فہرست شہنشاہان روم

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
یہاں جائیں: رہنمائی، تلاش کریں

شہنشاہان روم اور ملکائیاں رومی سلطنت پر حکومت اور شہریوں اور فوجی پر قدرت رکھنے والے مرد اور خواتین تھیں۔ سلطنت رومی جمہوریہ سے وجود میں آئی جو تقریبا تمام یورپ، شمالی افریقہ کے کچھ حصے اور مغربی ایشیاء پر قائم تھی۔

فہرست شہنشاہان روم[ترمیم]

جولیو کلاڈیوی خاندان[ترمیم]

تصویر نام پیدائش جانشینی دور حکومت وفات مدت حکومت
Augustus of Rome.jpg آگسٹس
IMPERATOR CAESAR DIVI FILIVS AVGVSTVS
ستمبر 23 63 ق م, روم, اطالیہ Great-nephew and adopted son of جولیس سیزر; became de facto emperor as a result of the 'first settlement' between himself and the Roman Senate. جنوری 16, 27 ق م – اگست 19, 14 عیسوی اگست 19, 14 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات or perhaps
poisoning by his wife, Livia
40 years, 7 months and 3 days
Tiberius NyCarlsberg01.jpg تیبیریس
TIBERIVS IVLIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS
نومبر 16 42 ق م, روم Natural son of Livia Drusilla, Augustus' third wife, by a previous marriage, and Augustus' son-in-law; adopted by Augustus as his son and heir. ستمبر 18, 14 عیسوی – مارچ 16, 37 عیسوی مارچ 16, 37 عیسوی
Probably natural causes, possibly assassinated by Caligula
22 years, 5 months and 27 days
Caligula - MET - 14.37.jpg کالیگولا
GAIVS IVLIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS
اگست 31, 12 عیسوی, انتوم, اطالیہ Great-nephew and adoptive grandson of Tiberius, natural son of جرمانیکس, great-grandson of Augustus. مارچ 18, 37 عیسوی – جنوری 24, 41 عیسوی جنوری 24, 41 عیسوی
Assassinated in a conspiracy involving senators and Praetorian Guards.
3 years, 10 months and 6 days
Claudius crop.jpg کلاڈیوس
TIBERIVS CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS
اگست 1, 10 ق م, Lugdunum, Gallia Lugdunensis Nephew of Tiberius, brother of Germanicus, uncle of Caligula, great-nephew-in-law and stepgrandson of Augustus; proclaimed emperor by the Praetorian Guard. جنوری 25/26, 41 عیسوی – اکتوبر 13, 54 عیسوی اکتوبر 13, 54 عیسوی
Probably poisoned by his wife اگریپینا صغری, in favour of her son Nero, possibly natural causes.
13 years, 9 months
Nero 1.JPG نیرو
NERO CLAVDIVS CAESAR AVGVSTVS GERMANICVS
دسمبر 15, 37 عیسوی, انتوم, اطالیہ Grandson of Germanicus, nephew of Caligula, great-great-nephew of Tiberius, and great-great-grandson of Augustus; great-nephew, stepson, son-in-law, and adopted son of Claudius. اکتوبر 13, 54 عیسوی – جون 9, 68 عیسوی جون 9, 68 عیسوی
Committed suicide after being declared a public enemy by the Senate.
13 years, 8 months

چار شہنشاہوں کا سال اور فلاویان خاندان[ترمیم]

تصویر نام پیدائش جانشینی دور حکومت وفات مدت حکومت
Stockholm - Antikengalerie 4 - Büste Kaiser Galba.jpg گالبا
SERVIVS SVLPICIVS GALBA CAESAR AVGVSTVS
دسمبر 24 3 ق م, Near تیراچینا, اطالیہ Seized power after نیرو's suicide, with support of the Spanish legions جون 8, 68 عیسوی – جنوری 15, 69 عیسوی جنوری 15, 69 عیسوی
Murdered by Praetorian Guard in coup led by Otho.
7 months and 7 days
Oth001.jpg اوتھو
MARCVS SALVIVS OTHO CAESAR AVGVSTVS
اپریل 28, 32 عیسوی, Ferentinum, Etruria, اطالیہ Appointed by Praetorian Guard جنوری 15, 69 عیسوی – اپریل 16, 69 عیسوی اپریل 16, 69 عیسوی
Committed suicide after losing Battle of Bedriacum to Vitellius
3 months 1 day (91 days)
Pseudo-Vitellius Louvre MR684.jpg ویتلیوس
AVLVS VITELLIVS GERMANICVS AVGVSTVS
ستمبر 24, 15 عیسوی, روم Seized power with support of German Legions (in opposition to گالبا/Otho) اپریل 17, 69 عیسوی – دسمبر 20, 69 عیسوی دسمبر 20, 69 عیسوی
Murdered by Vespasian's troops
8 ماہ
Vespasianus01 pushkin edit.png ویسپازیان
TITVS FLAVIVS CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVGVSTVS
نومبر 17, 9 عیسوی, Falacrine, اطالیہ Seized power with the support of the eastern Legions (in opposition to Vitellius) دسمبر 21, 69 عیسوی – جون 24, 79 عیسوی جون 24, 79 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات
10 سال
Titus of Rome.jpg تیتوس
TITVS FLAVIVS CAESAR VESPASIANVS AVGVSTVS
دسمبر 30, 39 عیسوی, روم ولد ویسپازیان جون 24, 79 عیسوی – ستمبر 13, 81 عیسوی ستمبر 13, 81 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات (بخار)
2 سال, 3 ماہ
Domiziano da collezione albani, fine del I sec. dc. 02.JPG دومیتیان
TITVS FLAVIVS CAESAR DOMITIANVS AVGVSTVS
اکتوبر 24, 51 عیسوی, روم ولد ویسپازیان ستمبر 14, 81 عیسوی – ستمبر 18, 96 عیسوی ستمبر 18, 96 عیسوی
Assassinated by court officials
15 سال

نیروا آنتونینے خاندان[ترمیم]

تصویر نام پیدائش جانشینی دور حکومت وفات مدت حکومت
Nerva Tivoli Massimo.jpg نیروا
MARCVS COCCEIVS NERVA CAESAR AVGVSTVS
نومبر 8, 30 عیسوی, Narni, اطالیہ Appointed by the Senate ستمبر 18, 96 عیسوی – جنوری 27, 98 عیسوی جنوری 27, 98 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات
1 year, 4 months
Traianus Glyptothek Munich 336.jpg تراجان
CAESAR MARCVS VLPIVS NERVA TRAIANVS AVGVSTVS
ستمبر 18, 53 عیسوی, اطالیکا, Hispania Baetica Adopted son and heir of Nerva جنوری 28, 98 عیسوی – اگست 7, 117 عیسوی اگست 7, 117 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات
19 years, 7 months
Bust Hadrian Musei Capitolini MC817.jpg Hadrian
CAESAR PVBLIVS AELIVS TRAIANVS HعیسویRIANVS AVGVSTVS
جنوری 24, 76 عیسوی, اطالیکا, Hispania Baetica (or روم) Adopted son and heir of تراجان اگست 11, 117 عیسوی – جولائی 10, 138 عیسوی جولائی 10, 138 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات
21 years
Antoninus Pius Glyptothek Munich 337.jpg Antoninus Pius
CAESAR TITVS AELIVS HعیسویRIANVS ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS PIVS
ستمبر 19, 86 عیسوی, Near Lanuvium, اطالیہ Adopted son and heir of Hadrian جولائی 10, 138 عیسوی – مارچ 7, 161 عیسوی مارچ 7, 161 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات
22 years, 7 months
Marcus Aurelius Glyptothek Munich.jpg Marcus Aurelius
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS
اپریل 26, 121 عیسوی, روم Adopted son, son-in-law and heir of Antoninus Pius; Co-emperor with Lucius Verus until 169 عیسوی مارچ 7, 161 عیسوی – مارچ 17, 180 عیسوی مارچ 17, 180 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات
19 years
Lucius Verus - MET - L.2007.26.jpg Lucius Verus
CAESAR LVCIVS AVRELIVS VERVS AVGVSTVS
دسمبر 15, 130 عیسوی, روم Adopted son and heir of Antoninus Pius and son-in-law of Marcus Aurelius; Co-emperor with Marcus Aurelius until death مارچ 7, 161 عیسوی – ? مارچ 169 عیسوی مارچ 169 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات (Plague)
8 years
Commodus Musei Capitolini MC1120.jpg Commodus
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS COMMODVS ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS
اگست 31, 161 عیسوی, Lanuvium, اطالیہ Natural son of Marcus Aurelius; joint emperor from 177 عیسوی 177 عیسوی – دسمبر 31, 192 عیسوی دسمبر 31, 192 عیسوی
Assassinated in palace, strangled to death
15 years

Year of the Five Emperors and Severan dynasty[ترمیم]

تصویر نام پیدائش جانشینی دور حکومت وفات مدت حکومت
Alba Iulia National Museum of the Union 2011 - Possible Statue of Roman Emperor Pertinax Close Up, Apulum.JPG Pertinax
CAESAR PVBLIVS HELVIVS PERTINAX AVGVSTVS
اگست 1, 126 عیسوی, Alba, اطالیہ Proclaimed emperor by Praetorian Guard جنوری 1, 193 عیسوی – مارچ 28, 193 عیسوی مارچ 28, 193 عیسوی
Murdered by Praetorian Guard
3 months
DidiusJulianusSest.jpg Didius Julianus
CAESAR MARCVS DIDIVS SEVERVS IVLIANVS AVGVSTVS
133 or 137 عیسوی, میلان, اطالیہ Won auction held by the Praetorian Guard for the position of emperor مارچ 28, 193 عیسوی – جون 1, 193 عیسوی جون 1, 193 عیسوی
Executed on orders of the Senate
2 months, 4 days (65 days)
Septimius Severus busto-Musei Capitolini.jpg Septimius Severus
CAESAR LVCIVS SEPTIMIVS SEVERVS PERTINAX AVGVSTVS
اپریل 11, 145 عیسوی, Leptis Magna, Libya Seized power with support of Pannonian legions[1] اپریل 9, 193 عیسوی – فروری 4, 211 عیسوی فروری 4, 211 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات
17 years, 10 months
Caracalla03 pushkin.jpg Caracalla
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS SEVERVS ANTONINVS PIVS AVGVSTVS
اپریل 4, 188 عیسوی, Lugdunum, Gallia Lugdunensis ولد Septimius Severus; co-emperor with Severus from 198 عیسوی; with Severus and Geta from 209 عیسوی until فروری 211 عیسوی; co-emperor with Geta until دسمبر 211 عیسوی 198 عیسوی – اپریل 8, 217 عیسوی اپریل 8, 217 عیسوی
Murdered by a soldier as part of a conspiracy involving Macrinus
19 years
Publius Septimius Geta Louvre Ma1076.jpg Geta
CAESAR PVBLIVS SEPTIMIVS GETA AVGVSTUS
مارچ 7, 189 عیسوی, روم ولد Septimius Severus; co-emperor with Severus and Caracalla from 209 عیسوی until فروری 211 عیسوی; co-emperor with Caracalla until دسمبر 211 عیسوی 209 عیسوی – دسمبر 26, 211 عیسوی دسمبر 19, 211 عیسوی
Murdered on the orders of Caracalla
3 years
Macrinus
MARCVS OPELLIVS SEVERVS MACRINVS AVGVSTVS PIVS FELIX

with
Diadumenian
MARCVS OPELLIVS ANTONINVS DIعیسویUMENIANVS
c. 165 عیسوی, Iol Caesarea, Mauretania Praetorian Prefect to Caracalla, probably conspired to have Caracalla murdered and proclaimed himself emperor after Caracalla's death; appointed his son Diadumenian junior emperor in May 217 اپریل 11, 217 عیسوی – جون 8, 218 عیسوی جون 8, 218 عیسوی
Both executed in favour of Elagabalus
1 year, 2 months
Bust of Elagabalus - Palazzo Nuovo - Musei Capitolini - Rome 2016 (2).jpg Elagabalus
MARCVS AVRELIVS ANTONINVS AVGVSTVS
c. 203 عیسوی, حمص, Syria Grandson-in-law of Septimius Severus, alleged illegitimate son of Caracalla; proclaimed emperor by Syrian legions جون 8, 218 عیسوی – مارچ 11, 222 عیسوی مارچ 11, 222 عیسوی
Murdered by Praetorian Guard
3 years, 9 months
Alexander severus.jpg Severus Alexander
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS SEVERVS ALEXANDER AVGVSTVS
اکتوبر 1, 208 عیسوی, Arca Caesarea, Syria Grandson-in-law of Septimius Severus, cousin and adoptive heir of Elagabalus مارچ 13, 222 عیسوی – مارچ 18, 235 عیسوی مارچ 18, 235 عیسوی
Murdered by the army
13 years

Crisis of the Third Century and Gordian dynasty[ترمیم]

تصویر نام پیدائش جانشینی دور حکومت وفات مدت حکومت
Maximinus Thrax Musei Capitolini MC473.jpg Maximinus I
CAESAR GAIVS IVLIVS VERVS MAXIMINVS AVGVSTVS
c.173 عیسوی, تھریس or Moesia Proclaimed emperor by German legions after the murder of Severus Alexander مارچ 20, 235 عیسوی – جون 238 عیسوی جون 238 عیسوی
Assassinated by Praetorian Guard
3 years, 3 months
Gordian I Musei Capitolini MC475.jpg Gordian I
CAESAR MARCVS ANTONIVS GORDIANVS SEMPRONIANVS AFRICANVS AVGVSTVS
c. 159 عیسوی, Phrygia? Proclaimed emperor, whilst Pro-consul in Africa, during a revolt against Maximinus. Ruled jointly with his son Gordian II, and in opposition to Maximinus. Technically a usurper, but retrospectively legitimised by the accession of Gordian III مارچ 22, 238 عیسوی – اپریل 12, 238 عیسوی اپریل 238 عیسوی
Committed suicide upon hearing of the death of Gordian II.
21 days
GordianusIIsest.jpg Gordian II
CAESAR MARCVS ANTONIVS GORDIANVS SEMPRONIANVS ROMANVS AFRICANVS AVGVSTVS
c. 192 عیسوی, ? Proclaimed emperor, alongside father Gordian I, in opposition to Maximinus by act of the Senate. مارچ 22, 238 عیسوی – اپریل 12, 238 عیسوی اپریل 238 عیسوی
Killed during the Battle of Carthage, fighting a pro-Maximinus army
21 days
Pupienus Musei Capitolini MC477.jpg Pupienus
CAESAR MARCVS CLODIVS PVPIENVS MAXIMVS AVGVSTVS
c. 178 عیسوی, ? Proclaimed joint emperor with Balbinus by the Senate in opposition to Maximinus; later co-emperor with Balbinus. اپریل 22, 238 عیسوی – جولائی 29, 238 عیسوی جولائی 29, 238 عیسوی
Assassinated by the Praetorian Guard
3 months
Balbinus Hermitage.jpg Balbinus
CAESAR DECIMVS CAELIVS CALVINVS BALBINVS PIVS AVGVSTVS
? Proclaimed joint emperor with Pupienus by the Senate after death of Gordian I and II, in opposition to Maximinus; later co-emperor with Pupienus and Gordian III اپریل 22, 238 عیسوی – جولائی 29, 238 عیسوی جولائی 29, 238 عیسوی
Assassinated by Praetorian Guard
3 months
Bust Gordianus III Louvre Ma1063.jpg Gordian III
CAESAR MARCVS ANTONIVS GORDIANVS AVGVSTVS
جنوری 20, 225 عیسوی, روم Proclaimed emperor by supporters of Gordian I and II, then by the Senate; joint emperor with Pupienus and Balbinus until جولائی 238 عیسوی. اپریل 22, 238 عیسوی – فروری 11, 244 عیسوی فروری 11, 244 عیسوی
Unknown; possibly murdered on orders of Philip I
6 years
Bust of emperor Philippus Arabus - Hermitage Museum.jpg Philip I
CAESAR MARCVS IVLIVS PHILIPPVS AVGVSTVS

with Philip II
c. 204 عیسوی, شہبا, Syria Praetorian Prefect to Gordian III, took power after his death; made his son Philip II co-emperor in summer 247 عیسوی فروری 244 عیسوی – ستمبر/اکتوبر 249 عیسوی ستمبر/اکتوبر 249 عیسوی
Killed in battle against Trajan Decius, near ویرونا
5 years
Emperor Traianus Decius (Mary Harrsch).jpg Trajan Decius
CAESAR GAIVS MESSIVS QVINTVS TRAIANVS DECIVS AVGVSTVS

with Herennius Etruscus
c. 201 عیسوی, Budalia, Pannonia Inferior Governor under Philip I; proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions and defeated Philip in battle; made his son Herennius Etruscus co-emperor in early 251 عیسوی ستمبر/ اکتوبر 249 عیسوی – جون 251 عیسوی جون 251 عیسوی
Both killed in the Battle of Abrittus fighting against the Goths
2 years
Hostilian
CAESAR CAIVS VALENS HOSTILIANVS MESSIVS QVINTVS AVGVSTVS
Sirmium ولد Trajan Decius, accepted as heir by the Senate جون 251 عیسوی – late 251 عیسوی ستمبر/اکتوبر 251 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات (plague)
4–5 months
Ritratto di trebonianno gallo III sec. dc. 01.JPG Trebonianus Gallus
CAESAR GAIVS VIBIVS TREBONIANVS GALLVS AVGVSTVS

with
Volusianus
206 عیسوی, اطالیہ Governor of Moesia Superior, proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions after Trajan Decius's death (and in opposition to Hostilian); made his son Volusianus co-emperor in late 251 عیسوی. جون 251 عیسوی – اگست 253 عیسوی اگست 253 عیسوی
Assassinated by their own troops, in favour of Aemilian
2 years
Aemilian1.jpg Aemilian
CAESAR MARCVS AEMILIVS AEMILIANVS AVGVSTVS
c. 207 عیسوی Africa Governor of Moesia Superior, proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions after defeating the Goths; accepted as emperor after death of Gallus اگست 253 عیسوی – اکتوبر 253 عیسوی ستمبر/اکتوبر 253 عیسوی
Assassinated by his own troops, in favour of Valerian
2 months
Aureus Valerian-RIC 0034-transparent.png Valerian
CAESAR PVBLIVS LICINIVS VALERIANVS AVGVSTVS
c. 195 عیسوی Governor of Noricum and Raetia, proclaimed emperor by Rhine legions after death of Gallus; accepted as emperor after death of Aemilian اکتوبر 253 عیسوی – 260 عیسوی After 260 عیسوی
Captured in Battle of Edessa against Persians, died in captivity
7 years
Gallienus.jpg Gallienus
CAESAR PVBLIVS LICINIVS EGNATIVS GALLIENVS AVGVSTVS

with Saloninus
218 عیسوی ولد Valerian, made co-emperor in 253 عیسوی; his son Saloninus is very briefly co-emperor in c. جولائی 260 before assassination by Postumus. اکتوبر 253 عیسوی – ستمبر 268 عیسوی ستمبر 268 عیسوی
Murdered at Aquileia by his own commanders.
15 years
Santa Giulia 4.jpg Claudius Gothicus
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CLAVDIVS AVGVSTVS
May 10, 213 عیسوی/214 عیسوی, Sirmium Victorious general at Battle of Naissus, seized power after Gallienus's death ستمبر 268 عیسوی – جنوری 270 عیسوی جنوری 270 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات (plague)
1 year, 4 months
Antoninianus Quintillus-s3243.jpg Quintillus
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CLAVDIVS QVINTILLVS AVGVSTVS
?, Sirmium Brother of Claudius Gothicus, seized power after his death جنوری 270 عیسوی – 270 عیسوی 270 عیسوی
Unclear; possibly suicide or murder
Unknown
Aureliancoin1.jpg Aurelian
CAESAR LVCIVS DOMITIVS AVRELIANVS AVGVSTVS
ستمبر 9, 214 عیسوی/215 عیسوی, Sirmium Proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions after Claudius II's death, in opposition to Quintillus ستمبر(?) 270 عیسوی – ستمبر 275 عیسوی ستمبر 275 عیسوی
Assassinated by Praetorian Guard
5 years
EmpereurTacite.jpg Tacitus
CAESAR MARCVS CLAVDIVS TACITVS AVGVSTVS
c. 200, Interamna Elected by the Senate to replace Aurelian, after a short interregnum ستمبر 25, 275 عیسوی – جون 276 عیسوی جون 276 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات (possibly assassinated)
9 months
Antoninianus Florianus-unpub ant hercules.jpg Florian
CAESAR MARCVS ANNIVS FLORIANVS AVGVSTVS
? Brother of Tacitus, elected by the army in the west to replace him جون 276 عیسوی – ستمبر? 276 عیسوی ستمبر? 276 عیسوی
Assassinated by his own troops, in favour of Probus
3 months
Probus Musei Capitolini MC493.jpg Probus
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS PROBVS AVGVSTVS
232 عیسوی, Sirmium Governor of the eastern provinces, proclaimed emperor by Danubian legions in opposition to Florian ستمبر? 276 عیسوی – ستمبر/ اکتوبر 282 عیسوی ستمبر/ اکتوبر 282 عیسوی
Assassinated by his own troops, in favour of Carus
6 years
Antoninianus of Carus.jpg Carus
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CARVS AVGVSTVS
c. 230 عیسوی, Narbo Praetorian Prefect to Probus; seized power either before or after Probus was murdered ستمبر/ اکتوبر 282 عیسوی – late July/ early اگست 283 عیسوی Late July/early اگست 283 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات? (Possibly killed by lightning)
10–11 months
NumerianusAntoninianus.jpg Numerian
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS NVMERIVS NVMERIANVS AVGVSTVS
? ولد Carus, succeeded him jointly with his brother Carinus Late July/early اگست 283 عیسوی – 284 عیسوی? 284 عیسوی
Unclear; possibly assassinated
1 year
Montemartini - Carino 1030439.JPG Carinus
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS CARINVS AVGVSTVS
? ولد Carus, succeeded him jointly with his brother Numerian Late July/early اگست 283 عیسوی – 285 عیسوی 285 عیسوی
Died in battle against Diocletian?
2 years

ڈومینیٹ[ترمیم]

Tetrarchy and Constantinian dynasty[ترمیم]

تصویر نام پیدائش جانشینی دور حکومت وفات مدت حکومت
Istanbul - Museo archeol. - Diocleziano (284-305 d.C.) - Foto G. Dall'Orto 28-5-2006.jpg Diocletian
CAESAR GAIVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS DIOCLETIANVS AVGVSTVS
c. دسمبر 22, 244 عیسوی, Salona Proclaimed emperor by army after death of Numerian, and in opposition to Carinus; adopted Maximian as senior co-emperor in 286 عیسوی نومبر 20, 284 عیسوی – May 1, 305 عیسوی 3 دسمبر 311 عیسوی
Abdicated; died of natural causes in Aspalatos
20 years
Toulouse - Musée Saint-Raymond - Maximien Hercule1.jpg Maximian
CAESAR MARCVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS MAXIMIANVS AVGVSTVS
c. 250 عیسوی, near Sirmium, Pannonia Adopted as senior co-emperor ('Augustus') in the west by Diocletian in 286 عیسوی اپریل 1, 286 عیسوی – May 1, 305 عیسوی 310 عیسوی
Abdicated with Diocletian; twice tried to regain throne with, and then from Maxentius; captured by قسطنطین اعظم and committed suicide at his behest
19 years
Const.chlorus01 pushkin.jpg Constantius I Chlorus
CAESAR GAIVS FLAVIVS VALERIVS CONSTANTIVS AVGVSTVS
مارچ 31 c. 250 عیسوی, Dardania, Moesia Adopted as junior co-emperor ('Caesar') and heir by Maximian in 293 عیسوی May 1, 305 عیسوی – جولائی 25, 306 عیسوی 306 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات
1 year and 2 months
Romuliana Galerius head.jpg Galerius
CAESAR GALERIVS VALERIVS MAXIMIANVS AVGVSTVS
c. 260 عیسوی, Felix Romuliana, Moesia Superior Adopted as junior co-emperor ('Caesar') and heir by Diocletian in 293 عیسوی. Also son-in-law of Diocletian. May 1, 305 عیسوی – May 311 عیسوی 311 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات
6 years
Follis-Flavius Valerius Severus-trier RIC 650a.jpg Severus II
FLAVIVS VALERIVS SEVERVS AVGVSTVS
? Adopted as junior co-emperor ('Caesar') and heir by Constantius I Chlorus in 305 عیسوی; succeeded as Augustus in 306; opposed by Maxentius and قسطنطین اعظم Summer 306 عیسوی – مارچ/ اپریل 307 عیسوی ستمبر 16, 307 عیسوی
Captured by Maxentius and forced to commit suicide (or murdered)
1 year
Rome-Capitole-StatueConstantin.jpg قسطنطین اعظم
CAESAR FLAVIVS CONSTANTINVS VALERIVS AVGVSTVS
فروری 27 c. 272 عیسوی, نیش, Moesia Superior ولد Constantius I Chlorus, proclaimed emperor by his father's troops; accepted as Caesar (west) by Galerius in 306 عیسوی; promoted to Augustus (west) in 307 عیسوی by Maximian after death of Severus II; refused relegation to Caesar in 309 عیسوی 25 جولائی 306 عیسوی – May 22, 337 عیسوی May 22, 337 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات
31 years
Maxentius02 pushkin.jpg Maxentius
MARCVS AVRELIVS VALERIVS MAXENTIVS AVGVSTVS
c. 278 عیسوی, ? ولد Maximian, seized power in 306 after death of Constantius I Chlorus, in opposition to Severus and قسطنطین اعظم; made Caesar (west) by Maximian in 307 عیسوی after the death of Severus 28 اکتوبر 306 عیسوی – اکتوبر 28, 312 عیسوی اکتوبر 28, 312 عیسوی
Died at the Battle of the Milvian Bridge, against قسطنطین اعظم
6 years
Daza01 pushkin.jpg Maximinus II
CAESAR GALERIVS VALERIVS MAXIMINVS AVGVSTVS
نومبر 20 c. 270 عیسوی, Dacia Aureliana Nephew of Galerius, adopted as Caesar and his heir in 305 عیسوی; succeeded as Augustus (shared with Licinius I) in 311 عیسوی May 1, 311 عیسوی – July/اگست 313 عیسوی July/اگست 313 عیسوی
Defeated in civil war against Licinius I; probably committed suicide thereafter
2 years
Aureus of Licinius.png Licinius I
CAESAR GAIVS VALERIVS LICINIVS AVGVSTVS

with
Valerius Valens
Martinian
c. 250 عیسوی, Felix Romuliana, Moesia Superior Son-in-law of Constantius Chlorus, appointed Augustus in the west by Galerius in 308 عیسوی, in opposition to Maxentius; became Augustus in the east in 311 عیسوی after the death of Galerius (shared with Maximinus II); defeated Maximinus in civil war to become sole eastern Augustus in 313 عیسوی; appointed Valerius Valens in 317 عیسوی, and Martinian in 324 عیسوی as western Augustus, in opposition to Constantine, both being executed within weeks. نومبر 11, 308 عیسوی – ستمبر 18, 324 عیسوی 325 عیسوی
Defeated in civil war against قسطنطین اعظم in 324 عیسوی and captured; executed on the orders of Constantine the next year
16 years
Campidoglio, Roma - Costantino II cesare dettaglio.jpg Constantine II
CAESAR FLAVIVS CLAVDIVS CONSTANTINVS AVGVSTVS
316 عیسوی, Arles ولد قسطنطین اعظم; appointed Caesar in 317 عیسوی, succeeded as joint Augustus with his brothers Constantius II and Constans I May 22, 337 عیسوی – 340 عیسوی 340 عیسوی
Died in battle against Constans I
3 years
Bust of Constantius II (Mary Harrsch).jpg Constantius II
CAESAR FLAVIVS IVLIVS CONSTANTIVS AVGVSTVS
اگست 7, 317 عیسوی, Sirmium, Pannonia ولد قسطنطین اعظم; succeeded as joint Augustus with his brothers Constantine II and Constans I; sole emperor from 350 عیسوی May 22, 337 عیسوی – نومبر 3, 361 عیسوی 361 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات
24 years
Emperor Constans Louvre Ma1021.jpg Constans I
CAESAR FLAVIVS IVLIVS CONSTANS AVGVSTVS
320 عیسوی, ? ولد قسطنطین اعظم; succeeded as joint Augustus with his brothers Constantine II and Constantius II May 22, 337 عیسوی – 350 عیسوی 350 عیسوی
Assassinated on the orders of the usurper Magnentius
13 years
Maiorina-Vetranio-siscia RIC 281.jpg Vetranio ?, Moesia General of Constans I, proclaimed Caesar against Magnentius and temporarily accepted as Augustus of the west by Constantius II. مارچ 1 – دسمبر 25, 350 عیسوی c. 356
As a private citizen, after abdication.
9 months
JulianusII-antioch(360-363)-CNG.jpg Julian II "the Apostate"
CAESAR FLAVIVS CLAVDIVS IVLIANVS AVGVSTVS
331 عیسوی/332 عیسوی, قسطنطنیہ, Thracia Cousin of Constantius II; made Caesar of the west in 355 عیسوی; proclaimed Augustus by his troops in 360; sole emperor after the death of Constantius فروری 360 عیسوی – جون 26, 363 عیسوی جون 26, 363 عیسوی
Mortally wounded in battle
3 years
Jovian1.jpg Jovian
CAESAR FLAVIVS IOVIANVS AVGVSTVS
331 عیسوی, Singidunum, Moesia General of Julian's army; proclaimed emperor by the troops on Julian's death جون 26, 363 عیسوی – فروری 17, 364 عیسوی فروری 17, 364 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات (suffocated on fumes)
1 year

Valentinian dynasty[ترمیم]

تصویر نام پیدائش جانشینی دور حکومت وفات مدت حکومت
ValentinianI.jpg Valentinian I
FLAVIVS VALENTINIANVS AVGVSTVS
321 عیسوی, Cibalae, Pannonia Elected to replace Jovian by the army فروری 26, 364 عیسوی – نومبر 17, 375 عیسوی نومبر 17, 375 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات
11 years
Valens Honorius Musei Capitolini MC494.jpg Valens
FLAVIVS IVLIVS VALENS AVGVSTVS
328 عیسوی, Cibalae, Pannonia Brother of Valentinian I, appointed co-augustus (for the east) by him مارچ 28, 364 عیسوی – اگست 9, 378 عیسوی اگست 9, 378 عیسوی
Killed in Battle of Adrianople against the Goths
14 years
Gratian Solidus.jpg Gratian
FLAVIVS GRATIANVS AVGVSTVS
اپریل 18/May 23, 359 عیسوی, Sirmium, Pannonia ولد Valentinian I, appointed 'junior' Augustus by him in 367, became 'senior' augustus (for the west) after Valentinian's death. اگست 4, 367 عیسوی – اگست 25, 383 عیسوی اگست 25, 383 عیسوی
Murdered by rebellious army faction
16 years
Statue of emperor Valentinian II detail.JPG Valentinian II
FLAVIVS VALENTINIANVS INVICTVS AVGVSTVS
371 عیسوی, میلان, اطالیہ ولد Valentinian I, proclaimed emperor by Pannonian army after Valentinian's death; accepted as co-Augustus for the west by Gratian نومبر 17, 375 عیسوی – May 15, 392 عیسوی May 15, 392 عیسوی
Unclear; possibly murdered or committed suicide
17 years

Theodosian dynasty[ترمیم]

تصویر نام پیدائش جانشینی دور حکومت وفات مدت حکومت
Theodosius.jpg Theodosius I
FLAVIVS THEODOSIVS AVGVSTVS
جنوری 11, 347 عیسوی, Cauca, ہسپانیا Son-in-law of Valentinian I, appointed as Augustus for the east by Gratian after the death of Valens; became sole 'senior' Augustus after death of Valentinian II جنوری 1, 379 عیسوی – جنوری 17, 395 عیسوی جنوری 17, 395 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات
16 years
Arcadius Istanbul Museum.PNG Arcadius
FLAVIVS ARCعیسویIVS AVGVSTVS

EAST
c. 377 عیسوی, ہسپانیا ولد Theodosius I; appointed as 'junior' Augustus for the east by Theodosius in 383 (after the death of Gratian); became 'senior' Augustus for the east after his father's death جنوری 383 عیسوی – May 1, 408 عیسوی May 1, 408 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات
25 years
Magnus Maximus

with Flavius Victor

WEST
c. 335 عیسوی, ہسپانیا Usurper in the West; legitimized along with his son Victor by Theodosius I as emperors of Britannia and Gaul. 383/384 عیسوی – اگست 28, 388 عیسوی اگست 28, 388 عیسوی
Executed by Theodosius I in Aquileia after the Battle of the Save; Victor killed by Arbogast
4/5 years
Consular diptych Probus 406.jpg Honorius
FLAVIVS HONORIVS AVGVSTVS

WEST
ستمبر 9, 384 عیسوی, ? ولد Theodosius I; appointed as 'junior' Augustus for the west by Theodosius in 393 (after the death of Valentinian II); became 'senior' Augustus for the west after his father's death جنوری 23, 393 عیسوی – اگست 15, 423 عیسوی اگست 15, 423 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات
30 years
Theodosius II Louvre Ma1036.jpg Theodosius II
FLAVIVS THEODOSIVS AVGVSTVS

EAST
اپریل 10, 401 عیسوی, قسطنطنیہ? ولد Arcadius; appointed as 'junior' Augustus for the east by Arcadius in 402; became 'senior' Augustus for the east after his father's death جنوری 402 عیسوی – جولائی 28, 450 عیسوی جولائی 28, 450 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات
48 years
Constantineiii.jpg Constantine III

with Constans II

WEST
? Usurper who declared himself emperor in the west in 407, recognized as co-emperor by Honorius in 409. Elevated his son Constans II to co-emperor in 409, who was not recognized by Honorius. 407/409 عیسوی - اگست or ستمبر 411 عیسوی اگست or ستمبر 411 عیسوی
Executed by Constantius III
2 years
Solidus Constantius III-RIC 1325.jpg Constantius III
FLAVIVS CONSTANTIVS AVGVSTVS

WEST
?, نیش, Moesia Superior Married to Theodosius I's daughter Galla Placidia, elevated to co-Augustus for the west by Honorius فروری 8, 421 عیسوی – ستمبر 2, 421 عیسوی ستمبر 2, 421 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات
7 months
Solidus Johannes-s4283.jpg Joannes


WEST
? A senior civil servant under Honorius, proclaimed emperor by Castinus; not recognized by the Eastern Empire اگست 27, 423 عیسوی – May 425 عیسوی جون or جولائی 425 عیسوی
Defeated in battle by Theodosius II and Valentinian III, captured and executed
2 years
Solidus ValentinianIII-wedding.jpg Valentinian III
FLAVIVS PLACIDIVS VALENTINIANVS AVGVSTVS

WEST
جولائی 2, 419 عیسوی, راوینا, اطالیہ ولد Constantius III, appointed Caesar for the west by Theodosius II after the death of Honorius, in opposition to the Johannes; became Augustus for the west after the defeat of Johannes اکتوبر 23, 424 عیسوی – مارچ 16, 455 عیسوی مارچ 16, 455 عیسوی
Assassinated, possibly at the behest of Petronius Maximus
31 years
Solidus Marcian RIC 0509.jpg Marcian
FLAVIVS MARCIANVS AVGVSTVS

EAST
396, تھریس or Illyria Nominated as successor (and husband) by Pulcheria, sister of Theodosius II Summer 450 عیسوی – جنوری 457 عیسوی جنوری 457 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات
7 years

The last emperors of the Western Empire[ترمیم]

تصویر نام پیدائش جانشینی دور حکومت وفات مدت حکومت
Solidus Petronius Maximus-RIC 2201.jpg Petronius Maximus
FLAVIVS ANICIVS PETRONIVS MAXIMVS AVGVSTVS
c. 396 عیسوی, ? Son-in-law of Theodosius II, proclaimed himself emperor with the support of the army, after the death of Valentinian III. Not recognized by the Eastern Empire. مارچ 17, 455 عیسوی – May 31, 455 عیسوی May 31, 455 عیسوی
Murdered, probably stoned to death by the Roman mob
2 months
Tremissis Avitus-RIC 2402.jpg Avitus
EPARCHIVS AVITVS AVGVSTVS
c. 385 عیسوی, ? Magister militum under Petronius Maximus, proclaimed emperor by the Visigoth king Theoderic II after Petronius's death جولائی 9, 455 عیسوی – اکتوبر 17, 456 عیسوی after 17 اکتوبر 456 عیسوی
Deposed by his Magister militum, Ricimer; became bishop of Placentia; murdered at some point afterwards
1 year
Impero d'occidente, maggioriano, solido in oro (arles), 457-461.JPG Majorian
IVLIVS VALERIVS MAIORIANVS AVGVSTVS
نومبر 420 عیسوی, ? Appointed emperor by Ricimer اپریل 457 عیسوی – اگست 2, 461 عیسوی اگست 7, 461 عیسوی
Deposed by his troops (probably at the behest of Ricimer); beheaded on the orders of Ricimer
4 years
Libio Severo - MNR Palazzo Massimo.jpg Libius Severus
LIBIVS SEVERVS AVGVSTVS
?, Lucania, اطالیہ Appointed emperor by Ricimer. Not recognized by the Eastern Empire. نومبر 461 عیسوی – اگست 465 عیسوی اگست 465 عیسوی
Probably poisoned by Ricimer
4 years
Anthemius.jpg Anthemius
PROCOPIVS ANTHEMIVS AVGVSTVS
c. 420 عیسوی Son-in-law of Marcian, appointed emperor by Ricimer, with the backing of the eastern emperor Leo I اپریل 12, 467 عیسوی – جولائی 11, 472 عیسوی جولائی 11, 472 عیسوی
Executed by Ricimer
5 years
Anicius Olybrius.png Olybrius
FLAVIVS ANICIVS OLYBRIVS AVGVSTVS
c. 420 عیسوی Son-in-law of Valentinian III; appointed emperor by Ricimer. Not recognized by the Eastern Empire. جولائی 11, 472 عیسوی – نومبر 2, 472 عیسوی نومبر 2, 472 عیسوی
قدرتی وجوہات
4 months
Glicerio - MNR Palazzo Massimo.jpg Glycerius
FLAVIVS(?) GLYCERIVS AVGVSTVS
? Appointed emperor by Gundobad (Ricimer's successor). Not recognized by the Eastern Empire. مارچ 473 عیسوی – جون 474 عیسوی after 480 عیسوی
Deposed by Julius Nepos, became Bishop of Salona, time and manner of death unknown
1 year
Tremissis Julius Nepos-RIC 3221.jpg Julius Nepos
FLAVIVS IVLIVS NEPOS AVGVSTVS
c. 430 عیسوی Nephew-in-law of the eastern emperor Leo I, appointed emperor in opposition to Glycerius جون 474 عیسوی – اگست 28, 475 عیسوی (in Italy); – spring 480 عیسوی (in Gaul and Dalmatia) 480 عیسوی
Deposed in Italy by Flavius Orestes, ruled in balance of Western Empire until assassination in 480. Maintained as figurehead in Italy by Odoacer to his death in 480.
1 year/6 years
RomulusAugustus.jpg Romulus Augustulus
FLAVIVS ROMVLVS AVGVSTVS
c. 460 عیسوی, ?[2] Appointed by his father, Flavius Orestes. Not recognized by the Eastern Empire. اکتوبر 31, 475 عیسوی – ستمبر 4, 476 عیسوی (in Italy) Unknown.
Regarded as emperor more from historical convention than accuracy, his rule never extended beyond portions of the Italian peninsula and was not recognized by Eastern Emperor Zeno. Deposed by Odoacer, who then ruled in the name of Julius Nepos until the latter's death in 480, which formally ended the separate western empire; most likely lived out his life on a private villa in obscurity.
11 months

مشرقی شہنشاہان[ترمیم]

Leonid dynasty (457–518)[ترمیم]

مزید دیکھیے: Leonid dynasty
نام دور حکومت تبصرہ
Leo I Louvre Ma1012.jpg Leo I "the Thracian", "the Butcher", or "the Great"
(Λέων Α' ὁ Θρᾷξ, ὁ Μακέλλης, ὁ Μέγας, Flavius Valerius Leo)
7 فروری 457 –
18 جنوری 474
Born in Dacia ca. 400, and of Bessian origin, Leo became a low-ranking officer and served as an attendant of the Gothic commander-in-chief of the army, Aspar, who chose him as emperor on Marcian's death. He was the first emperor to be crowned by the Patriarch of Constantinople. His reign was marked by the pacification of the Danube frontier and peace with Persia, which allowed him to intervene in the affairs of the western empire, supporting candidates for the throne and dispatching an expedition to recover قرطاج from the Vandals in 468. Initially a puppet of Aspar, Leo began promoting the Isaurians as a counterweight to Aspar's Goths, marrying his daughter Ariadne to the Isaurian leader Tarasicodissa (Zeno). With their support, in 471 Aspar was murdered and Gothic power over the army was broken.[3]
Leo (474)-coin.jpg Leo II "the Little"
(Λέων Β' ὁ Μικρός, Flavius Leo)
18 جنوری –
17 نومبر 474
Born ca. 467, he was the grandson of Leo I by Leo's daughter Ariadne and her Isaurian husband, Zeno. Raised to Caesar and then co-emperor in autumn 473, soon after his accession Leo II crowned his father Zeno as co-emperor and effective regent. Died shortly after, possibly poisoned.[4]
Zeno.png Zeno
(Ζήνων, Flavius Zeno)
17 نومبر 474 –
9 اپریل 491
Born ca. 425 in Isauria, originally named Tarasicodissa. As the leader of Leo I's Isaurian soldiers, he rose to comes domesticorum, married the emperor's daughter Ariadne and took the name Zeno, and played a crucial role in the elimination of Aspar and his Goths. He was named co-emperor by his son on 9 فروری 474, and became sole ruler upon the latter's death, but had to flee to his native country before Basiliscus in 475, regaining control of the capital in 476. Zeno concluded peace with the Vandals, saw off challenges against him by Illus and Verina, and secured peace in the بلقان by enticing the Ostrogoths under Theodoric the Great to migrate to Italy. Zeno's reign also saw the end of the western line of emperors. His pro-Monophysite stance made him unpopular and his promulgation of the Henotikon resulted in the Acacian Schism with the papacy.[5]
Basiliscus.jpg Basiliscus
(Βασιλίσκος, Flavius Basiliscus)
9 جنوری 475 –
اگست 476
General and brother-in-law of Leo I, he seized power from Zeno but was again deposed by him. Died in 476/477
Anastasius I (emperor).jpg Anastasius I
(Ἀναστάσιος Α' ὁ Δίκορος, Flavius Anastasius)
11 اپریل 491 –
9 جولائی 518
Son-in-law of Leo I, he was born ca. 430 at دراج, he was a palace official (silentiarius) when he was chosen as her husband and Emperor by Empress-dowager Ariadne. He was nicknamed "Dikoros", because of his heterochromia. Anastasius reformed the tax system and the Byzantine coinage and proved a frugal ruler, so that by the end of his reign he left a substantial surplus. His Monophysite sympathies led to wideaspread opposition, most notably the Revolt of Vitalian and the Acacian Schism. His reign was also marked by the first Bulgar raids into the بلقان and by a war with Persia over the foundation of Dara. He died childless.[6]

Justinian dynasty (518–602)[ترمیم]

مزید دیکھیے: Justinian dynasty
نام دور حکومت تبصرہ
JustinI.jpg Justin I
(Ἰουστῖνος Α', Flavius Iustinus)
جولائی 518 –
1 اگست 527
Born c. 450 at Bederiana (Justiniana Prima), Dardania. Officer and commander of the Excubitors bodyguard under Anastasius I, he was elected by army and people upon the death of Anastasius I.
Meister von San Vitale in Ravenna.jpg Justinian I "the Great"
(Ἰουστινιανὸς Α' ὁ Μέγας, Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus)
1 اگست 527 –
13/14 نومبر 565
Born in 482/483 at Tauresium (Taor), Dardania. Nephew of Justin I, possibly raised to co-emperor on 1 اپریل 527. Succeeded on Justin I's death.
Justin II.jpg Justin II
(Ἰουστῖνος Β', Flavius Iustinus Iunior)
14 نومبر 565 –
5 اکتوبر 578
Born c. 520. Nephew of Justinian I, he seized the throne on the death of Justinian I with support of army and Senate. Became insane, hence in 573–574 under the regency of his wife Sophia, and in 574–578 under the regency of Tiberius Constantine.
Tiberius II.jpg Tiberius II Constantine
(Τιβέριος Β', Flavius Tiberius Constantinus)
5 اکتوبر 578 –
14 اگست 582
Born c. 535, commander of the Excubitors, friend and adoptive son of Justin. Was named Caesar and regent in 574. Succeeded on Justin II's death.
Emperor Maurice.jpg Maurice
(Μαυρίκιος, Flavius Mauricius Tiberius)
14 اگست 582 –
22 نومبر 602
Born in 539 at Arabissus, کیپادوکیا. Became an official and later a general. Married the daughter of Tiberius II and succeeded him upon his death. Named his son Theodosius as co-emperor in 590. Deposed by Phocas and executed on 27 نومبر 602 at Chalcedon.

Non-dynastic (602–610)[ترمیم]

نام دور حکومت تبصرہ
Phocas (emperor).jpg Phocas
(Φωκᾶς, Flavius Phocas)
23 نومبر 602 –
4 اکتوبر 610
Subaltern in the Balkan army, he led a rebellion that deposed Maurice. Increasingly unpopular and tyrannical, he was deposed and executed by Heraclius.

Heraclian dynasty (610–695)[ترمیم]

مزید دیکھیے: Heraclian dynasty
نام دور حکومت تبصرہ
Tremissis of Heraclius.jpg ہرقل
(Ἡράκλειος, Flavius Heraclius)
5 اکتوبر 610 –
11 فروری 641
Born c. 575 as the eldest son of the Exarch of Africa, Heraclius the Elder. Began a revolt against Phocas in 609 and deposed him in اکتوبر 610. Brought the Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602–628 to successful conclusion but was unable to stop the Muslim conquest of Syria. Officially replaced Latin with Greek as the language of administration.
Heraclius and sons.jpg Constantine III
formally Heraclius New Constantine
(Ἡράκλειος νέος Κωνσταντῖνος, Heraclius Novus Constantinus)
11 فروری –
24/26 May 641
Born on 3 May 612 as the eldest son of Heraclius by his first wife Fabia Eudokia. Named co-emperor in 613, he succeeded to throne with his younger brother Heraklonas following the death of Heraclius. Died of tuberculosis, allegedly poisoned by Empress-dowager Martina.
Heraclius and sons.jpg Heraklonas
(Ἡρακλωνᾶς, Heraclianus)
formally Constantine Heraclius
(Κωνσταντίνος Ἡράκλειος, Constantinus Heraclius)
11 فروری 641 –
ستمبر 641
Born in 626 to Heraclius' second wife Martina, named co-emperor in 638. Succeeded to throne with Constantine III following the death of Heraclius. Sole emperor after the death of Constantine III, under the regency of Martina, but was forced to name قسطن ثانی co-emperor by the army, and was deposed by the Senate in ستمبر 641.
Tremissis of Constans II Pogonatus.jpg قسطن ثانی
(Κῶνστας Β', Constantus II)
formally Constantine "the Bearded",
(Κωνσταντίνος ὁ Πωγωνάτος)
ستمبر 641 –
15 ستمبر 668
Born on 7 نومبر 630, the son of Constantine III. Raised to co-emperor in summer 641 after his father's death due to army pressure, he became sole emperor after the forced abdication of his uncle Heraklonas. Baptized Heraclius, he reigned as Constantine. "Constans" is his nickname. Moved his seat to Syracuse, where he was assassinated, possibly on the orders of Mezezius.
Solidus of Constantine IV.jpg Constantine IV "the Bearded"
(Κωνσταντίνος Δ' ὁ Πωγωνάτος)
15 ستمبر 668 –
ستمبر 685
Born in 652, he succeeded following the murder of his father Constans II. Erroneously called "Constantine the Bearded" by historians through confusion with his father. He repelled the محاصرہ قسطنطنیہ 674ء تا 678ء, and died of dysentery.
Solidus-Justinian II-reverse.JPG Justinian II "the Slit-nosed"
(Ἰουστινιανὸς Β' ὁ Ῥινότμητος)
ستمبر 685 –
695
Born in 669, he was named co-emperor in 681 and became sole emperor upon Constantine IV's death. Deposed by military revolt in 695, mutilated (hence his surname) and exiled to Cherson, whence he recovered his throne in 705.

Twenty Years' Anarchy (695–717)[ترمیم]

نام دور حکومت تبصرہ
Solidus of Leontius.jpg Leontios
(Λεόντιος)
695–698 General from Isauria, he deposed Justinian II and was overthrown in another revolt in 698. He was executed in فروری 706.
Solidus of Tiberius Apsimar.jpg Tiberius III Apsimar
(Τιβέριος Γ' Ἀψίμαρος)
698–705 Admiral of Germanic origin, originally named Apsimar. He rebelled against Leontios after a failed expedition. Reigned under the name of Tiberius until deposed by Justinian II in 705. Executed in فروری 706.
Solidus-Justinian II-reverse.JPG Justinian II "the Slit-nosed"
(Ἰουστινιανὸς Β' ὁ Ῥινότμητος)
اگست 705 –
دسمبر 711
Returned on the throne with Bulgar support. Named son Tiberius as co-emperor in 706. Deposed and killed by military revolt.
Solidus of Philippicus Bardanes.jpg Philippikos Bardanes
(Φιλιππικὸς Βαρδάνης)
دسمبر 711 –
3 جون 713
A general of Armenian origin, he deposed Justinian II and was in turn overthrown by a revolt of the Opsician troops.
Solidus of Anastasius II.jpg Anastasios II
(Ἀναστάσιος Β')
جون 713 –
نومبر 715
Originally named Artemios. A bureaucrat and secretary under Philippikos, he was raised to the purple by the soldiers who overthrew Philippikos. Deposed by another military revolt, he led an abortive attempt to regain the throne in 718 and was killed.
Theodosius iii coin.jpg Theodosios III
(Θεοδόσιος Γ')
May 715 –
25 مارچ 717
A fiscal official, he was proclaimed emperor by the rebellious Opsician troops. Entered Constantinople in نومبر 715. Abdicated following the revolt of Leo the Isaurian and became a monk.

Isaurian dynasty (717–802)[ترمیم]

مزید دیکھیے: Isaurian dynasty
نام دور حکومت تبصرہ
Solidus of Leo III the Isaurian.jpg Leo III "the Isaurian"
(Λέων Γ΄ ὁ Ἴσαυρος)
25 مارچ 717 –
18 جون 741
Born c. 685 in Germanikeia, Commagene, he became a general. Rose in rebellion and secured the throne in spring 717. Repelled the محاصرہ قسطنطنیہ 717ء تا 718ء and initiated the Byzantine Iconoclasm.
Solidus of Constantine V Copronymus.jpg Constantine V "the Dung-named"
(Κωνσταντίνος Ε΄ ὁ Κοπρώνυμος)
18 جون 741 –
14 ستمبر 775
Born in جولائی 718, the only son of Leo III. Co-emperor since 720, he succeeded upon his father's death. After overcoming the usurpation of Artabasdos, he continued his father's iconoclastic policies and won several victories against the Arabs and the Bulgars. He is given the surname "the Dung-named" by hostile later chroniclers.
Artabasdos
(Ἀρτάβασδος)
جون 741/742 –
2 نومبر 743
General and son-in-law of Leo III, Count of the Opsician Theme. Led a revolt that secured Constantinople, but was defeated and deposed by Constantine V, who blinded and tonsured him.
Solidus of Leo IV the Khazar & Constantine VI.jpg Leo IV "the Khazar"
(Λέων Δ΄ ὁ Χάζαρος)
14 ستمبر 775 –
8 ستمبر 780
Born on 25 جنوری 750 as the eldest son of Constantine V. Co-emperor since 751, he succeeded upon his father's death.
Solidus of Leo IV the Khazar & Constantine VI.jpg Constantine VI
(Κωνσταντίνος ΣΤ΄)
8 ستمبر 780 –
اگست 797
Born in 771, the only child of Leo IV. Co-emperor in 776, sole emperor upon Leo's death in 780, until 790 under the regency of his mother, Irene of Athens. He was overthrown on Irene's orders, blinded and imprisoned, probably dying of his wounds shortly after.
Irina ( Pala d'Oro).jpg Irene of Athens
(Εἰρήνη ἡ Αθηναία)
اگست 797 –
31 اکتوبر 802
Born c. 752 in ایتھنز, she married Leo IV. Regent for her son Constantine VI in 780–790, she overthrew him in 797 and became empress-regnant. Deposed in a palace coup in 802, she was exiled and died on 9 اگست 803.

Nikephorian dynasty (802–813)[ترمیم]

نام دور حکومت تبصرہ
Nicephorus I Logothetes.jpg Nikephoros I "the Logothete"
(Νικηφόρος Α΄ ὁ Λογοθέτης)
31 اکتوبر 802 –
26 جولائی 811
General Logothete (finance minister) under Irene, led initially successful campaigns against the Bulgars but was killed at the Battle of Pliska.
Stauracius.jpg Staurakios
(Σταυράκιος)
26 جولائی 811 –
2 اکتوبر 811
Only son of Nikephoros I, crowned co-emperor in دسمبر 803. Succeeded on his father's death; however, he had been heavily wounded at Pliska and left paralyzed. He was forced to resign, and retired to a monastery where he died soon after.
Michael I Rangabe.jpg Michael I Rangabe
(Μιχαὴλ Α΄ Ραγγαβὲ)
2 اکتوبر 811 –
22 جون 813
Son-in-law of Nikephoros I, he succeeded Staurakios on his abdication. Resigned after the revolt under Leo the Armenian and retired to a monastery, where he died on 11 جنوری 844. Reigned with eldest son Theophylact as co-emperor.

Non-dynastic (813–820)[ترمیم]

نام دور حکومت تبصرہ
Solidus of Leo V the Armenian.jpg Leo V "the Armenian"
(Λέων Ε' ὁ Ἀρμένιος)
11 جولائی 813 –
25 دسمبر 820
General of Armenian origin, born c. 775. He rebelled against Michael I and became emperor. Appointed his son Symbatios co-emperor under the name of Constantine on Christmas 813. Revived Byzantine Iconoclasm. Murdered by a conspiracy led by Michael the Amorian.

Amorian dynasty (820–867)[ترمیم]

نام دور حکومت تبصرہ
Solidus of Michael II the Amorian.jpg Michael II "the Amorian"
(Μιχαὴλ Β΄ ὁ ἐξ Ἀμορίου)
25 دسمبر 820 –
2 اکتوبر 829
Born in 770 at Amorium, he became an army officer. A friend of Leo V, he was raised to high office but led the conspiracy that murdered him. Survived the rebellion of Thomas the Slav, lost کریٹ to the Arabs and faced the beginning of the Muslim conquest of Sicily, reinforced iconoclasm.
Solidus of Theophilus.jpg Theophilos
(Θεόφιλος)
2 اکتوبر 829 –
20 جنوری 842
Born in 813, as the only son of Michael II. Co-emperor since 821, he succeeded on his father's death.
Michael iii.jpg Michael III "the Drunkard"
(Μιχαὴλ Γ΄ ὁ Μέθυσος)
20 جنوری 842 –
23 ستمبر 867
Born on 19 جنوری 840, he succeeded on Theophilos' death. Under the regency of his mother Theodora until 856, and under the effective control of his uncle Bardas in 862–866. Ended iconoclasm. Murdered by Basil the Macedonian. A pleasure-loving ruler, he was nicknamed "the Drunkard" by later, pro-Basil chroniclers .

Macedonian dynasty (867–1056)[ترمیم]

نام دور حکومت تبصرہ
Basil&leo.jpg Basil I "the Macedonian"
(Βασίλειος Α΄ ὁ Μακεδὸν)
867 –
2 اگست 886
Born in the Theme of Macedonia ca. 811, he rose in prominence through palace service, becoming a favourite of Michael III. He overthrew Michael and established the Macedonian dynasty. He led successful wars in the East against the Arabs and the Paulicians, and recovered southern Italy for the Empire.
Detail of the Imperial Gate mosaic in Hagia Sophia showing Leo VI the Wise.jpg Leo VI "the Wise"
(Λέων ΣΤ΄ ὁ Σοφὸς)
886 –
11 May 912
Born on 19 ستمبر 866, likely either son of Basil I or Michael III, Leo was known for his erudition. His reign saw a height in Saracen (Muslim) naval raids, culminating in the Sack of Thessalonica, and was marked by unsuccessful wars against the Bulgarians under Simeon I.
Alexander of Constantinople.jpg Alexander
(Ἀλέξανδρος)
11 May 912 –
6 جون 913
ولد Basil I, Alexander was born in 870 and raised to co-emperor in 879. Sidelined by Leo VI, Alexander dismissed his brother's principal aides on his accession. He died of exhaustion after a polo game.
Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus.jpg Constantine VII "the Purple-born"
(Κωνσταντίνος Ζ΄ ὁ Πορφυρογέννητος)
6 جون 913 –
9 نومبر 959
The son of Leo VI, he was born on 17/18 May 905 and raised to co-emperor on 15 May 908. His early reign was dominated by successive regencies, first by his mother, Zoe Karbonopsina, and Patriarch Nicholas Mystikos, and from 919 by the admiral Romanos Lekapenos, who wedded his daughter to Constantine and was crowned senior emperor in 920. Constantine was sidelined during the Lekapenos regime, but asserted his control by deposing Romanos's sons in early 945. His reign was marked by struggles with Sayf al-Dawla in the East and an unsuccessful campaign against Crete, and pro-aristocratic policies that saw a partial reversal of Lekapenos' legislation against the dynatoi. He is notable for his promotion of the "Macedonian Renaissance", sponsoring encyclopaedic works and histories. He was a prolific writer himself, best remembered for the manuals on statecraft (De administrando imperio) and ceremonies (De ceremoniis) he compiled for his son, Romanos II.[7]
Romanus I with Christopher, solidus.jpg Romanos I Lekapenos
(Ρωμανὸς Α΄ Λεκαπηνὸς)
17 دسمبر 920 –
16 دسمبر 944
An admiral of lowly origin, Romanos rose to power as a protector of the young Constantine VII against the general Leo Phokas the Elder. After becoming the emperor's father-in-law, he successively assumed higher offices until he crowned himself senior emperor. His reign was marked by the end of warfare with Bulgaria and the great conquests of John Kourkouas in the East. Romanos promoted his sons Christopher, Stephen and Constantine as co-emperors over Constantine VII, but was himself overthrown by the latter two and confined to an island as a monk. He died there on 15 جون 948.
Constantine VII and Romanos II solidus.jpg Romanos II "the Purple-born"
(Ρωμανὸς Β΄ ὁ Πορφυρογέννητος)
9 نومبر 959 –
15 مارچ 963
The only surviving son of Constantine VII, he was born on 15 مارچ 938 and succeeded his father on the latter's death. He ruled until his own death, although the government was led mostly by the eunuch Joseph Bringas. His reign was marked by successful warfare in the East against Sayf al-Dawla and the recovery of Crete by general Nikephoros Phokas.
Nikiphoros Phokas.jpg Nikephoros II Phokas
(Νικηφόρος Β΄ Φωκᾶς)
16 اگست 963 –
11 دسمبر 969
The most successful general of his generation, Nikephoros II was born ca. 912 to the powerful Phokas clan. After the death of Romanos II, he rose to the throne with the support of the army and people as regent for the young emperors Basil II and Constantine VIII, marrying the empress-dowager Theophano. Throughout his reign he led campaigns in the East, conquering much of Syria. He was murdered by his nephew and one-time associate John Tzimiskes.
John I Tzimiskes 8.jpg John I Tzimiskes
(Ἰωάννης Α΄ Κουρκούας ὁ Τσιμισκὴς)
11 دسمبر 969 –
10 جنوری 976
Nephew of Nikephoros Phokas, Tzimiskes was born ca. 925. A successful general, he fell out with his uncle and led a conspiracy of disgruntled generals who murdered him. Tzimiskes succeeded Nikephoros as emperor and regent for the young sons of Romanos II. As ruler, Tzimiskes crushed the Rus' in Bulgaria and ended the Bulgarian tsardom before going on to campaign in the East, where he died.
Basilios II.jpg Basil II "the Bulgar-Slayer"
(Βασίλειος Β΄ ὁ Βουλγαροκτόνος)
10 جنوری 976 –
15 دسمبر 1025
Eldest son of Romanos II, Basil was born in 958. The first decade of his reign was marked by rivalry with the powerful Basil Lekapenos, an unsuccessful war against Bulgaria, and rebellions by generals in Asia Minor. Basil solidified his position through a marriage alliance with Vladimir I of Kiev, and after suppressing the revolts, he embarked on his conquest of Bulgaria. Bulgaria was finally subdued in 1018 after over 20 years of war, interrupted only by sporadic warfare in Syria against the سلطنت فاطمیہ. Basil also expanded Byzantine control over most of Armenia. His reign is widely considered as the apogee of medieval Byzantium.
Histamenon nomisma-Constantine VIII-sb1776.jpg Constantine VIII "the Purple-born"
(Κωνσταντίνος Η΄ ὁ Πορφυρογέννητος)
15 دسمبر 1025 –
15 نومبر 1028
The second son of Romanos II, Constantine was born in 960 and raised to co-emperor in مارچ 962. During the rule of Basil II, he spent his time in idle pleasure. During his short reign he was an indifferent ruler, easily influenced by his courtiers and suspicious of plots to depose him, especially among the military aristocracy, many of whom were blinded and exiled. On his deathbed, he chose Romanos Argyros as husband for his daughter Zoe.[8]
Zoe mosaic Hagia Sophia.jpg Zoe "the Purple-born"
(Ζωὴ Πορφυρογέννητη)
15 نومبر 1028 –
جون 1050
The daughter of Constantine VIII, she succeeded on her father's death, as the only surviving member of the Macedonian dynasty, along with her sister Theodora. Her three husbands, Romanos III (1028–1034), Michael IV (1034–1041) and Constantine IX (1042–1050) ruled alongside her.
Miliaresion-Romanus III-sb1822.jpg Romanos III Argyros
(Ρωμανὸς Γ΄ Ἀργυρὸς)
15 نومبر 1028 –
11 اپریل 1034
Born in 968, the elderly aristocrat Romanos was chosen by Constantine VIII on his deathbed as Zoe's husband and succeeded on the throne after Constantine's death a few days later.
Michael IV histamenon.jpg Michael IV "the Paphlagonian"
(Μιχαὴλ Δ΄ ὁ Παφλαγὼν)
11 اپریل 1034 –
10 دسمبر 1041
Born in 1010, he became a lover of Zoe even while Romanos III was alive, and succeeded him upon his death as her husband and emperor. Aided by his older brother, the eunuch John the Orphanotrophos, his reign was moderately successful against internal rebellions, but his attempt to recover صقلیہ failed. He died after a long illness.
Histamenon nomisma-Micael V-sb1776.jpg Michael V "the Caulker"
(Μιχαὴλ Ε΄ ὁ Καλαφάτης)
10 دسمبر 1041 –
20 اپریل 1042
Born in 1015, he was the nephew and adopted son of Michael IV. During his reign he tried to sideline Zoe, but a popular revolt forced him to restore her as empress on 19 اپریل 1042, along with her sister Theodora. He was deposed the next day, castrated and tonsured, dying on 24 اگست 1042.
Tetarteron-Theodora-sb1838.jpg Theodora
(Θεοδώρα)
19 اپریل 1042 –
after 31 اگست 1056
The younger sister of Zoe, born in 984, she was raised as co-ruler on 19 اپریل 1042. After Zoe married her third husband, Constantine IX, in جون 1042, Theodora was again sidelined. After Zoe died in 1050 and Constantine in 1055, Theodora assumed full governance of the Empire and reigned until her death. She nominated Michael VI as her successor.
Emperor Constantine IX.jpg Constantine IX Monomachos
(Κωνσταντίνος Θ΄ Μονομάχος)
11 جون 1042 –
7/8 or 11 جنوری 1055
Born ca. 1000 of noble origin, he had an undistinguished life but was exiled to لزبوس by Michael IV, returning when he was chosen as Zoe's third husband. Constantine supported the mercantile classes and favoured the company of intellectuals, thereby alienating the military aristocracy. A pleasure-loving ruler, he lived an extravagant life with his favourite mistresses and endowed a number of monasteries, chiefly the Nea Moni of Chios and the Mangana Monastery. His reign was marked by invasions by the Pechenegs in the بلقان and the Seljuk Turks in the East, the revolts of George Maniakes and Leo Tornikios, and the Great Schism between the patriarchates of Rome and Constantinople.[9]

Non-dynastic (1056–1057)[ترمیم]

نام دور حکومت تبصرہ
Michael VI tetarteron.jpg Michael VI Bringas, "Stratiotikos" or "the Old"
(Μιχαὴλ ΣΤ΄ Βρίγγας, ὁ Στρατιωτικός, ὁ Γέρων)
ستمبر 1056 –
31 اگست 1057
A court bureaucrat and military logothete (hence his first sobriquet). Deposed by military revolt under Isaac Komnenos, he retired to a monastery where he died in 1059.

Komnenid dynasty (1057–1059)[ترمیم]

نام دور حکومت تبصرہ
Histamenon nomisma-Isaac I-sb1776.jpg Isaac I Komnenos
(Ἰσαάκιος Α΄ Κομνηνὸς)
5 جون 1057 –
22 نومبر 1059
Born c. 1005. A successful general, he rose in revolt leading the eastern armies and was declared Emperor; he was recognized after the abdication of Michael VI on 31 اگست 1057. He resigned in 1059 and died c. 1061.

Doukid dynasty (1059–1081)[ترمیم]

مزید دیکھیے: Doukid dynasty
نام دور حکومت تبصرہ
Costantino X - histamenon - Sear 1847v.jpg Constantine X Doukas
(Κωνσταντίνος Ι΄ Δούκας)
24 نومبر 1059 –
22 May 1067
Born in 1006, he became a general and close ally of Isaac Komnenos, and succeeded him as emperor on his abdication. Named his sons Michael, Andronikos and Konstantios as co-emperors
NomismaMikaelVIIDoukas.jpg Michael VII Doukas
(Μιχαὴλ Ζ΄ Δούκας)
22 May 1067 –
24 مارچ 1078
Born in 1050 as the eldest son of Constantine X. Co-emperor since 1059, he succeeded on his father's death. Due to his minority he was under the regency of his mother, Eudokia Makrembolitissa, in 1067–1068, and relegated to junior emperor under her second husband Romanos IV Diogenes in 1068–1071. Senior emperor in 1071–1078, he named his son Constantine co-emperor alongside his brothers. He abdicated before the revolt of Nikephoros Botaneiates, retired to a monastery and died c. 1090.
Romanos et Eudoxie.JPG Romanos IV Diogenes
(Ρωμανὸς Δ΄ Διογένης)
1 جنوری 1068 –
24 اکتوبر 1071
Born in 1032, a successful general he married empress-dowager Eudokia Makrembolitissa and became senior emperor as guardian of her sons by Constantine X. Deposed by the Doukas partisans after the جنگ ملازکرد, blinded in جون 1072 and exiled. He died soon after.
Nicephorus III.jpg Nikephoros III Botaneiates
(Νικηφόρος Γ΄ Βοτανειάτης)
31 مارچ 1078 –
4 اپریل 1081
Born in 1001, he was the strategos of the Anatolic Theme. He rebelled against Michael VII and was welcomed into the capital. He weathered several revolts, but was overthrown by the Komnenos clan. He retired to a monastery where he died on 10 دسمبر of the same year (1081).

Komnenid dynasty (1081–1185)[ترمیم]

نام دور حکومت تبصرہ
Alexios I Komnenos.jpg Alexios I Komnenos
(Ἀλέξιος Α' Κομνηνὸς)
4 اپریل 1081 –
15 اگست 1118
Born in 1056, a nephew of Isaac I Komnenos. A distinguished general, he overthrew Nikephoros III. His reign was dominated by wars against the Normans and the Seljuk Turks, as well as the arrival of the پہلی صلیبی جنگ and the establishment of independent Crusader states. He retained Constantine Doukas as co-emperor until 1087 and named his eldest son John co-emperor in 1092.
Jean II Comnene.jpg John II Komnenos
(Ἰωάννης Β' Κομνηνὸς)
15 اگست 1118 –
8 اپریل 1143
Born on 13 ستمبر 1087 as the eldest son of Alexios I. Co-emperor since 1092, he succeeded upon his father's death. His reign was focused on wars with the Turks. A popular and frugal ruler, he was known as "John the Good". Named his eldest son Alexios co-emperor in 1122, but he died before him.
Manuel I Comnenus.jpg Manuel I Komnenos
(Μανουὴλ Α' Κομνηνὸς)
1143 –
24 ستمبر 1180
Born on 28 نومبر 1118 as the third and youngest son of John II, he was chosen as emperor over his elder brother Isaac by his father on his deathbed. An energetic ruler, he launched campaigns against the Turks, humbled Hungary, achieved supremacy over the Crusader states, and tried unsuccessfully to recover Italy. His extravagance and constant campaigning, however, depleted the Empire's resources.
Alexios II - komnenos.jpg Alexios II Komnenos
(Ἀλέξιος B' Κομνηνὸς)
24 ستمبر 1180 –
اکتوبر 1183
Born on 14 ستمبر 1169 as the only son of Manuel I. In 1180–1182 under the regency of his mother, Maria of Antioch. She was overthrown by Andronikos I Komnenos, who became co-emperor and finally had Alexios II deposed and killed.
ByzantineBillonTrachy.jpg Andronikos I Komnenos
(Ἀνδρόνικος Α' Κομνηνὸς)
1183 –
11 ستمبر 1185
Born c. 1118, a nephew of John II by his brother Isaac. A general, he was imprisoned for conspiring against John II, but escaped and spent 15 years in exile in various courts in eastern Europe and the Middle East. He seized the regency from Maria of Antioch in 1182 and subsequently throne from his nephew Alexios II. An unpopular ruler, he was overthrown and lynched in a popular uprising.

Angelid dynasty (1185–1204)[ترمیم]

نام دور حکومت تبصرہ
Isaac II Angelos.jpg Isaac II Angelos
(Ἰσαάκιος Β' Ἄγγελος)
1185–1195 Born in ستمبر 1156, Isaac came to the throne at the head of a popular revolt against Andronikos I. His reign was marked by revolts and wars in the Balkans, especially against a resurgent Bulgaria. He was deposed, blinded and imprisoned by his elder brother, Alexios III.
Alexios III -Angelos.jpg Alexios III Angelos
(Ἀλέξιος Γ' Ἄγγελος)
1195 –
17/18 جولائی 1203
Born in 1153, Alexios was the elder brother of Isaac II. His reign was marked by misgovernment and the increasing autonomy of provincial magnates. He was deposed by the Fourth Crusade and fled Constantinople, roaming Greece and Asia Minor, searching for support to regain his throne. He died in Nicaean captivity in 1211.
Isaac II Angelos.jpg Isaac II Angelos
(Ἰσαάκιος Β' Ἄγγελος)
18 جولائی 1203 –
27/28 جنوری 1204
Restored to his throne by the Crusaders, actual rule fell to his son Alexios IV. Due to their failure to deal with the Crusaders' demands, he was deposed by Alexios V Doukas in جنوری 1204 and died on 28 جنوری 1204, perhaps of poison.
Alexius4.jpg Alexios IV Angelos
(Ἀλέξιος Δ' Ἄγγελος)
1 اگست 1203 –
27/28 جنوری 1204
Born in 1182, the son of Isaac II. He enlisted the Fourth Crusade to return his father to the throne, and reigned alongside his restored father. Due to their failure to deal with the Crusaders' demands, he was deposed by Alexios V Doukas in جنوری 1204, and was strangled on 8 February.
Alexius V.JPG Alexios V Doukas "Mourtzouphlos"
(Ἀλέξιος Ε' Δούκας ὁ Μούρτζουφλος)
5 فروری 1204 –
13 اپریل 1204
Born in 1140, the son-in-law of Alexios III and a prominent aristocrat, he deposed Isaac II and Alexios IV in a palace coup. He tried to repel the Crusaders, but they captured Constantinople forcing Mourtzouphlos to flee. He joined the exiled Alexios III, but was later blinded by the latter. Captured by the Crusaders, he was executed in دسمبر 1205.

Laskarid dynasty (Empire of Nicaea, 1204–1261)[ترمیم]

مزید دیکھیے: Laskaris اور Empire of Nicaea
نام دور حکومت تبصرہ
Theodore I Laskaris miniature.jpg Theodore I Laskaris
(Θεόδωρος Α΄ Λάσκαρις)
1205–
دسمبر 1221/1222
Born c. 1174, he rose to prominence as a son-in-law of Alexios III. His brother Constantine Laskaris was elected emperor by the citizens of Constantinople on the day the city fell to the Crusaders; he later fled to Nicaea, where Theodore organized the Greek resistance to the Latins. Proclaimed emperor after Constantine's death in 1205, Theodore was crowned only in 1208. He managed to stop the Latin advance in Asia and to repel Seljuk attacks, establishing the Empire of Nicaea as the strongest of the Greek successor states.
John III Doukas Vatatzes.jpg John III Doukas Vatatzes
(Ἰωάννης Γ' Δούκας Βατάτζης)
15 دسمبر 1221/1222–
3 نومبر 1254
Born c. 1192, he became the son-in-law and successor of Theodore I in 1212. A capable ruler and soldier, he expanded his state in Bithynia, Thrace and Macedonia at the expense of the Latin Empire, Bulgaria and the rival Greek state of Epirus.
Theodore II Laskaris miniature.jpg Theodore II Laskaris
(Θεόδωρος Β' Λάσκαρις)
3 نومبر 1254–
18 اگست 1258
Born in 1221/1222 as the only son of John III, he succeeded on his father's death. His reign was marked by his hostility towards the major houses of the aristocracy, and by his victory against Bulgaria and the subsequent expansion into and Albania.
John IV Laskaris miniature.jpg John IV Laskaris
(Ἰωάννης Δ' Λάσκαρις)
18 اگست 1258–
25 دسمبر 1261
Born on 25 دسمبر 1250 as the only son of Theodore II, he succeeded on his father's death. Due to his minority, the regency was exercised at first by George Mouzalon until his assassination, and then by Michael Palaiologos, who within months was crowned senior emperor. After the recovery of Constantinople in اگست 1261, Palaiologos sidelined John IV completely, had him blinded and imprisoned. John IV died c. 1305.

Palaiologan dynasty (restored to Constantinople, 1261–1453)[ترمیم]

نام دور حکومت تبصرہ
Michael VIII Palaiologos (head).jpg Michael VIII Palaiologos
(Μιχαὴλ Η' Παλαιολόγος)
1 جنوری 1259–
11 دسمبر 1282
Born in 1223, great-grandson of Alexios III, grandnephew of John III by marriage. Senior emperor alongside John IV in 1259, sole emperor since 25 دسمبر 1261.
Andronikos II Palaiologos (head).jpg Andronikos II Palaiologos
(Ἀνδρόνικος Β' Παλαιολόγος)
11 دسمبر 1282–
24 May 1328
ولد Michael VIII, he was born on 25 مارچ 1259. Named co-emperor in ستمبر 1261, crowned in 1272, he succeeded as sole emperor on Michael's death. Favouring monks and intellectuals, he neglected the army, and his reign saw the collapse of the Byzantine position in Asia Minor. He named his son Michael IX co-emperor. In a protracted civil war, he was first forced to recognize his grandson Andronikos III as co-emperor and was then deposed outright. He died on 13 فروری 1332.
Andronikos III Palaiologos.jpg Andronikos III Palaiologos
(Ἀνδρόνικος Γ' Παλαιολόγος)
24 May 1328–
15 جون 1341
ولد Michael IX, he was born on 25 مارچ 1297 and named co-emperor in 1316. Rival emperor since جولائی 1321, he deposed his grandfather Andronikos II in 1328 and ruled as sole emperor until his death. Supported by John Kantakouzenos, his reign saw defeats against the سلطنت عثمانیہ کا عروج but successes in Europe, where Epirus and ثیسالیا were recovered.
John V Palaiologos.jpg John V Palaiologos
(Ἰωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος)
15 جون 1341–
12 اگست 1376
Only son of Andronikos III, he had not been crowned co-emperor or declared heir at his father's death, a fact which led to the outbreak of a destructive civil war between his regents and his father's closest aide, John VI Kantakouzenos, who was crowned co-emperor. The conflict ended in 1347 with Kantakouzenos recognized as senior emperor, but he was deposed by John V in 1354, during another civil war. Matthew Kantakouzenos, raised by John VI to co-emperor, was also deposed in 1357. John V appealed to the West for aid against the Ottomans, but in 1371 he was forced to recognize Ottoman suzerainty. He was deposed in 1376 by his son Andronikos IV.
Johannes VI. Cantacuzenos (cropped).jpg John VI Kantakouzenos
(Ἰωάννης ΣΤ' Καντακουζηνὸς)
8 فروری 1347–
4 دسمبر 1354
A maternal relative of the Palaiologoi, he was declared co-emperor on 26 اکتوبر 1341, and was recognized as senior emperor for ten years after the end of the civil war on 8 فروری 1347. Deposed by John V in 1354, he became a monk, dying on 15 جون 1383.
Andronikos IV Palaiologos.jpg Andronikos IV Palaiologos
(Ἀνδρόνικος Δ΄ Παλαιολόγος)
12 اگست 1376–
1 جولائی 1379
ولد John V and grandson of John VI, he was born on 2 اپریل 1348 and raised to co-emperor c. 1352. He deposed his father on 12 اگست 1376 and ruled until overthrown in turn in 1379. He was again recognized as co-emperor in 1381 and given سیلیوری as an appanage, dying there on 28 جون 1385.
John V Palaiologos.jpg John V Palaiologos
(Ἰωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος)
1 جولائی 1379–
14 اپریل 1390
Restored to senior emperor, he was reconciled with Andronikos IV in 1381, re-appointing him co-emperor. He was overthrown again in 1390 by his grandson, John VII.
John VII Palaiologos.gif John VII Palaiologos
(Ἰωάννης Ζ' Παλαιολόγος)
14 اپریل 1390–
17 ستمبر 1390
ولد Andronikos IV, he was born in 1370, and named co-emperor under his father in 1377–79. He usurped the throne from his grandfather John V for five months in 1390, but with Ottoman mediation he was reconciled with John V and his uncle, Manuel II. He held Constantinople against the Ottomans in 1399–1402, and was then given تھیسالونیکی as an appanage, which he governed until his death on 22 ستمبر 1408.
John V Palaiologos.jpg John V Palaiologos
(Ἰωάννης Ε' Παλαιολόγος)
17 ستمبر 1390–
16 فروری 1391
Restored to senior emperor, he ruled until his death in فروری 1391.
Manuel II Paleologus.jpg Manuel II Palaiologos
(Μανουὴλ Β' Παλαιολόγος)
16 فروری 1391–
21 جولائی 1425
Second son of John V, he was born on 27 جون 1350. Raised to co-emperor in 1373, he became senior emperor on John V's death and ruled until his death. He journeyed to the West European courts seeking aid against the Turks, and was able to use the Ottoman defeat in the جنگ انقرہ to regain some territories and throw off his vassalage to them.
Palaio.jpg John VIII Palaiologos
(Ἰωάννης Η' Παλαιολόγος)
21 جولائی 1425–
31 اکتوبر 1448
Eldest surviving son of Manuel II, he was born on 18 دسمبر 1392. Raised to co-emperor c. 1416, he succeeded his father on his death. Seeking aid against the resurgent Ottomans, he ratified the Union of the Churches in 1439.
Constantine XI Palaiologos miniature.jpg Constantine XI Palaiologos
(Κωνσταντίνος ΙΑ' Παλαιολόγος)
6 جنوری 1449–
29 May 1453
The fourth son of Manuel II, he was born on 8 فروری 1405. As Despot of the Morea since 1428, he distinguished himself in campaigns that annexed the Principality of Achaea and brought the Duchy of Athens under temporary Byzantine suzerainty, but was unable to repel Turkish attacks under Turahan Bey. As the eldest surviving brother, he succeeded John VIII after the latter's death. Facing the designs of the new Ottoman sultan, محمد ثانی, on Constantinople, Constantine acknowledged the Union of the Churches and made repeated appeals for help to the West, but in vain. Refusing to surrender the city, he was killed during the final Ottoman attack on 29 May 1453.[10]

Palaiologan dynasty (claimants in exile)[ترمیم]

Picture Name Status Birth Emperor from Emperor until Death
Demetrios Palaiologos (Δημήτριος Παλαιολόγος) ولد Manuel II, brother of John VIII and Constantine XI c. 1407 1453 1460 1470
Thomas Palaiologos2.jpg Thomas Palaiologos (Θωμᾶς Παλαιολόγος) ولد Manuel II, brother of John VIII and Constantine XI c. 1409 1453 12 May 1465 12 May 1465
Andreas Palaiologos (Ἀνδρέας Παλαιολόγος) ولد Thomas c. 1453 12 May 1465 1502 1502

حوالہ جات[ترمیم]

  1. The other claimants for the throne in the Year of the Five Emperors were Pescennius Niger and Clodius Albinus, supported by the Syrian and British legions respectively. Although not completely defeated until 197 عیسوی, they were not formally accepted by the senate and were therefore not technically reigning emperors.
  2. Romulus Agustulus biographic details.
  3. Gregory، Timothy E.؛ Cutler، Anthony (1991)۔ "Leo I"۔ میں Kazhdan، Alexander P.۔ Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium۔ New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press۔ صفحات 1206–1207۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-19-504652-6۔ 
  4. Kazhdan، Alexander P. (1991)۔ "Leo II"۔ میں Kazhdan، Alexander P.۔ Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium۔ New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press۔ صفحات 1207–1208۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-19-504652-6۔ 
  5. Gregory، Timothy E. (1991)۔ "Zeno"۔ میں Kazhdan، Alexander P.۔ Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium۔ New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press۔ صفحہ 2223۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-19-504652-6۔ 
  6. Gregory، Timothy E. (1991)۔ "Anastasios I"۔ میں Kazhdan، Alexander P.۔ Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium۔ New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press۔ صفحات 86–87۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-19-504652-6۔ 
  7. Kazhdan، Alexander؛ Cutler، Anthony (1991)۔ "Constantine VII Porphyrogennetos"۔ میں Kazhdan، Alexander P.۔ Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium۔ New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press۔ صفحات 502–503۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-19-504652-6۔ 
  8. Brand، Charles M.؛ Cutler، Anthony (1991)۔ "Constantine VIII"۔ میں Kazhdan، Alexander P.۔ Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium۔ New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press۔ صفحات 503–504۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-19-504652-6۔ 
  9. Brand، Charles M.؛ Cutler، Anthony (1991)۔ "Constantine IX Monomachos"۔ میں Kazhdan، Alexander P.۔ Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium۔ New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press۔ صفحہ 504۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-19-504652-6۔ 
  10. Talbot، Alice-Mary (1991)۔ "Constantine XI Palaiologos"۔ میں Kazhdan، Alexander P.۔ Oxford Dictionary of Byzantium۔ New York; Oxford: Oxford University Press۔ صفحہ 505۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-19-504652-6۔