مسودہ:اترپردیش

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اترپردیش
  • उत्तर प्रदेश
اُترپردیش
TajMahalbyAmalMongia.jpg
Evening Ganga Aarti at Dashashwamedh Ghat.JPG
Rumi Darwaza.JPG
SwampDeerDudhwa Two.jpg
CCS International Airport.jpg
Fatehput Sikiri Buland Darwaza gate 2010.jpg
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قومی نشان
Location of Uttar Pradesh in بھارت
Location of Uttar Pradesh in بھارت
Map of Uttar Pradesh
Map of Uttar Pradesh
خود مختار ریاستوں کی فہرست Flag of India.svg بھارت
فہرست بھارت کے علاقہ جات شمالی ہند
Formation Modern: 1807 (as Ceded and Conquered Provinces)
History
Capital لکھنؤ
اتر پردیش کے اضلاع اتر پردیش کے اضلاع[1]
حکومت
 • مجلس Government of Uttar Pradesh
 • Governor Ram Naik[2]
 • Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav (SP)
 • Chief Secretary Deepak Singhal IAS
 • Legislature
 • پارلیمان بھارت
رقبہ
 • کل 243,286 کلو میٹر2 (93,933 مربع میل)
رقبہ درجہ 4th
آبادی (2015)[1]
 • کل 215,609,813
 • درجہ بھارت کی ریاستیں بلحاظ آبادی
 • کثافت 890/کلو میٹر2 (2,300/مربع میل)
نام آبادی Uttarpradeshi
منطقۂ وقت بھارتی معیاری وقت (UTC+05:30)
UN/LOCODE آیزو 3166-2:IN
گاڑی کی نمبر پلیٹ UP 01—XX
انسانی ترقیاتی اشاریہ Increase2.svg 0.380 (low)
HDI rank 18th (2007-08)
بھارت میں شرح خواندگی
  • 67.7%
  • 77.3% (male)
  • 57.2% (female)
Official language
ویب سائٹ UP.gov.in

Uttar Pradesh (/ˈʊtər prəˈdɛʃ/, Hindi : उत्तर प्रदेश literally "Northern Province"), abbreviated as UP, is the بھارت کی ریاستیں بلحاظ آبادی in the بھارت as well as the فہرست ملکی تقسیمات بلحاظ آبادی. It was created on 1 April 1937 as the United Provinces during British rule, and was renamed Uttar Pradesh in 1950. لکھنؤ is the capital city of Uttar Pradesh. غازی آباد، بھارت, کانپور, گورکھپور, الٰہ آباد, رائے بریلی, مرادآباد, بریلی, علی گڑھ, سون بھدرا ضلع, and وارانسی are known for their industrial importance in the state. On 9 November 2000, a new state, اتراکھنڈ, was carved out from the Himalayan hill region of Uttar Pradesh. The state in the شمالی ہند of the Indian subcontinent has over 200 million inhabitants.

The state is bordered by راجستھان to the west, ہریانہ and دہلی to the northwest, اتراکھنڈ and نیپال to the north, بہار (بھارت) to the east, مدھیہ پردیش to the south and touches the states of جھارکھنڈ and چھتیس گڑھ to the south east. It covers 243,290 کلومربع میٹر (93,933 مربع میل), equal to 6.88% of the total area of India, and is the فہرست بھارتی ریاستیں اور علاقہ جات بلحاظ رقبہ. ہندی زبان is the official and most widely spoken language in its 75 districts. Uttar Pradesh is the فہرست بھارتی ریاستیں بلحاظ خام ملکی پیداوار, with a GDP of INR9763 بلین (امریکی $150 بلین). زراعت and service industries are the largest parts of the state's economy. The service sector comprises travel and سیاحت, hotel industry, real estate, insurance and financial consultancies.

Uttar Pradesh was home to powerful empires of ancient and medieval India. The two major rivers of the state, the دریائے گنگا and دریائے جمنا, join at الٰہ آباد and then flow as the Ganges further east. The state has several historical, natural, and religious tourist destinations, such as, آگرہ, وارانسی, Piprahwa, رائے بریلی, کوسامبی, کانپور, بلیا, شراوستی ضلع, گورکھپور, اناؤ, چوری چورا situated in گورکھپور, کشی نگر, لکھنؤ, جھانسی, الٰہ آباد, بدایوں, میرٹھ, متھرا, جونپور، اترپردیش and مظفر نگر.

History[ترمیم]

Ancient and Classical period[ترمیم]

Painting of goddess Rama alongside Sita and Laxman
Rama portrayed as exile in the forest, accompanied by his wife Sita and brother Lakshmana

The kingdom of Kosala, in the Mahajanapada era, was located within the regional boundaries of modern-day Uttar Pradesh.[4] According to Hindu legend, the divine king رام of the رامائن epic reigned in ایودھیا, the capital of Kosala.[5] کرشن, another divine king of Hindu legend, who plays a key role in the مہا بھارت epic and is revered as the eighth reincarnation (اوتار) of the Hindu god وشنو, is said to have been born in the city of متھرا, in Uttar Pradesh.[4] The aftermath of the Mahabharata yuddh is believed to have taken place in the area between the Upper Doab and دہلی, (in what was Kuru Mahajanapada), during the reign of the Pandava king Yudhishthira. The kingdom of the Kurus corresponds to the Black and Red Ware and Painted Gray Ware culture and the beginning of the Iron Age in North-west India, around 1000 BC.[4]

Most of the invaders of south India passed through the Gangetic plains of what is today Uttar Pradesh. Control over this region was of vital importance to the power and stability of all of India's major empires, including the موریا (320–200 BC), کشن سلطنت (AD 100–250), گپتا سلطنت (350–600), and Gurjara-Pratihara (650–1036) empires.[6] Following the ہن invasions that broke the Gupta empire, the Ganges-Yamuna Doab saw the rise of قنوج.[7] During the reign of Harshavardhana (590–647), the Kannauj empire reached its zenith.[7] It spanned from خطۂ پنجاب in the north and گجرات (بھارت) in the west to بنگال in the east and اڑیسہ in the south.[4] It included parts of central India, north of the دریائے نرمدا and it encompassed the entire سندھ و گنگ کا میدان.[8] Many communities in various parts of India claim descent from the migrants of Kannauj.[9] Soon after Harshavardhana's death, his empire disintegrated into many kingdoms, which were invaded and ruled by the Gurjara-Pratihara empire, which challenged Bengal's Pala Empire for control of the region.[8] قنوج was several times invaded by the south Indian Rashtrakuta Dynasty from the 8th century to the 10th century.[10][11]

Medieval and Early Modern period[ترمیم]

In the 16th century, ظہیر الدین محمد بابر, a Timurid descendant of امیر تیمور and Genghis Khan from وادئ فرغانہ (modern-day ازبکستان), swept across the درۂ خیبر and founded the مغلیہ سلطنت, covering بھارت, along with modern-day افغانستان, Pakistan and بنگلہ دیش[12] The Mughals were descended from Persianised Central Asian ترک (with significant مغول admixture). In the مغلیہ سلطنت era, Uttar Pradesh became the heartland of the empire.[9] Mughal emperors Babur and Humayun ruled from Delhi.[13][14] In 1540 an Afghan, شیر شاہ سوری, took over the reins of Uttar Pradesh after defeating the Mughal king Humanyun.[15] Sher Shah and his son Islam Shah ruled Uttar Pradesh from their capital at گوالیر.[16] After the death of Islam Shah Suri, his prime minister Hemu became the de facto ruler of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and the western parts of Bengal. He was bestowed the title of Hemchandra Vikramaditya (title of راجہ بکرم اجیت adopted from وید times) at his formal coronation took place at پرانا قلعہ in Delhi on 7 October 1556. Hemu died in the دوسری جنگ پانی پت, and Uttar Pradesh came under Emperor جلال الدین اکبر's rule.[17] Akbar ruled from آگرہ and فتح پور سیکری.[18] In the 18th century, after the fall of Mughal authority, the power vacuum was filled by the مراٹھا سلطنت, in the mid 18th century, the Maratha army invaded the Uttar Pradesh region, which resulted in Rohillas losing control of Rohillkhand to the Maratha rulers رگھوناتھ راؤ and Malharao Holkar. The conflict between Rohillas and Marathas came to an end on 18 December 1788 with the arrest of Ghulam Qadir, the grandson of Najeeb-ud-Daula, who was defeated by the Maratha general Mahadaji Scindia. In 1803, following the دوسری اینگلو مرہٹہ جنگ, when the برطانوی ایسٹ انڈیا کمپنی defeated the Maratha Empire, much of the region came under British suzerainty.[19]

Modern period[ترمیم]

British India-era[ترمیم]

Starting from بنگال in the second half of the 18th century, a series of battles for north Indian lands finally gave the برطانوی ایسٹ انڈیا کمپنی accession over the state's territories.[20] اجمیر and جے پور kingdoms were also included in this northern territory, which was named the "North-Western Provinces" (of Agra). Although UP later became the fifth largest state of India, NWPA was one of the smallest states of the British Indian empire.[21] Its capital shifted twice between Agra and Allahabad.[حوالہ درکار]

Due to dissatisfaction with British rule, a serious rebellion erupted in various parts of North India; بنگال regiment's sepoy stationed at میرٹھ cantonment, منگل پانڈے, is widely credited as its starting point.[22] It came to be known as the جنگ آزادی ہند 1857ء. After the revolt failed, the British attempted to divide the most rebellious regions by reorganising the administrative boundaries of the region, splitting the Delhi region from 'NWFP of Agra' and merging it with Punjab, while the اجمیر- Marwar region was merged with Rajputana and Oudh was incorporated into the state. The new state was called the 'North Western Provinces of Agra and Oudh', which in 1902 was renamed as the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh.[23] It was commonly referred to as the United Provinces or its acronym UP.[24][25]

In 1920, the capital of the province was shifted from Allahabad to لکھنؤ. The high court continued to be at Allahabad, but a bench was established at Lucknow. Allahabad continues to be an important administrative base of today's Uttar Pradesh and has several administrative headquarters.[26] Uttar Pradesh continued to be central to Indian politics and was especially important in modern Indian history as a hotbed of the تحریک آزادی ہند. Uttar Pradesh hosted modern educational institutions such as the بنارس ہندو یونیورسٹی, علی گڑھ مسلم یونیورسٹی and the دار العلوم دیوبند. Nationally known figures such as Chandra Shekhar Azad were among the leaders of the movement in Uttar Pradesh, and موتی لال نہرو, جواہر لعل نہرو, Madan Mohan Malaviya and گووند ولبھ پنت were important national leaders of the انڈین نیشنل کانگریس. The All India Kisan Sabha (AIKS) was formed at the Lucknow session of the Congress on 11 April 1936, with the famous nationalist Swami Sahajanand Saraswati elected as its first President,[27] in order to address the longstanding grievances of the peasantry and mobilise them against the zamindari landlords attacks on their occupancy rights, thus sparking the Farmers movements in India.[28] During the ہندوستان چھوڑ دو تحریک of 1942, بلیا district overthrew the colonial authority and installed an independent administration under Chittu Pandey. Ballia became known as "Baghi Ballia" (Rebel Ballia) for this significant role in India's independence movement.[29]

Post-independence[ترمیم]

After India's independence, the United Provinces were renamed "Uttar Pradesh" in 1950.[30] The state has provided seven of India's prime ministers and is the source of the largest number of seats in the لوک سبھا. Despite its political influence, its poor record in economic development and administration, organised crime and corruption have kept it amongst India's backward states. The state has been affected by repeated episodes of caste and communal violence.[31] In December, 1992 the بابری مسجد in ایودھیا was demolished by radical activists, leading to widespread violence across India.[32] In 1999, northern districts of the state were separated to form the state of اتراکھنڈ.[33]

Uttar Pradesh Map Before The Formation Of Uttarakhand.

Geography[ترمیم]

"photograph"
A part of the Gangetic Plain

Uttar Pradesh, with a total area of 243,290 کلومربع میٹر (93,935 مربع میل), is India’s fourth largest state in terms of land area. It is situated on the northern spout of India and shares an international boundary with Nepal. The Himalayas border the state on the north,[34] but the plains that cover most of the state are distinctly different from those high mountains.[35] The larger سندھ و گنگ کا میدان region is in the north; it includes the Ganges-Yamuna Doab, the Ghaghra plains, the Ganges plains and the Terai.[36] The smaller وندھیہ سلسلہ کوہ and plateau region is in the south.[37] It is characterised by hard rock strata and a varied topography of hills, plains, valleys and plateaus. The Bhabhar tract gives place to the terai area which is covered with tall elephant grass and thick forests interspersed with marshes and swamps.[38] The sluggish rivers of the bhabhar deepen in this area, their course running through a tangled mass of thick undergrowth. The terai runs parallel to the bhabhar in a thin strip. The entire alluvial plain is divided into three sub-regions.[38] The first in the eastern tract consisting of 14 districts which are subject to periodical floods and droughts and have been classified as scarcity areas. These districts have the highest density of population which gives the lowest per capita land. The other two regions, the سلطنت اودھ and the western are comparatively better with a well-developed irrigation system.[38] They suffer from waterlogging and large-scale user tracts.[38] In addition, the area is fairly arid. The state has more than 32 large and small rivers; of them, the Ganges, Yamuna, Saraswati, Sarayu, Betwa, and دریائے گھاگھرا are larger and of religious importance in ہندومت.[39]

Cultivation is intensive.[40] The وادی areas have fertile and rich soil. There is intensive cultivation on terraced hill slopes, but irrigation facilities are deficient.[41] The سلسلہ کوہ شوالک which forms the southern foothills of the سلسلہ کوہ ہمالیہ, slopes down into a boulder bed called 'bhadhar'.[42] The transitional belt running along the entire length of the state is called the terai and bhabhar area. It has rich forests, cutting across it are innumerable streams which swell into raging torrents during the مانسون.[43]

Climate[ترمیم]

refer to adjacent text
Monsoon clouds over Lucknow

Uttar Pradesh has a humid subtropical climate and experiences four seasons.[44] The winter in January and February is followed by summer between March and May and the monsoon season between June and September.[45] Summers are extreme with temperatures fluctuating anywhere between 0 °C and 50 °C in parts of the state.[46] The Gangetic plain varies from semiarid to sub-humid.[45] The mean annual rainfall ranges from 650 mm in the southwest corner of the state to 1000 mm in the eastern and southeastern parts of the state.[47] Primarily a summer phenomenon, the Bay of Bengal branch of the Indian monsoon is the major bearer of rain in most parts of state. It is the south-west monsoon which brings most of the rain here, although rain due to the western disturbances and north-east monsoon also contribute small quantities towards the overall precipitation of the state.[44][48]

آب ہوا معلومات برائے Uttar Pradesh
مہینا جنوری فروری مارچ اپریل مئی جون جولائی اگست ستمبر اکتوبر نومبر دسمبر سال
اوسط بلند °س (°ف) 29.9
(85.8)
31.9
(89.4)
35.4
(95.7)
37.7
(99.9)
36.9
(98.4)
31.7
(89.1)
28.4
(83.1)
27.4
(81.3)
29.4
(84.9)
31.4
(88.5)
30.1
(86.2)
28.9
(84)
31.59
(88.86)
اوسط کم °س (°ف) 11.0
(51.8)
12.1
(53.8)
15.8
(60.4)
19.9
(67.8)
22.4
(72.3)
22.9
(73.2)
22.2
(72)
21.6
(70.9)
20.8
(69.4)
18.5
(65.3)
14.4
(57.9)
11.5
(52.7)
17.76
(63.96)
اوسط عمل ترسیب مم (انچ) 0
(0)
3
(0.12)
2
(0.08)
11
(0.43)
40
(1.57)
138
(5.43)
163
(6.42)
129
(5.08)
155
(6.1)
68
(2.68)
28
(1.1)
4
(0.16)
741
(29.17)
اوسط عمل ترسیب ایام 0.1 0.3 0.3 1.1 3.3 10.9 17.0 16.2 10.9 5.0 2.4 0.3 67.8
ماہانہ اوسط دھوپ ساعات 291.4 282.8 300.7 303.0 316.2 186.0 120.9 111.6 177.0 248.44 270.0 288.3 2,896.34
ماخذ: [49]
refer to adjacent text
Anandabodhi tree in Jetavana Monastery, Sravasti
Tropaeolum majus
A hybrid nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus) showing nectar spur, found mainly in ہردوئی ضلع
Average High and Low temperatures for various Uttar Pradesh Cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
لکھنؤ[50] 73/44 79/49 90/58 101/69 105/76 102/81 92/79 90/78 92/76 91/66 79/53 75/45
کانپور[51] 91/71 92/72 92/75 93/78 92/78 85/74 84/73 84/72 88/78 88/74 89/74 90/71
غازی آباد، بھارت[52] 70/45 73/50 84/59 97/70 102/79 100/82 93/81 91/79 93/75 91/66 82/55 73/46
الٰہ آباد[53] 74/47 81/52 92/62 103/73 108/80 104/83 93/79 91/78 92/77 92/69 86/57 77/49
آگرہ[54] 72/45 75/51 90/60 101/72 107/80 105/84 95/79 91/78 93/76 93/67 85/55 75/47
وارانسی[55] 74/47 80/52 92/61 102/72 106/80 102/83 92/79 91/794 91/77 90/69 85/57 76/49
گورکھپور[56] 74/49 80/53 91/72 103/77 99/79 92/78 91/78 91/76 91/70 85/59 76/51 76/49
بریلی[57] 71/47 77/57 88/60 99/70 105/77 102/81 93/79 91/78 92/76 90/67 83/56 74/48

The rain in U.P. can vary from an annual average of 170 cm in hilly areas to 84 cm in Western U.P.[44] Given the concentration of most of this rainfall in the four months of the monsoon, excess rain can lead to floods and shortage to droughts. As such, these two phenomena, floods and droughts, commonly recur in the state. The climate of the Vindhya Range and سطح مرتفع is subtropical with a mean annual rainfall between 1000 and 1200 mm, most of which comes during the monsoon.[45] Typical summer months are from March to June, with maximum temperatures ranging from 30 تا 38 °C (86 تا 100 °F). There is low relative humidity of around 20% and dust-laden winds blow throughout the season. In summers, hot winds called loo blow all across Uttar Pradesh.[44]

Flora and fauna[ترمیم]

مزید دیکھیے: Pilibhit Tiger Reserve اور Dudhwa National Park
State symbols of Uttar Pradesh[58]
State animal Swamp deer The barasingha.jpg
State bird Sarus crane Grus antigone Luc viatour.jpg
State tree Ashoka Ashoka (Polyalthia longifolia) flowers W IMG 7050.jpg
State flower Palash STS 001 Butea monosperma.jpg
State dance کتھک[حوالہ درکار] Kathak 3511900193 986f6440f6 b retouched.jpg
State sport فیلڈ ہاکی[حوالہ درکار] Field hockey.jpg
View of the Terai region
Gharial (Gavialis gangeticus) is found in the دریائے گنگا

The state has an abundance of natural resources.[59] In 2011 the recorded forest area in the state was 16,583 کلومیٹر2 (6,403 مربع میل) which is about 6.88% of the state's geographical area.[60] In spite of rapid deforestation and poaching of wildlife, a diverse flora and fauna continue to exist in the state. Several species of trees, large and small mammals, reptiles, and insects are found in the belt of temperate upper mountainous forests. Medicinal plants are found in the wild[61] and are also grown in plantations. The Terai-Duar savanna and grasslands support cattle. Moist deciduous trees grow in the upper Gangetic plain, especially along its riverbanks. This plain supports a wide variety of plants and animals. The Ganges and its tributaries are the مسکن (بیئیات) of large and small reptiles, amphibians, fresh-water fish, and crabs. Scrubland trees such as the babool and animals such as the chinkara are found in the arid Vindhyas.[62][63]

Tropical dry deciduous forests are found in all parts of the plains. Since much sunlight reaches the ground, shrubs and grasses are also abundant.[64] Large tracts of these forests have been cleared for cultivation. Tropical thorny forests, consisting of widely scattered thorny trees, mainly کیکر are mostly found in the southwestern parts of the state.[65] These forests are confined to areas which have low annual rainfall (50–70 cm), a mean annual temperature of 25-27 °C and low humidity.

Uttar Pradesh is known for its extensive پرندہ.[66] The most common birds which are found in the state are کبوتر, طاوس, junglefowl, black partridges, house sparrows, songbirds, blue jays, parakeets, بٹیرs, bulbuls, comb ducks, کنگ فشرs, ہدہدs, snipes, and parrots. Bird sanctuaries in the state include Bakhira Sanctuary, National Chambal Sanctuary, Chandra Prabha Sanctuary, Hastinapur Sanctuary, Kaimoor Sanctuary, and Okhla Sanctuary.[حوالہ درکار]

Other animals in the state include reptiles such as چھپکلیs, کوبراs, kraits, and gharials. Among the wide variety of fishes, the most common ones are مہاشیر and trout. Some animal species in Uttar Pradesh have gone extinct in recent years, while others, like the lion from the Gangetic Plain and the گینڈا from the Terai region, have become خطرہ زدہ انواع.[67] Many species are vulnerable to poaching despite regulation by the government.[68]

Divisions, districts and cities[ترمیم]

Uttar Pradesh is divided into 75 اتر پردیش کے اضلاع under these 18 divisions:[69]

The following is a list of top six districts from state of Uttar Pradesh by rank in India.[70]

Rank District Population Growth rate Sex ratio Literacy Density per Kilometer
27 الہ آباد ضلع 5,959,798 20.74 902 74.41 1087
26 مرادآباد ضلع 4,773,138 25.25 903 58.67 1284
22 غازی آباد ضلع، بھارت 2,358,525 41.66 878 85.00 3967
30 اعظم گڑھ 4,616,509 17.17 1017 72.69 1139
9 لکھنؤ ضلع 4,589,838 14.44 960 79.04 636
11 کانپور ضلع 4,581,268 19.49 958 82.55 1753

Each district is governed by a district collector or District Magistrate, who is an Indian Administrative Service officer appointed Government of Uttar Pradesh and reports to Divisional Commissioner of the division in which his district falls.[71] Each district is divided into subdivisions, governed by a sub-divisional magistrate, and again into Blocks. Blocks consists of panchayats (village councils) and town municipalities.[72] These blocks consists of urban units viz. census towns and rural units called پنچایت.[71]

Uttar Pradesh has more بھارت کے شہر بلحاظ آبادی than any other state in India.[73][74] The absolute urban population of the state is 44.4 million, which constitutes 11.8% of the total urban population of India, the second highest of any state.[75] According to the 2011 census, there are 15 urban agglomerations with a population greater than 500,000.[76] There are 14 municipal corporations, while نوئیڈا is specially administered by a statuary authority.[77]

In 2011, state's cabinet ministers headed by the then Chief Minister مایاوتی announced the separation of Uttar Pradesh into four different states of Purvanchal, Bundelkhand, Avadh Pradesh and Paschim Pradesh with twenty eight, seven, twenty three and seventeen districts respectively, later the proposal was turned down when ملائم سنگھ یادو lead سماجوادی پارٹی came to power in the 2012 election.[78]

Demographics[ترمیم]

Religions in Uttar Pradesh[79]
Religion Percent
ہندو
  
79.73%
مسلمان
  
19.26%
سکھ
  
0.32%
جین مت
  
0.11%
Others†
  
0.3%
Distribution of religions
Includes مسیحیs (0.2%), بدھ مت (<0.1%).

Uttar Pradesh has a large population and a high population growth rate. From 1991 to 2001 its population increased by over 26%.[80] Uttar Pradesh is the بھارت کی ریاستیں بلحاظ آبادی, with 199,581,477 people on 1 March 2011.[81] The state contributes 16.16% of India's population. The population density is 828 people per square kilometre, making it one of the most densely populated بھارت کی ریاستیں اور عملداریاں in the country.[1]

The جنسی تناسب in 2011, at 908 women to 1000 men, was lower than the national figure of 933.[1] The state's 2001–2011 decennial growth rate (including Uttrakhand) was 20.09%, higher than the national rate of 17.64%.[82][83] Uttar Pradesh has a large number of people living below the عتَبہ غربت.[84] Estimates released by the Planning Commission for the year 2009-10 revealed that Uttar Pradesh had 59 million people below the poverty line, the most for any state in India.[84][85]

As per 2011ء بھارت میں مردم شماری, Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state in India, is home to the maximum number of Hindu and Muslim population.[86] The religion-wise percentage of the population in 2011 was Hindus 79.69, Muslims 19.25, Sikhs 0.30, Jains 0.11, Buddhists 0.10, Christians 0.18 and Others 0.30.[87] The literacy rate of the state at the 2011 census was 70%, which was below the national average of 74%.[88][89] The literacy rate for men is 79% and for women 59%. In 2001 the literacy rate in Uttar Pradesh stood at 56.27% overall, 67% for men and 43% for women.[90]

ہندی زبان and اردو are the official languages of Uttar Pradesh.[3] Most people in Uttar Pradesh speak a dialect of اردو-ہندی, which in its written forms is referred to as اردو or ہندی زبان depending on the script employed.[91][92] People of Uttar Pradesh regard their language a very important part of their cultural identity.[38] Both Hindi and Urdu are spoken by both Hindus and Muslims.[93]

A large number of other dialects exist. Five distinct dialect regions have been identified. The western part of the state, روہیل کھنڈ and the upper Doab, is home to the speakers of کھڑی بولی (The dialect used for standard Hindi and standard Urdu). The lower Doab, which is referred as Braj Bhumi, or the land of Braj, is home to the speakers of برج بھاشا. Further south, the بندیل کھنڈ region people speaks Bundelkhandi. In central Uttar Pradesh, people speak the Awadhi dialect and بھوجپوری زبان is spoken in the east, Bhojpuri speakers have a similar culture to those living in the neighbouring state of Bihar. Indian states are defined on the languages they speak, however, a large state like UP contains many linguistic and ethnic groups and therefore lacks a cohesive, statewide identity.[94][95]

Government and politics[ترمیم]

refer to adjacent text
Allahabad High Court is the fourth oldest high court of India

Since Uttar Pradesh sends the largest number of legislators to the national Parliament, it is often considered to be one of the most important states with respect to Indian politics.[96] The state contributes 80 seats to the لوک سبھا and 31 seats to the راجیہ سبھا of the پارلیمان بھارت.[97][98][99][100] Uttar Pradesh has been called India's under-achiever, because it has provided India with eight prime ministers while remaining a poor state.[101] The state's legislative body is divided into two significant parts: Uttar Pradesh Vidhan Parishad[102] and Uttar Pradesh Vidhan Sabha.[103] The state is governed through a پارلیمانی نظام of representative democracy, a feature the state shares with other Indian states. The Governor is the head of state and is appointed by the صدر بھارت. The leader of the party or coalition with a majority in the Legislative Assembly is appointed as the Chief Minister by the Governor, and the Council of Ministers are appointed by the Governor on the advice of the Chief Minister. In the 2012 election, the largest number of seats went to the سماجوادی پارٹی with 224 seats.[104] At the local level, the state has a large number of village councils (panchayats), which are similar to those found in other Indian states. The administration in each district is headed by a District Magistrate who belongs to the Indian Administrative Service and is assisted by a number of officers belonging to state services.[105]

Judges and judicial officers are appointed non-politically and under strict rules regarding tenure to help maintain constitutional independence from the government.[38] This theoretically allows the judiciary to interpret the law based solely on the legislation enacted by Parliament without other influences on their decisions. The Superintendent of Police (India), an officer belonging to the Indian Police Service and assisted by the officers of the Uttar Pradesh Police Service, is entrusted with the responsibility of maintaining law and order and related issues in each district.[38] The Deputy Conservator of Forests, an officer belonging to the Indian Forest Service, also serves the government.[38] Sectoral development in the districts is looked after by the district head of each development department such as the Department of Public Works, Health, Education, Agriculture, Animal Husbandry, etc.[105]

The judiciary in the state consists of the Allahabad High Court in الٰہ آباد, the لکھنؤ Bench of Allahabad High Court, district courts namely the District court of Auraiya, the district court of Kanpur Dehat and district courts in each districts as Uttar Pradesh Judiciary, session courts in each district or Sessions Division, lower courts and judges at the taluka level.[106] The صدر بھارت appoints the chief justice of the High Court of the Uttar Pradesh judiciary on the advice of the chief justice of the بھارتی عدالت عظمیٰ as well as the Governor of Uttar Pradesh.[38] Other judges are appointed by the chief justice of the high court of the judiciary of Uttar Pradesh on the advice of the Chief Justice.[106][107] Subordinate Judicial Service is another vital part of the judiciary of Uttar Pradesh. The subordinate judiciary or the district courts are categorised into two divisions viz. Uttar Pradesh civil judicial services and Uttar Pradesh higher judicial service.[38] While the Uttar Pradesh civil judicial services comprises the Civil Judges (Junior Division)/Judicial Magistraes and civil judges (Senior Division)/Chief Judicial Magistrate, the Uttar Pradesh higher judicial service comprises civil and sessions judges. The Subordinate judicial service of the judiciary at Uttar Pradesh is controlled by the District Judge.[38] The district court of Etawah and district court of Kanpur Dehat of Uttar Pradesh serves as the subordinate judicial service of the state.[108] Justice (retd.) Sanjay MIshra was appointed as the new Lokayukta of Uttar Pradesh.[109]

Crime[ترمیم]

According to the National Crime Records Bureau, Uttar Pradesh has the highest number of crimes among any state in India, but due to its high population, the actual per capita crime rate is low.[110] Because of this, the NCRB states that UP is the third safest state in the country to live in. The value of human development index in Uttar Pradesh has steadily increased over time.[111][112] Uttar Pradesh has the second largest Civil police force with 107,840 members, accounting for 9.5% of the total civil police in the country.[113][114]

Terror attacks[ترمیم]

ghat on the edge of Gnaga river
Ghat on the Ganges, where the 2010 Varanasi bombing occurred

Since 2006, there have been a number of terrorist attacks, including explosions in a landmark holy place, a court and a temple. The 2006 Varanasi bombings were a series of bombings that occurred across the ہندومت holy city of وارانسی on 7 March 2006. At least 28 people were killed and as many as 101 others were injured.[115] The blasts occurred simultaneously shortly after 18:00 IST. The first blast took place at 18:20 in the crowded Sankat Mochan Hanuman Temple near the بنارس ہندو یونیورسٹی.[116][117] Other blasts followed at the وارانسی جنکشن ریلوے اسٹیشن near the waiting area next to the travel office. Initially, another blast was reported inside the stationary Shivganga Express bound for دہلی.[118]

In the afternoon of 23 November 2007, within a span of 25 minutes, six consecutive serial blasts occurred in the Lucknow, Varanasi, and Faizabad courts, in which 28 people were killed and several others injured.[119] The blasts came a week after the Uttar Pradesh police and central security agencies busted جیش محمد terrorists who had planned to abduct راہُل گاندھی. The Indian Mujahidin has claimed responsibility of these blasts in an email sent to TV stations five minutes before the blast.[120][121] The first blast occurred in the premises of the Varanasi civil court and collectorate between 13:05 and 13:07. Two successive blasts occurred in the Faizabad district court around 13:12 and 13:15, closely followed by one at Lucknow at 13:32. Bombs were explicitly targeted at the lawyers who were working in the courts.[122]

On 7 December 2010, another blast occurred at Sheetla Ghat, adjacent to the main دشاشومیدھ گھاٹ, in which more than 38 people were killed and several others injured.[123] The blast came a day after the anniversary of the 1992 Babri Masjid demolition, in which a mosque was demolished at ایودھیا leading to nationwide religious riots that killed over 2,000 people.[124]

Economy[ترمیم]

refer to caption
Roadside vendors in a town. A large proportion of residents are employed in the informal sector.
Net State Domestic Product at Factor Cost at Current Prices (2004–05 Base)[125]

figures in کروڑs of بھارتی روپیہ

Year Net State Domestic Product
2004–2005 229,074
2005–2006 256,699
2006–2007 294,031
2007–2008 332,352
2008–2009 384,718
2009–2010 453,020

In terms of net state domestic product (NSDP), Uttar Pradesh is the third largest economy in India after Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu and contributes 7.8% to India’s GDP, with an NSDP of INR9760 بلین (امریکی $150 بلین).[126] Agriculture is the leading occupation in Uttar Pradesh.[127] According to the report generated by India Brand Equity Foundation (IBEF), in 2014-15, Uttar Pradesh has accounted for 19% share in the country’s total food grain output. The state has experienced a high rate of economic growth in the past few years. Food grain production in the state in 2014-15 stood at 47,773.4 thousand tonnes. Wheat is the state's principal food crop and sugarcane is the main commercial crop.[128] About 70% of India's sugar comes from Uttar Pradesh. Sugarcane is the most important cash crop as the state is country’s largest producer of Sugar. As per the report generated by Indian Sugar Mills Association (ISMA), total sugarcane production in India was estimated to be 28.3 million tonne in the fiscal ending September 2015 which includes 10.47 million tonne from Maharashtra and 7.35 million tonne from Uttar Pradesh[129]

State industries are localised in the Kanpur region, the fertile پوروانچل lands and the Noida region. The مغل سرائے is home to a number of major ریلوے انجن plants. Major manufacturing products include engineering products, electronics, electrical equipment, cables, steel, leather, textiles, jewellery, frigates, automobiles, railway coaches, and wagons. More small-scale industrial units are situated in Uttar Pradesh than in any other state, with 12 percent of over 2.3 million units.[127] With 359 manufacturing clusters cement is top sector of SMEs in UP.[130]

The Uttar Pradesh Financial Corporation (UPFC) was established in the year 1954 under the SFCs Act of 1951 mainly to develop small and medium scale industries in the state.[131] UPFC provides financial assistance to new and existing units undergoing diversification, modernisation, expansion, or acquisition of fixed assets such as land, buildings, and machinery.[132] The UPFC also provides working capital to existing units with a sound track record and to new units under a single window scheme.[133] As of July 2012, due to financial constraints and directions from the state government, lending activities have been suspended except for State Government Schemes.[134] There has been an increase in private investments under the leadership of Akhilesh Yadav in the first four years. The state has reported total private investment worth over Rs. 25,081 crores during the years of 2012 and 2016.[135] According to a recent report of World Bank on Ease of Doing Business in India, Uttar Pradesh was ranked among the top 10 states and first among Northern states.[136] The Samajwadi Party government has been working to bring an industrial revolution in the state as industrial growth in Uttar Pradesh contributes to Indian economy

In 2009–10, the tertiary sector of the economy (service industries) was the largest contributor to the gross domestic product of the state, contributing 44.8% of the state domestic product compared to 44% from the primary sector (agriculture, forestry, and tourism) and 11.2% from the secondary sector (industrial and manufacturing).[137][138] During the 11th five-year plan (2007–2012), the average خام ملکی پیداوار (GSDP) growth rate was 7.28%, lower than 15.5%, the average for all states of the country.[139][140] The state’s per capita GSDP was INR29417 (امریکی $460), lower than the national per capita GSDP of INR60972 (امریکی $960).[141] The state's total financial debt stood at INR2000 بلین (امریکی $31 بلین) in 2011.[142] Labour efficiency is higher at an index of 26 than the national average of 25. The economy also benefits from the state's tourism industry.[143]

The state is attracting براہ راست غیر ملکی سرمایہ کاری which has mostly come in the software and electronics fields; Noida and Lucknow are becoming a major hub for the information technology (IT) industry and houses the headquarters of most of the major corporate, media and financial institutions. سون بھدرا ضلع, a district in eastern Uttar Pradesh, has large-scale industries. Its southern region is known as the "Energy Capital of India".[144] In May 2013 Uttar Pradesh had the largest number of mobile subscribers in the country, a total of 121.60 million mobile phone connections out of 861.66 million in India, according to the telecom regulator, Telecom Regulatory Authority of India TRAI.[145][146][147][148]

Transportation[ترمیم]

"photograph"
Lucknow Shatabdi near New Delhi

The world's longest railway platform is at گورکھپور ریل نقل و حمل ریلوے اسٹیشن (NER) which is about 1.34 km long. The state has the largest railway network in the country and the sixth highest railway density. As 0f 2011, there were 8,546 کلومیٹر (5,310 میل) of rail in the state.[149] Allahabad is the headquarters of the North Central Railway[150] and گورکھپور is the headquarters of the North Eastern Railway.[151][152] Other than Zonal Headquarters of Allahabad and Gorakhpur, Lucknow and Moradabad serve as divisional Headquarters of the Northern Railway Division. Lucknow Swarna Shatabdi Express, the second fastest shatabdi train, connects the Indian capital of New Delhi to Lucknow. This was the first train in India to get the new German LHB coaches.[153] The railway stations of Lucknow NR, Kanpur Central, وارانسی جنکشن ریلوے اسٹیشن, Agra Cantt, گورکھپور and Mathura Junction were included in the Indian Railways list of 50 world-class railway stations.[154]

The state has a large, multimodal transportation system with the largest road network in the country.[155] The state is well connected to its nine neighbouring states and almost all other parts of India through the national highways (NH). It boasts 42 national highways, with a total length of 4,942 km (9.6% of the total NH length in India). The Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation was established in 1972 to provide economical, reliable, and comfortable transportation in the state with connecting services to adjoining states[156] and boasts as being the only State Transport Corporation that runs in profit in the entire nation. All cities are connected to state highways, and all district headquarters are being connected with four lane roads which carry traffic between major centres within the state. One of them is Agra Lucknow Expressway, which is a 302 km (188 mi) محرک راستہ being constructed by Uttar Pradesh Expressways Industrial Development Authority[157] (UPEIDA) to reduce vehicular traffic in already congested roads. This expressway is country’s largest Greenfield Expressway which would cut the travel time between Lucknow and Agra from 6 hours to 3.30 hours.[158] Other district roads and village roads provide villages accessibility to meet their social needs as also the means to transport agriculture produce from village to nearby markets. Major district roads provide a secondary function of linking between main roads and rural roads.[159] Uttar Pradesh has the highest road density in India, (1,027 km per 1000 km2) and the largest surfaced urban-road network in the country (50,721 km).[160]

The state has excellent civil aviation infrastructure with چودھری چرن سنگھ بین الاقوامی ہوائی اڈا in Lucknow and لال بہادر شاستری بین الاقوامی ہوائی اڈا in Varanasi, providing international service.[161] and four domestic airports located at Agra, Allahabad, Gorakhpur and Kanpur. The Lucknow Airport is the second busiest airport in North India after the اندرا گاندھی انٹرنیشنل ایرپورٹ, New Delhi. The state has also proposed creating the Taj International Airport at Kurikupa near Hirangaon, ٹنڈلا in فیروز آباد ضلع.[162][163] An international Airport is also proposed at کشی نگر.[164]

The لکھنؤ میٹرو is being constructed in the city of Lucknow as an alternative mode of transport. The capital city is witnessing a swift rise in the number of immigrants and this has called for the transformation of Public modes of transport.[165] Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav in February 2013 gave the final clearance for Lucknow Metro and the commencement of civil works started on 27 September 2014.[166] With the use of advance signalling based on CBTC, French Multinational Alstom is manufacturing the Metro Train in South India. The whole system has been designed with 100 seconds headway in mind.[167] The first phase of construction is expected to be operational by December 2016. Lucknow Metro Rail Corporation (LMRC) has been recently awarded for ‘Best Metro for Excellence in Innovative Designs’ in the fifth Annual Metro Rail Summit 2016.[168]

Sports[ترمیم]

Painting of Dhyan Chand
Indian hockey legend Major Dhyan Chand

Popular sports in Uttar Pradesh are both traditional and modern sports of mainly European origin. Athletes from the state have included the field hockey player Dhyan Chand, Olympic shooter Nawab Mian, volleyball player Sanjiv Balian, and the wrestler Anuj.[169]

Traditional sports, now played mostly as a pastime, include wrestling, swimming, کبڈی, and track- or water-sports played according to local traditional rules and without modern equipment. Some sports are designed to display martial skills such as using a sword or 'Pata' (stick).[170] Due to lack of organised patronage and requisite facilities, these sports survive mostly as individuals' hobbies or local competitive events. Among modern sports, فیلڈ ہاکی is popular and Uttar Pradesh has produced some of the finest players in India, including Dhyan Chand and, more recently, Nitin Kumar[171] and Lalit Kumar Upadhyay.[172]

Recently, کرکٹ has become more popular than field ہاکی. Uttar Pradesh won its first Ranji Trophy tournament in February 2006, beating بنگال in the final.[173] It can also boast of routinely having 3 or 4 players on the national side. گرین پارک اسٹیڈیم in کانپور, the only internationally recognised cricket stadium in the state, has witnessed some of India's most famous victories. Uttar Pradesh Cricket Association (UPCA) has headquarters in Kanpur. An International Cricket Stadium with a capacity of 50, 000 spectators, is being set up in the capital city of Uttar Pradesh.

The renovation of Dhyan Chand Stadium in Lucknow has been done under the leadership of Uttar Pradesh current chief minister Akhilesh Yadav.[174] He has also signed a Memorandum of Understanding with Croatian government for the development of sports facilities in the state.[175] Indian Gramin Cricket league has also been incorporated in the state of Uttar Pradesh to promote sports talent at village level.[176] To assist the sportspersons across the state, Uttar Pradesh government has unveiled a new Sports Policy 2016 to create transparency in the provision of employment of sports persons in the government sector. Several cash rewards have been announced for the male and female sportspersons across the state. The prestigious Laxman award is given to male athletes and Rani Laxmi Bai award to female athletes for excelling at national/international level[177][178]

Faizabad Sports Complex is another sports venue in Uttar Pradesh which includes Faizabad International Sports Stadium.[179] Greater Noida Cricket Stadium is another newly built international cricket stadium.[180]

Shobhit Sharma is the captain and founder of Sportybrat Cricket Club, Finland.

The Buddh International Circuit hosted India’s inaugural F1 Grand Prix race on 30 October 2011.[181] The 5.14 km long circuit was designed by German architect and racetrack designer Herman Tilke to compete with other world-class race circuits.[182]

Education[ترمیم]

World's first school for Handicap
JRHU is the world's first school for handicap

Uttar Pradesh has a long tradition of education, although historically it was primarily confined to the elite class and religious schools.[183] Sanskrit-based learning formed the major part of education from the ویدک دور to the گپتا سلطنتs. As cultures travelled through the region they brought their bodies of knowledge with them, adding پالی, فارسی زبان, and عربی زبان scholarship to the community. These formed the core of Hindu-Buddhist-Muslim education until the rise of British colonialism. The present schools-to-university system of education owes its inception and development in the state (as in the rest of the country) to foreign Christian missionaries and the سلطنت برطانیہ.[184] Schools in the state are either managed by the government or by private trusts. ہندی زبان is used as a medium of instruction in most of the schools except those affiliated to the CBSE or the Council for ICSE boards.[185] Under the 10+2+3 plan, after completing secondary school, students typically enroll for 2 years in a junior college, also known as pre-university, or in schools with a higher secondary facility affiliated with the Uttar Pradesh Board of High School and Intermediate Education or a central board. Students choose from one of three streams, namely liberal arts, commerce, or science. Upon completing the required coursework, students may enroll in general or professional degree programs.

Educational institute
Central Drug Research Institute, an autonomous multidisciplinary research institute

Uttar Pradesh has more than 30 universities,[186] including 5 central universities, 20 state universities, 8 deemed universities, 2 IITs, 1 IIM in لکھنؤ, 1 NIT in الٰہ آباد and several polytechnics, engineering colleges and industrial training institutes.[187] Prestigious institutes like the علی گڑھ مسلم یونیورسٹی, Sanjay Gandhi Post Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology (Kanpur),[188] Indian Institute of Technology (BHU), the Indian Institute of Management (Lucknow), Indian Institute of Information Technology (Allahabad), Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology (Allahabad), and the Harcourt Butler Technological Institute are known worldwide for their quality education and research in their respective fields.[189] The presence of such institutions provides the students of the state with ample opportunities for higher education.[190][191] Other universities in the state include Gautam Buddha University, بنارس ہندو یونیورسٹی, Purvanchal University, Deen Dayal Upadhyay Gorakhpur University, University of Allahabad, Indian Veterinary Research Institute بریلی, IMT Ghaziabad, Dr. A.P.J. Abdul Kalam Technical University, M.J.P. Rohilkhand University, Narendra Dev University of Agriculture and Technology, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, and King George's Medical University.[192]

The Integral University, a state level institution, was established by the Uttar Pradesh Government to provide education in different technical, اطلاقی علم, and other disciplines.[193] The Central Institute of Higher Tibetan Studies was founded as an autonomous organisation by the national ministry of culture. Jagadguru Rambhadracharya Handicapped University is the only university established exclusively for the disabled in the world.[194] A large number of Indian scholars are educated at different universities in Uttar Pradesh. Notable scholars who were born, worked or studied in the geographic area of the state include ہری ونش بچن, موتی لال نہرو, Harish Chandra and اندرا گاندھی.

Tourism[ترمیم]

مزید دیکھیے: Kumbh Mela اور Architecture of Uttar Pradesh
Kumbh Mela is biggest religious gathering
Kumbh Mela 2013 at Sangam, Allahabad

Uttar Pradesh ranks first in domestic tourist arrivals with more than 71 million,[195][196] owing to its rich and varied topography, vibrant culture, festivals, monuments, ancient places of worship, and viharas. Millions gather at الٰہ آباد to take part in the Magh Mela festival on the banks of the Ganges.[197] This festival is organised on a larger scale every 12th year and is called the Kumbha Mela, where over 10 million Hindu pilgrims congregate in one of the largest gatherings of people in the world.[198]

The historically important towns of سارناتھ and کشی نگر is near to gorakhpur and are located not far from Varanasi.[199] گوتم بدھ gave his first sermon after his enlightenment at Sarnath and died at Kushinagar; both are important pilgrimage sites for بدھ مت. Also at Sarnath are the Pillars of Ashoka and the Lion Capital of Ashoka, both important archaeological artefacts with national significance. At a distance of 80 km from Varanasi, غازی پور ضلع is famous not only for its Ghats on the Ganges but also for the tomb of چارلس کارنوالس, the 18th century Governor of برطانوی ایسٹ انڈیا کمپنی ruled بنگال پریزیڈنسی. The tomb is maintained by the Archaeological Survey of India.[200] The state also has a bird sanctuary in Etah district called Patna Bird Sanctuary.

Lucknow, the capital of the state, has several beautiful historical monuments.[201][202] It has also preserved the damaged complex of the Oudh-period British Resident's quarters, which are being restored. Uttar Pradesh gives access to three یونیسکو عالمی ثقافتی ورثہ: the تاج محل, قلعہ آگرہ, and the nearby فتح پور سیکری. Varanasi is an ancient city famous for its ghats.[203] To promote tourism, the Directorate of Tourism was established in the 1972 with a Director General who is an I.A.S. officer. In 1974 the Uttar Pradesh State Tourism Development Corporation was established to look after the commercial tourist activities.[204]

To further promote tourism, Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav introduced Uttar Pradesh Tourism Policy 2016 to upgrade famous tourist destinations in the state. The policy aims to reinforce Uttar Pradesh as a tourist friendly destination. The policy envisages the use of information technology enabled tools to enhance overall travel experience. This has gradually increased the number of foreign tourists, to 29.09 lakh in 2014 as against 7.27 lakh back in 1998 and domestic tourists to 18 crore.[205][206] To boost the tourism in the state from within the country and other parts of the world, the Government of Uttar Pradesh established a 'Uttar Pradesh Heritage Arc' covering the cities of آگرہ, لکھنؤ and وارانسی. To promote this newly created ensemble, the government organised an 'Uttar Pradesh Travel Mart' in 2015, hosted by the city of لکھنؤ which was attended by 80 delegates from 27 countries of the world.[207]

Culture[ترمیم]

Language and literature[ترمیم]

The battle of Kurukshetra, folio from the Mahabharata

Several texts and hymns of the Vedic literature were composed in Uttar Pradesh. The festival of Guru Purnima is dedicated to Sage ویاس, and also known as Vyasa Purnima as it is the day which is believed to be his birthday and also the day he divided the Vedas.[208] There is a long literary and folk Hindi language tradition in the state. In the 19th and 20th century, Hindi literature was modernised by authors such as Jaishankar Prasad, Maithili Sharan Gupt, پریم چند, Suryakant Tripathi Nirala, Babu Gulabrai, Sachchidananda Hirananda Vatsyayan 'Agyeya', Rahul Sankrityayan, ہری ونش بچن, Dharamvir Bharati, Subhadra Kumari Chauhan, Mahavir Prasad Dwivedi, Swami Sahajanand Saraswati, Dushyant Kumar, Hazari Prasad Dwivedi, Acharya Kuber Nath Rai, Bharatendu Harishchandra, کملیشور, Shivmangal Singh Suman, Mahadevi Varma, and Vibhuti Narain Rai.[209]

The state is sometimes called the 'Hindi heartland of India'.[210] ہندی زبان became the language of state administration with the Uttar Pradesh Official Language Act of 1951. A 1989 amendment to the act added اردو as another native language of the state.[211] Linguistically, the state spreads across the Central, East-Central, and Eastern zones of the ہند۔آریائی زبانیں, the major native languages of the state being اودھی زبان, بھوجپوری زبان, Bundeli, برج بھاشا, Kannauji and the vernacular form of کھڑی بولی.[212]

Music and dance[ترمیم]

Uttar Pradesh has produced musicians, including Anup Jalota, Baba Sehgal, Girija Devi, Gopal Shankar Misra, Hari Prasad Chaurasia, پنڈت کشن مہاراج, Vikash Maharaj[213] نوشاد, روی شنکر, شوبھا مڈگل, Siddheshwari Devi, Talat Mehmood, and بسم اللہ خان. The غزل singer بیگم اختر was a native of Uttar Pradesh. The region's folk heritage includes songs called rasiya (especially popular in خطۂ برج), which celebrate the divine love of Radha and کرشن. Other forms of music are kajari, صحار, قوالی, rasiya, ٹھمری, birha, chaiti, and sawani. Traditional dance and musical styles are taught at the Bhatkhande Music Institute University in Lucknow, named after the musician Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande.[214]

کتھک, a classical dance form, owes its origin to the state of Uttar Pradesh.[حوالہ درکار] The dance form is connected to classical Hindustani music where the rhythmic nimbleness of the feet is accompanied by the طبلہ or Pakhawaj.[215] Four of the six schools of this dance form, Lucknow gharana, Ajrara gharana, Farukhabad gharana and Benares gharana, are situated in Uttar Pradesh.[216][217]

Fairs and festivals[ترمیم]

Hindu goddess Saraswati
Saraswati festival, in which people worship the goddess of دانش, music, arts, and science
Evening salute to sun
Hindu priest saluting the sun in the Ganges, وارانسی

دیوالی (celebrated between mid-October and mid-December) and Rama Navami are popular festivals in Uttar Pradesh. کمبھ میلہ, organised in the month of Maagha (Feb-March), is a major festival held every twelve years in rotation at Allahabad, ہردوار, اوجین, on the river Ganges and ناسک on the دریائے گوداوری.[218] Lath mar Holi is a local celebration of the Hindu festival of Holi. It takes place well before the actual Holi in the town of برسانا near Mathura. Taj Mahotsav, held annually at Agra, is a colourful display of the culture of the Braj area.[219] Buddha Purnima, which marks the birth of گوتم بدھ, is a major Hindu and Buddhist festival, while Christmas is celebrated by the minority Christian population. Other festivals are دسہرہ, مکر سنکرانتی, Vasant Panchami, Ayudha Puja, Ganga Mahotsava, کرشن جنم اشٹمی, Sardhana Christian Fair, مہا شواراتری, Mahavir Jayanti, محرم (مہینہ), عید میلاد النبی, عید الفطر, عیدالاضحی, Chhath puja, Lucknow Mahotsav, Kabob and ہنومان جاینتی.[220]

Cuisine[ترمیم]

photograph
Uttar Pradeshi thali with naan, sultani dal, raita, and shahi paneer
Paan, (betel leaves) being served with silver foil

A typical day-to-day traditional vegetarian meal of Uttar Pradesh, like any other North Indian thali, consists of روٹی (flatbread), chawal, dal, sabji, raita and papad. Many people still drink the traditional drink chaach (traditional Butter milk) with meals. On festive occasions, usually 'tava' (flat pan for roti) is considered inauspicious, and instead fried foods are consumed. A typical festive thali consists of Puri, Kachauri, sabji, pulav, papad, raita, salad and desserts (such as sewai or Kheer).

Many communities have their own particular style of cuisines, such as the Jains, Kayasths and Muslims. There are also certain sub-regional delicacies. Awadhi cuisine is world-famous for dishes such as kebab, بریانی, keema and نہاری. Sweets occupy an important place in the Hindu diet and are eaten at social ceremonies. People make distinctive sweetmeats from milk products, including khurchan, peda, gulabjamun, petha, makkhan malai, and chamcham. The chaat in Lucknow and Banarasi Paan is known across India for its flavour and ingredients.[221]

Awadhi cuisine is from the city of لکھنؤ. The cuisine consists of both vegetarian and non-vegetarian dishes. سلطنت اودھ has been greatly influenced by مغلائی پکوان, and the cuisine of Lucknow bears similarities to those of وسط ایشیا, کشمیر, خطۂ پنجاب and حیدرآباد، دکن; and the city is known for Nawabi foods.[222] The bawarchis and rakabdars of Awadh gave birth to the dum style of cooking or the art of cooking over a slow fire, which has become synonymous with Lucknow today. Their spread consisted of elaborate dishes like kebabs, kormas, بریانی, kaliya, nahari-kulchas, zarda, sheermal, روٹی, and پراٹھا. The richness of Awadh cuisine lies not only in the variety of cuisine but also in the ingredients used like mutton, paneer, and rich spices including cardamom and زعفران.

مغلائی پکوان is a style of cooking developed in the برصغیر by the imperial kitchens of the مغلیہ سلطنت. It represents the cooking styles used in شمالی ہند, especially Uttar Pradesh. The cuisine is strongly influenced by the cuisine of Central Asia, and has in turn strongly similarities to the regional cuisines of Kashmir and the پنجابی پکوان region.[222] The tastes of Mughlai cuisine vary from extremely mild to spicy, and is often associated with a distinctive aroma and the taste of ground and whole spices.

Dress[ترمیم]

The people of Uttar Pradesh dress in a variety of traditional and Western styles.[223] Traditional styles of dress include colourful draped garments – such as sari for women and dhoti or lungi for men – and tailored clothes such as salwar kameez for women and kurta-pyjama for men.[223] Men often sport head-gear like topi or pagri.[223] شیروانی is a more formal male dress and is frequently worn along with chooridar on festive occasions. European-style trousers and shirts are also common among the men.[223]

Media[ترمیم]

A number of newspapers and periodicals are published in Hindi, English, and Urdu. The Pioneer was founded in الٰہ آباد in 1865 by George Allen.[224] Amar Ujala, Dainik Bhaskar, Dainik Jagran, and Hindustan Dainik have a wide circulation, with local editions published from several important cities. Major English language newspapers which are published and sold in large numbers are The Telegraph, دی ٹائمز آف انڈیا, Hindustan Times, The Hindu, The Statesman, The Indian Express, and Asian Age. Some prominent financial dailies like دی اکنامک ٹائمز, Financial Express, Business Line, and Business Standard are widely circulated. Vernacular newspapers such as those in ہندی زبان, Nepali, گجراتی زبان, اڑیہ زبان, اردو, and پنجابی زبان are also read by a select readership.

دوردرشن is the state-owned television broadcaster. Multi system operators provide a mix of Hindi, English, Bengali, Nepali and international channels via cable. Hindi 24-hour television news channels are NDTV India, DD News, Zee News Uttar Pradesh, Jan TV, IBN-7, and ABP News. آکاش وانی (ریڈیو ناشر) is a public radio station. There are 32 private ایف ایم stations available in major cities like Lucknow, Kanpur, Varanasi, Allahabad, Agra, and Noida.[225][226] Cell phone providers include Vodafone, ایئرٹیل, BSNL, Reliance Communications, ٹیلی نار, Aircel,Tata Indicom, Idea Cellular, and Tata DoCoMo. Broadband internet is available in select towns and cities and is provided by the state-run BSNL and by private companies.[227] ڈائل اپ انٹرنیٹ رسائی is provided throughout the state by BSNL and other providers.[228]

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  91. Compliance of the constitutional and legal provisions۔ "Functions of the department of official language"۔ Department of Official Language۔ مورخہ 15 جون 2011 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 27 جون 2011۔
  92. "Official language - Constitutional/Statutory Provisions"۔ The National Portal of India۔ مورخہ 4 جنوری 2012 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 23 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  93. "The real classical language"۔ Columbia University۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 5 اکتوبر 2012۔
  94. "The story of an Awadhi"۔ یوٹیوب۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 20 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  95. "Awadhi diaect"۔ Ethnologue-Languages of the world۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 20 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  96. Four other states seen as barometer of support for federal government.۔ "Legislative elections in Uttar Pradesh"۔ الجزیرہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 8 فروری 2012۔
  97. "Statewise List"۔ 164.100.47.5۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2015-07-29۔
  98. "Rajya Sabha"۔ Rajya Sabha۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2015-07-29۔
  99. Verinder Grover۔ Legislative Council in State Legislatures۔ Deep & Deep Publications۔ صفحات 37–255۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-81-7100-193-4۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 27 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  100. "Composition of Rajya Sabha" (PDF)۔ Rajya Sabha۔ New Delhi: Rajya Sabha Secretariat۔ صفحات 24–25۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 15 فروری 2012۔
  101. "UP: the nerve centre of politics"۔ Zee news۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 22 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  102. "UP vidhan parishad"۔ Government of India۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 22 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  103. "UP vidhan sabha structure"۔ Government of India۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 22 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  104. "Uttar Pradesh 2012 Election Result"۔ Zee News۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 7 مارچ 2012۔
  105. ^ ا ب "Judiciary in the state"۔ Allahabad Nagar Nigam۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 17 فروری 2011۔
  106. ^ ا ب "Uttar Pradesh judiciary"۔ Maps of India۔ مورخہ 4 ستمبر 2012 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 19 ستمبر 2012۔
  107. "Constitutional setup"۔ Government of Uttar Pradesh۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 19 ستمبر 2012۔
  108. "Subordinate Civil Judiciary in Uttar Pradesh" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ Allahabad High Court۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 19 ستمبر 2012۔
  109. "Lokayukt appoint by SC"۔
  110. Pervez Iqbal Siddiqui۔ "UP tops in crime, low on 'criminality'"۔ Times of India۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 14 ستمبر 2013۔
  111. "Uttar Pradesh Human Development Report"۔ Uttar Pradesh Human Development۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 18 جون 2007۔
  112. "Impressive growth in UP"۔ Times of India۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 22 اکتوبر 2011۔
  113. Alam Shafi۔ "The strength of Armed Police in Uttar Pradesh" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ National Crime Records Bureau۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 23 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  114. "Highlight of criminal statistics" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ Ministry of statics and progra implementation۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 22 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  115. "A powerful bomb placed in"۔ Zee news۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 20 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  116. "Sankat Mochan Hanuman temple blast"۔ 'Rediff.com۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 14 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  117. "A Recall of the 2006 Blasts in Varanasi on March 7"۔ South Asia analysis۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 7 دسمبر 2010۔[مردہ ربط]
  118. "Varanasi railway station blast"۔ Rediff.com۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 14 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  119. "Uttar Pradesh blasts, RDX use confirmed"۔ Web India۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 4 اگست 2012۔
  120. "Varanasi blast"۔ NDTV۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 15 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  121. Praveen Swami۔ "Uttar Pradesh bombings mark new phase"۔ The Hindu۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 20 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  122. Praveen Swami۔ "Wiretap warning on Uttar Pradesh bombings went in vain"۔ The Hindu۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 20 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  123. "Massive terror attacks"۔ The Sunday Indian۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 20 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  124. "Chronology of recent terror attacks"۔ یاہو!۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 13 جولا‎ئی 2011۔
  125. "Net state domestic product at factor cost—state-wise (at current prices)"۔ Handbook of statistics on Indian economy۔ ریزرو بینک آف انڈیا۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 7 فروری 2012۔
  126. "GDP of Indian States | Indian states GDP 2015 - StatisticsTimes.com"۔ statisticstimes.com۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2016-08-08۔
  127. ^ ا ب "The state profile" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ PHD Chember۔ مورخہ 24 دسمبر 2012 کو اصل (پی‌ڈی‌ایف) سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 20 ستمبر 2012۔
  128. "Industrial policy of Uttar Pradesh"۔ Lex Universe۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 20 ستمبر 2012۔
  129. "Indian sugar mills association"۔ www.indiansugar.com۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2016-08-08۔
  130. Malini Goyal۔ "SMEs employ close to 40% of India's workforce, but contribute only 17% to GDP"۔ The Economic TImes۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 20 جون 2013۔
  131. "Details of financing & limits of accommodation" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ UPFC India۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 22 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  132. "The procedure followed in the decision making process" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ Uttar Pradesh Financial Corporation۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 22 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  133. "A statement of the categories of documents that are held by the Corporation." (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ Uttar Pradesh Financial Corporation۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 9 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  134. "The budget allocated to each of its agency" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ UPFC India۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 22 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  135. Virendra Singh Rawat۔ "Private investment under Akhilesh government more than doubles"۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2016-08-08۔
  136. "10. Uttar Pradesh - World Bank Survey: India's top 10 states on the ease of doing business ranking - The Economic Times"۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2016-08-08۔
  137. "Investment climate of a state" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ IBEF organization۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 22 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  138. "Service sector over the present crisis"۔ The Economic Times۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 14 مارچ 2009۔
  139. "Only 5 states exceed 11th Plan growth targets: Govt: Ruled by CNBC TV18 News"۔ CNBC TV18-MoneyControl Post۔
  140. "RBI releases Study on State Finances 2009-10"۔ ریزرو بینک آف انڈیا (RBI)۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 22 فروری 2010۔
  141. Ministry of statistics and Program Implementation. Ministry of statistics and Program Implementation Govt. Of India. http://mospi.nic.in/Mospi_New/upload/State_wise_SDP_2004-05_14mar12.pdf. 
  142. "State slipping into debt burden"۔ Times of India۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 14 جون 2011۔
  143. "Small scale industries and other small trades." (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ Ministry of Small Scale Industries۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 17 جنوری 2008۔
  144. "Western part of the coalfield"۔ Northern Coalfields Limited۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2008 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 8 جولا‎ئی 2008۔
  145. TRAI Report by۔ "Monthly press release" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ Telecom Regulatory Authority of India۔ TRAI۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 23 مئی 2013۔
  146. in UP Mobile subscriber۔ "State with most cellphone users in India"۔ The Hindu Business line۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 23 مئی 2013۔
  147. "Most cell phone users state of India"۔ Indian Express۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 23 مئی 2013۔
  148. "Uttar Pradesh top in mobile penetration"۔ The Times of India۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 23 مئی 2013۔
  149. "total railway route length uttar pradesh"۔ Northern Railways Lucknow Division۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 22 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  150. "North Central Railway-The Allahabad Division"۔ Indian Railways Portal CMS Team۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 22 فروری 2011۔
  151. "the Portal of Indian Railways"۔ بھارتی ریلوے۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 14 اپریل 2011۔
  152. "Equipment arrives for integrated security system"۔ Times of india۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 22 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  153. "Lucknow New Delhi Shatabdi Express"۔ دی ٹائمز آف انڈیا۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 28 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  154. "Introducing the Railway Budget 2011-12" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ بھارتی ریلوے۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 22 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  155. Investment Promotion & Infrastructure Development Cell۔ "Road" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 7 جنوری 2012۔
  156. "Road network" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ India Brand Equity Foundation۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 22 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  157. "Welcome :: U.P. Expressways Industrial Development Authority"۔ www.upeida.in۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 26 جولا‎ئی 2016۔
  158. "India's Longest Agra-Lucknow Expressway – 20 Facts to Know"۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 26 جولا‎ئی 2016۔
  159. For the purpose of management and administration, Roads in India are divided into the categories۔ "One of the largest road networks in the Country" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ Department of Industrial policy and promotion۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 22 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  160. "Pervasive road network of Uttar Pradesh" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ Planning commission, Government of India۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 20 ستمبر 2012۔
  161. "contributing to economic growth and prosperity of the nation"۔ Airports Authority of India۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 22 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  162. "UP to seek DGCA nod for Taj airport"۔ Hindustantimes.com۔ مورخہ 2 اپریل 2015 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2015-07-29۔
  163. "Hindustan Times e-Paper"۔ Paper.hindustantimes.com۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2015-07-29۔
  164. "Kushinagar international airport to get ready for take-off"۔ Virendra Singh Rawat۔
  165. "Lucknow Metro Rail Right On Track - Times of India"۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2016-07-25۔
  166. "Overview of Lucknow Metro Rail Project Update Status" (انگریزی زبان میں)۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2016-07-25۔
  167. "Alstom to provide metro trainsets and a signalling solution for Lucknow's first metro line"۔ www.alstom.com۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2016-07-25۔
  168. "Lucknow Metro adjudged as best metro for 'excellence in innovative designs' - Times of India"۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2016-07-25۔
  169. "District Sports Office"۔ District sport office۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 29 جون 2012۔
  170. Mohan Rao۔ From Population Control To Reproductive Health: Malthusian Arithmetic۔ Sage Publications۔ صفحات 244–246۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-7619-3269-7۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 26 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  171. "Indian Hockey Player"۔ stick2hockey۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 31 دسمبر 2010۔
  172. "Hapless victim of a TV sting, this hockey player is now a rising star"۔ The Indian Express۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 29 جون 2012۔
  173. "Uttar Pradesh win Ranji Trophy"۔ Rediff.com۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2 فروری 2006۔
  174. UP News 360۔ "उत्तर प्रदेश का न्यूज़ पोर्टल | Uttar Pradesh News Portal | اترپردیش نیوز پورٹل"۔ UPNews360۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2016-08-02۔
  175. "Improved sports infrastructure – the new face of Uttar Pradesh"۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2016-08-02۔
  176. "IGCL, a confidence booster for rural cricketers - Times of India"۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2016-08-02۔
  177. "Uttar Pradesh re-introduces sports quota in Government Jobs"۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2016-08-02۔
  178. "UTTAR PRADESH INTRODUCES NEW SPORTS POLICY - CASH REWARDS AND IMPROVED INFRASTRUCTURE FOR SPORTS-PERSONS - Uttar Hamara" (انگریزی زبان میں)۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2016-08-02۔
  179. "Faizabad to get international standard sports complex"۔ India Language Portal۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2 فروری 2006۔
  180. "UP to get one more cricket stadium by 2011"۔ First Published:PTI, Friday, 27 November 2009, 21:26۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2 فروری 2006۔
  181. "The Buddh International Circuit (BIC), which played host to India's first Formula One Grand Prix"۔ CNN-IBN۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 14 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  182. "Philosophy behind the Buddh International Circuit" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ Jaypee Group۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2 فروری 2006۔
  183. "Islamic religious schools"۔ دی ٹائمز آف انڈیا۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 25 اپریل 2003۔[مردہ ربط]
  184. "British colonial administration system in state education system"۔ State Education Board۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 25 اپریل 2003۔
  185. "Uttar Pradesh Facts & Figures"۔ Uttar Pradesh education department۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 16 اکتوبر 2010۔
  186. "List of universities"۔ Education department of india۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 16 اکتوبر 2010۔
  187. "List of Universities in Uttar Pradesh"۔ Education department of U.P۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 27 جون 2012۔
  188. "Kanpur schools welcome IIT Council formula"۔ دی ٹائمز آف انڈیا۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 27 جون 2012۔
  189. "Official Website of IIM Lucknow"۔ IIM Lucknow۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 11 اپریل 2012۔
  190. "IIM-Lucknow sends country's first team to global agribusiness meet"۔ دی ٹائمز آف انڈیا۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 28 جون 2012۔
  191. "IIM Lucknow students shine at International Agri-biz symposium in Shanghai"۔ MBA Universe۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 28 جون 2012۔
  192. "List of Universities in Uttar Pradesh"۔ Government of Uttar Pradesh۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 28 جون 2012۔
  193. "The Integral University Lucknow state level institution"۔ Government of Uttar Pradesh۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 28 جون 2012۔
  194. Dikshit Ragini۔ "चित्रकूट: दुनिया का प्रथम विकलांग विश्वविद्यालय" (Hindi زبان میں)۔ Jansatta Express۔ Unknown parameter |trans_title= ignored (معاونت)
  195. Upkar Prakashan - Editorial Board۔ Uttar Pradesh General Knowledge۔ Upkar Prakashan۔ صفحات 46–287۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-81-7482-408-0۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 26 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  196. "Performance of Tourist Centres in Uttar Pradesh" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ Uttar Pradesh Tourist Department۔
  197. Kama MacLean۔ Pilgrimage and Power: The Kumbh Mela in Allahabad, 1765-1954۔ Oxford University Press۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-19-533894-2۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 25 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  198. "Hindus gather for the Kumbh Mela at the Ganges in India and Maha Shivaratri in Allahabad"۔ The Daily Telegraph۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 25 جنوری 2011۔
  199. "SARNATH GENERAL INFORMATION"۔ Tourism department of Varanasi۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 8 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  200. Sanjeev Joon۔ Complete Guide for SSC۔ Tata McGraw-Hill Education۔ صفحہ 255۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-07-070645-3۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 25 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  201. "List of Monuments - Uttar Pradesh"۔ Archaeological Survey of India۔
  202. "The historical monument called Bara Imambara of Lucknow that is also known as Asfi Imambara"۔ Lucknow online news۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 8 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  203. "Varanasi Ghats On the banks of the river Ganga"۔ یوٹیوب۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 8 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  204. "The Tourism Development Policy"۔ Department of Tourism, Uttar Pradesh۔ مورخہ 14 جون 2012 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 8 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  205. "Akhilesh loosens purse strings: offers Rs 10-cr cash subsidy to set up hotels"۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2016-08-03۔
  206. "Uttar Pradesh government accords industry status to tourism"۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2016-08-03۔
  207. "UP's tourism bid: 'Uttar Pradesh Travel Mart' from Feb 22-24"۔ Business Standard۔ Press Trust Of India۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2015-02-22۔Patna Bird Sanctuary
  208. Awakening Indians to India۔ Chinmaya Mission۔ صفحہ 167۔ آئی ایس بی این 81-7597-434-6۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 5 اگست 2012۔
  209. "The Indus Valley Civilization"۔ The Hindu universe۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 8 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  210. "Three indian children to attend J8 summit in Rome.:. newkerala.com Online News"۔ New kerala۔ مورخہ 14 جون 2011 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 21 ستمبر 2009۔
  211. "Uttar Pradesh Legislature"۔ U.P assembly۔ مورخہ 19 جون 2009 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 21 ستمبر 2009۔
  212. "Ethnologue report for language code: bfy"۔ Ethnologue۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 21 ستمبر 2009۔
  213. "Official Website Of Varanasi District"۔ Varanasi.nic.in۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2015-07-29۔
  214. "Bhatkhande music institute"۔ Uttar Pradesh Education Department۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 25 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  215. "North Indian: Kathak" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ Dance style loacator۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 23 جون 2012۔
  216. "Lucknow gharana, developed with Kathak."۔ Hindustani classical music۔ مورخہ 5 جون 2010 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 23 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  217. "Benaras Gharana, traditional style and way of teaching and performing Indian classical music."۔ Benares music academy۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 23 جون 2012۔
  218. "Kumbh Mela - India"۔ یوٹیوب۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 18 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  219. "The Braj Holi: Legend in real life"۔ Hindustan Times۔ مورخہ 22 مارچ 2011 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 13 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  220. "The glorious traditions and mythological legacy"۔ Department of tourism U.P۔ مورخہ 29 جون 2012 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 18 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  221. "Banarasi paan or tobacco"۔ دی ٹائمز آف انڈیا۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 14 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  222. ^ ا ب Soma Mukherjee۔ Royal Mughal Ladies and Their Contributions۔ آئی ایس بی این 9788121207607۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 1 جون 2014۔
  223. ^ ا ب پ ت "Costumes of Uttar Pradesh"۔ Indify۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 1 اکتوبر 2012۔
  224. Das Gupta, Uma (1977). "The Indian Press 1870–1880: A Small World of Journalism" (see pages 233–234). Modern Asian Studies 11 (2): 213–235. doi:10.1017/S0026749X00015092. http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=2701888. 
  225. "Radio Stations in Uttar Pradesh, India"۔ Asiawaves۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 14 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  226. "Indian FM Stations Statewise"۔ Bharatiya mobile۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 14 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  227. "Uttar Pradesh (East)"۔ India cellular phone industry۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 14 جولا‎ئی 2012۔
  228. "Internet Service Provider"۔ Data Infocom Limited۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 14 جولا‎ئی 2012۔