–1919, the attempt to establish a socialist state in the form of a democratic workers' council republic in the بواریا. Another Republic that existed was the Bremen Soviet Republic.|
|Slovak Soviet Republic||1919||حصہ سلوواکیہ||A pro-Hungarian puppet state set up by Red Guards from the Hungarian Soviet Republic in Upper Hungary. After a brief war it was returned to Czechoslovakia as promised by early peace agreements.|
|Republic of Prekmurje||1919||حصہ سلووینیا||Existed for 6 days.|
|Limerick Soviet||1919||حصہ Ireland||The Limerick Soviet (republic) was a self-declared Soviet Republic that existed from 15 to 27 April 1919.|
|Monarchy of the North||1919||حصہ Portugal||A stated that established by monarchists trying to restore the monarchy. It was crushed by the Portuguese Army.|
|آئرش جمہوریہ||1919–1922||The جمہوریہ آئرلینڈ and part of the برطانیہ||An unrecognized Irish nationalist state during the آئرش جنگ آزادی it ceased to exist following the Anglo-Irish Treaty which gave Southern Ireland independence as the آئرش آزاد ریاست while keeping شمالی آئر لینڈ under British Control. These terms caused much of the victorious Irish Republican Army to reject the treaty, leading to the آئرش خانہ جنگی (1922–1923) between Pro-Treaty Free State forces and Anti-Treaty IRA, who viewed the dissolution of the Republic as illegal.|
|یوکرینی سوویت اشتراکی جمہوریہ||1919||اب حصہ یوکرین||The Soviet Republic Ukrainian SSR existed from 1919 to 1991. It was not until the Peace of Riga in 1920 when it was officially recognized. It was created as an opposition to the Ukrainian government. With the سوویت اتحاد کی تحلیل transitioned to یوکرین.|
|Galician Soviet Socialist Republic||1920||اب حصہ یوکرین||The Soviet Republic Galician SSR existed from July 8, 1920 to September 21, 1920, during the Polish-Soviet War within the area of the South-Western front of the Red Army.|
|Lajtabánság||1921||حصہ Austria and Hungary||State declared in the بورگنلینڈ state of Austria by ethnic Hungarians following the Treaty of Trianon, where Hungary was forced to surrender the territory. It was ceased to exist after a month when Austria annexed it.|
|Labin Republic||1921||حصہ کرویئشا||Republic established in لابین, Croatia|
|Serbian-Hungarian Baranya-Baja Republic||1921||حصہ Hungary and کرویئشا||A Soviet-minded[مبہم] state set up by Hungarian communists fleeing the white terror following the collapse of the Hungarian Soviet Republic. It was supported by Yugoslavia but was quickly re-conquered by Hungary.|
|Republic of Mirdita||1921||حصہ البانیا||Set up by Albanian Catholics trying to break away from Albania which is a mainly Muslim country. It was backed by Yugoslavia but only lasted three months.|
|Munster Republic||1922||حصہ the جمہوریہ آئرلینڈ||Though never independent it was the informal name given to مونسٹر which was the base of Irish republicans aiming to create a United Ireland during the آئرش خانہ جنگی.|
|Republic of Galicia||1931||حصہ ہسپانیہ||The Galician Republic was an ephemeral passage in the History of Galicia. It only lasted for a few hours on 27 June 1931, a day ahead of the election to the ہسپانوی جمہوریہ دوم's Constitutional Assembly.|
|Sovereign Council of Asturias and León||1936–1937||حصہ ہسپانیہ||As unrecognized state declared during the ہسپانوی خانہ جنگی.|
|Carpatho-Ukraine||1939||حصہ یوکرین||Carpatho-Ukraine was an autonomous region within چیکوسلوواکیہ from late 1938 to March 15, 1939. It declared itself an independent republic on March 15, 1939, but was returned to مجارستان between March 15 and March 16, 1939, remaining under Hungarian control until the Nazi occupation of Hungary in 1944. On June 29, 1945, a treaty was signed under pressure of USSR between Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union, ceding Carpatho-Ruthenia officially to the Soviet Union. In 1946 the area was forced to became part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, as the زاکارپتیا اوبلاست (Transcarpathian Region).|
|جمہوریہ سلاواک (1939-1945)||1939–1945||حصہ سلوواکیہ||Between 1939 and 1945, First Slovak Republic was a puppet state of نازی جرمنی.|
|استونیائی سوویت اشتراکی جمہوریہ||1940–1991||حصہ استونیا||A puppet state which was created in 1940 and forcibly incorporated into سوویت اتحاد. It was not recognized by the majority of Western countries.|
|لیٹویائی سوویت اشتراکی جمہوریہ||1940–1991||حصہ لٹویا||A puppet state which was created in 1940 and forcibly incorporated into سوویت اتحاد. It was not recognized by the majority of Western countries.|
|لیتھوینیائی سوویت اشتراکی جمہوریہ||1940–1991||حصہ لتھووینیا||A puppet state which was created in 1940 and forcibly incorporated into سوویت اتحاد. It was not recognized by the majority of Western countries.|
|سانچہ:Country data Independent State of Croatia||1941–1945||Now two independent states, کرویئشا and بوسنیا و ہرزیگووینا||Affiliated with the نازی جرمنی.|
|Republic of Užice||1941||حصہ سربیا||Area briefly liberated by Yugoslav partisans after the Invasion of Yugoslavia; it was retaken by the German Army during the First anti-Partisan offensive.|
|Principality of Pindus||1941–1944||حصہ Greece||Proclaimed during the Italian occupation of Northern Greece it was a proposed کٹھ پتلی ریاست but it never came to exist.|
|Bihac Republic||1942–1943||حصہ Bosnia and Herzegovina and Croatia||Area liberated by Yugoslav partisans before being recaptured by the German Army.|
|اطالوی معاشرتی جمہوریہ||1943–1945||حصہ Italy||German-dominated کٹھ پتلی ریاست under Benito Mussolini, formed in the North of Italy after the Italian King Victor Emmanuel III signed an armistice with the Allies.|
|Free Republic of Vercors||1944||حصہ فرانس||On 3 July 1944 the Free Republic of Vercors was proclaimed, the first democratic territory in France since the beginning of the German occupation in 1940. The republic ceased to exist before the end of the month.|
|مشرقی جرمنی||1949–1990||حصہ the جرمنی||Commonly known as East Germany, the state was not recognized for a time by West Germany and several other countries.|
|گاگاؤزیا||1990–1994||حصہ مالدووا||Region in Moldova that declared its independence on 19 August 1991 following the Soviet coup attempt of 1991 which was supported by many in the area. This came as a result of the possibility of a union between Moldova and Romania which was opposed in Gagauzia which abandoned independence after gaining autonomy from the Moldovan government.|
|چیچن جمہوریہ اشکیریہ||1991–2000||حصہ روس||Reintegrated into the روس as the چیچنیا|
|سانچہ:Country data Serbian Krajina جمہوریہ سربی کرائنا||1991–1995||حصہ کرویئشا||Suppressed by کرویئشا.|
|Dubrovnik Republic (1991)||1991–1992||حصہ کرویئشا||Suppressed by کرویئشا.|
|سرپسکا||1992–1995||One of the two entities of بوسنیا و ہرزیگووینا||Transformed into an entity of Bosnia and Herzegovina, covering 50% of the land with 90%+ ethnic Serbs.|
|جمہوریہ کریمیا||1992, 1994–1995, 2014||حصہ یوکرین de jure, de facto part of Russia||Declared in 1992 and again in 1994, spanning the Crimean peninsula. Was ended through negotiations with Ukraine both times until seceding in 2014 and almost immediately joining روس.|
|کروشیائی جمہوریہ ہرزیگ-بوسنیا||1992–1994||حصہ بوسنیا و ہرزیگووینا||Attempt by Croats in Bosnia and Herzegovina to form their own country. The use of ethnic cleansing led to it being unrecognized and eventually it collapsed.[حوالہ درکار]|
|خود مختار صوبہ مغربی بوسنیا||1993–1995||حصہ بوسنیا و ہرزیگووینا||Existed during the بوسنیائی جنگ. It worked with Serbia and Croatia to divide the territories between the two nations. Its leader was later convicted of war crimes.|
|Empire of Australia||1804||حصہ آسٹریلیا||The Empire of Australia collapsed after the defeat at the Battle of Vinegar Hill.|
|Bougainville Interim Government||1990–1998||حصہ پاپوا نیو گنی||Signed a peace deal with پاپوا نیو گنی giving the island autonomy pending an independence referendum within a decade|
|Independent Commune of Franceville||1889–1890||حصہ وانواتو||Its independence guaranteed by France, this community of Melanesian natives and European settlers experimented with universal suffrage until France and Britain intervened in the New Hebrides|
|Republic of Minerva||1972||حصہ ٹونگا, but claim disputed by فجی and a Minerva "principality" group||Several previously unclaimed reefs that were occupied and raised in a minor way by a group of libertarian establishmentarians until Tonga laid claim to the territory|
|United Tribes of New Zealand||1835–1840||نیوزی لینڈ||Independence declared by British Resident James Busby and northern Māori tribal leaders as an attempt to safeguard British claims against French territorial expansion. Led to a formal treaty (the Treaty of Waitangi) between Māori leaders and the British crown in 1840.|
|Republic of North Solomons||1975–1976||حصہ پاپوا نیو گنی||Seceded twice and returned after peace negotiations both times.|
|Republic of Rotuma||1987–1988||Dependency of فجی||Following the second coup, when Fiji left the دولت مشترکہ ممالک, a segment of the Rotuman population, known as the "Mölmahao Clan" of Noa’tau rejected the council's decision to remain with the newly declared republic. Arguing that روتوما had been ceded to جزیرہ برطانیہ عظمی and not to Fiji, these rebels declared in 1987 independence of Republic of Rotuma and were charged with sedition. It did not have any substantive support, majority opinion appears to favor remaining with Fiji, but rumblings of discontent remain.|
|Tafea Nation||1980||حصہ وانواتو||Opposed to the Anglo-French condominium that ruled it but which ended the secessionist state.|
|23x15px Tanna Nation||1974||حصہ وانواتو||Declared independence but was suppressed by the Anglo-French condominium.|
|Republic of Vemerana||1980||حصہ وانواتو||Central power of Vanuatu restored with assistance of army from پاپوا نیو گنی|
- A fort was established by a group of Voortrekkers under the leadership of Andries Hendrik Potgieter with the help of a Dutch merchant Gregorius Ohrig. The settlers arrived in 1845 and were decimated by malaria. Forced to abandon the area, the republic was officially abandoned in 1849.
- Joined with the Comoros then seceded twice to gain independence. Anjouan rejoined the Comoros after talks during the first secession. After the second event, the secessionist government was forcefully removed.
- Controlled territory in Northern Mali, it wasn't recognized by any state
- Controlled territory in eastern Nigeria, recognized by five states (Gabon, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Tanzania, Zambia)
- Former Apartheid Bantustan homelands, formed and recognized only by each other and South Africa. Israel extended marginal recognition to Bophuthatswana and Ciskei by allowing both polities to build trade missions in Tel Aviv. In 1993 Bophuthatswana opened an information center in Latvia, so that the Latvian song festival was also attended by a chorus of this country (Bop Arts Council Chorus).
- Cabinda was a Portuguese protectorate known as the Portuguese Congo . During the Portuguese Colonial War period, the Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda (FLEC) fought for the independence of Cabinda from the Portuguese. The independence was proclaimed on 1 August 1975. After the Angolan independence came in effect in November 1975, Cabinda was invaded by forces of the MPLA (MPLA) with support of troops from Cuba.
- A Boer Republic which merged with the Republic of Stellaland to form the United States of Stellaland in 1883.
- Founded by Adam Kok III as a final resting place for Griqua people. The State suffered from a secret deal signed between the British Empire and Orange Free State causing unceasing instability. Allothgh the reasons for its annexation are still debated, it was eventually integrated with the Cape Colony in 1880
- Enjoying de facto independence since the founding of Griquatown in 1813, Griqualand West eventually proclaimed itself a British colony in 1873. It did not gain recognition by Britain nor the neighboring Cape Colony and was annexed in 1880.
- Formed in rebellion to Dutch East India Company it took 2 years to be incorporated into the Cape colony although this time under British rule.
- Briefly declared independence in 1998 it rejoined the Transitional Federal Government in 2001.
- Controlled the state of the same name within the former Belgian Congo after decolonisation
- A Boer republic which declared its independence from lands formerly controlled by the Swazi king Mswati II. It was eventually incorporated into the South African Republic in 1891 on its own request.
- A Republic proclaimed during a dispute over diamond mines near what would become Griqualand West
- A Boer republic which created following the dissolution of the Andries-Ohringstad Republic. Eventually this nation expanded with the inclusion of the Utrecht Republic in 1858. The republic lasted until 1860 when it was incorporated into the South African Republic
- Islamic state established during the Mahdist War by rebels. The rebellion failed the state was dissolved.
- A state declared by Hutu separatists inside the mountainous Vuzigo commune, between the Makamba and Lake Nyanza which lasted for little over a week.
- Seceded in 1997 but quietly rejoined the next year.
- Mr. Latham Leslie-Moore, a retired civil servant, declared the secession of the "Sultanate of M'Simbati" from the then colony of Tanganyika. The "secession" was suppressed in 1962 by Tanzanian government troops.
- Established in 1839 by local Afrikaans-speaking Voortrekkers after the Battle of Blood River. This Boer Republic lasted for four years before being annexed by British troops under George Napier.
- Created on August 16 of 1884 with land donated by the Zulus through a treaty. The territory was part the old Boer Republic of Natalia. The republic enjoyed independence until it was annexed by the South African Republic by its own request.
- A republic that existed only for a couple months before joining with Winburg Republic. It was effectively a city-state.
- British Colony that unilaterally declared independence
- Founded in September 1921, when the people of the Rif (the Riffians) revolted and declared their independence from Spanish Morocco. It was dissolved by Spanish and French forces on 27 May 1926.
- Was based in the Rwenzori Mountains between Uganda and Congo.
- A state declared after the end of British rule came to an end. It only lasted five days before joining Somalia.
- Somalia - British Somaliland and Somaliland
- South Kasai seceded from the newly independent Republic of the Congo after decolonization in similar circumstances to the State of Katanga during the Congo Crisis. Kasai, however, did not declare full independence but autonomous self-government, despite producing its own constitution, still claimed to be part of a hypothetical "Federal Republic of the Congo". It was re-integrated into the Congo by force in 1962.
- A Boer republic which existed briefly before its union with its neighboring Boer republic the State of Goshen
- A Boer republic which created from the union of neighboring Republic of Stellaland and State of Goshen. The republic lasted until it became a protectorate of the South African Republic on 10 September 1884 only to be annexed 6 days later.
- A republic declared in revolt against the Dutch East India Company it lasted 3 months before being re-incorporated into the Cape Colony.
- A republic proclaimed following the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 it disintegrated sometime in 1923.
- A republic proclaimed by Andreas Theodorus Spies following a land purchase from the King of the Zulu, Mpande. It joined with the Lydenburg Republic in 1858.
- Established on land the Vet and Vaal Rivers donated to the Voortrekkers by Bataung Chief Makwana in 1836 in exchange for protection from neighboring Basotho tribes. Joined in union with the newly established Potchefstroom in 1838 to form the Potchefstroom.
- Formed from the union of the Potchefstroom and the Winburg Republic in 1938 the nation lasted until Potchefstroom left the union to join with Pietermaritzburg.
- Following the 17 January 1964 coup which deposed the Sultan of Zanzibar, the revolutionary group purporting to represent the island’s Negro majority proclaimed a Peoples’ Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba, its immediately made an offer of union with the government of Tanganyika.
- A version of Rhodesia (see above) that ended the white minority government and introduced a biracial government.
- A small Boer Republic that joined with the South African Republic in 1864. The white settlers in Zoutpansberg had for many years a reputation for lawlessness, and were later regarded as typical "back velt Boers". Zoutpansberg contained a larger native population than any other region of the Transvaal
- "آرکائیو کاپی". 09 مارچ 2012 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 20 مئی 2015.
- Dr. Andrew Andersen, Ph.D. Atlas of Conflicts: Armenia: Nation Building and Territorial Disputes: 1918–1920
- Mongolia in the Twentieth Century: Landlocked Cosmopolitan - Google Libros
- "Republic of Mountainous Armenia (26 April 1921, capital: Goris, including: Syunik, Vayots Dzor and parts of modern-day NKR)". 21 اکتوبر 2014 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 20 مئی 2015.
- Proclamation Issued by His Holiness the Dalai Lama XIII (1913)
- Udo B. Barkmann, Geschichte der Mongolei, Bonn 1999, p380ff
- Phurbu Thinley (2008-11-12). "Tibet - Mongolia Treaty of 1913, a proof of Tibet's independence: Interview with Prof. Elliot Sperling". Phayul.com. 25 دسمبر 2018 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 13 نومبر 2008.
- Smith, Warren, "Tibetan Nation", p. 186: "The validity is often questioned, mainly on grounds of the authority of Dorjiev to negotiate on behalf of Tibet...the fact that Dorjiev was a Russian citizen while ethnically Tibetan somewhat compromises his role; the treaty had some advantages to Russia in that it could be interpreted as extending Russia's protectorate over Mongolia to encompass Tibet.
- Convention Between Great Britain, China, and Tibet, Simla (1914)
- Goldstein, Melvyn C., A History of Modern Tibet, 1913–1951, University of California Press, 1989, pp812-813, saying: "After a lengthy discussion...the assembly recommended to the Dalai Lama that the agreement be approved. On 24 October, the Dalai Lama sent an official confirmation to Mao Tse-tung."
- 'Republic of Timor', 1961 | Flag | Timor-Leste | OzOutback
- Thrasher، Peter Adam (1970). Pasquale Paoli: An Enlightened Hero 1725–1807. Hamden, CT: Archon Books. صفحہ 117. ISBN 0-208-01031-9.
- Thrasher، Peter Adam (1970). Pasquale Paoli: An Enlightened Hero 1725–1807. Hamden, Connecticut: Archon Books. صفحہ 282. ISBN 0-208-01031-9.
- Gregory، Desmond (1985). The ungovernable rock: a history of the Anglo-Corsican Kingdom and its role in Britain's Mediterranean strategy during the Revolutionary War, 1793–1797. London: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. صفحات 81–82. ISBN 0838632254.
- Goust photo – jmollivier photos at pbase.com
- Geremia, Ernesto Carlo, and Gino Ragnetti (2005), Tavolara - l'Isola dei Re, ISBN 88-425-3441-2
- "آرکائیو کاپی". 09 مارچ 2012 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 20 مئی 2015.
- Magocsi، Paul Robert؛ Pop، Ivan I. (June 2002). Encyclopedia of Rusyn History and Culture. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. صفحات 237–238. ISBN 978-0-8020-3566-0. 25 دسمبر 2018 میں "Hutsul+Republic"&source=bl&ots=eS69C3_Goj&sig=vc8NEAlGlW7ti5uoBHvkfDUmZQw&hl=en&ei=3nVBSvWUHYuolAfi08D5CA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=5 اصل (book) سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 23 جون 3009.
- "Mocsy". 01 جولائی 2007 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 20 مئی 2015.
- ^ ا ب پ Marek، Krystyna (1954). Identity and Continuity of States in Public International Law. Librairie Droz. صفحہ 475. ISBN 9782600040440.
- Autonomous Republic of Crimea
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