مسودہ:کباب

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
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دیگر استعمالات کے لیے، دیکھیے کباب (ضد ابہام)۔
کباب
Jooje Kebab.jpg
Jujeh kabab، roast chicken kebab in Iranian cuisine
کھانے کا دور Main course
اصلی وطن مشرق وسطی
علاقہ یا ریاست ایشیا، بلقان، مشرق وسطی، شمالی افریقا
درجہ حرارت گرم
بنیادی اجزائے ترکیبی گوشت
چکن کباب (بائیں) اور دیگر پکوان

کباب پکے ہوئے گوشت کی مختلف اقسام ہیں، کباب مشرق وسطی کا پکوان ہے اس کی کئی اقسام ایشیا میں خاص طور پر مشہور ہیں اے کے علاوہ کباب دنیا بھر میں کھائے جاتے ہیں۔ In ہندوستانی انگریزی[1] and in the languages of the Middle East, other parts of Asia, and the عالم اسلام، kebab is a broad term covering a wide variety of grilled meat dishes.[2] Although kebabs are often cooked on a skewer, many types of kebab are not.[3] Kebab dishes can consist of cut up or ground meat or seafood, sometimes with fruits and vegetables; cooked on a skewer over a fire, or like a hamburger on a grill, baked in a pan in an oven, or as a stew; and served with various accompaniments according to each recipe. The traditional meat for kebabs is most often بھیڑ کا گوشت، but regional recipes may include beef، goat، chicken، fish، or more rarely due to religious prohibitions، pork۔

اشتقاق اور تاریخ[ترمیم]

Firedogs for skewers, Santorini, Greece, 17th century BC.

The practice of cooking meat on a stick or skewer originates in زمانہ قبل از تاریخ، possibly as long as a million years ago, when early humans began cooking with fire.[4] Dishes prepared in a similar way to kebab، with various cultural origins, include anticucho، espetada، satay، souvlaki، yakitori، and many others.

Excavations in سینتورینی، یونان، unearthed stone sets of barbecue for skewers used before the 17th century BC. In each pair of the supports, the receptions for the spits are found in absolute equivalence, while the line of small openings in the base formed a mechanism to supply the coals with oxygen so that they remained alight during its use.[5] Mycenaean Greeks used portable trays as grills. These trays were rectangular ceramic pans that sat underneath skewers of meat but it is not clear whether these trays would have been placed directly over a fire or if the pans would have held hot coals like a portable barbecue pit.[6][7] ہومر in the Iliad (1.465) mentions pieces of meat roasted on spits (οβελός[8][9][10][11] In کلاسیکی یونان، a small spit or skewer was known as ὀβελίσκος (obeliskos[12][13] and ارسٹوفیز mentions such skewers being used to roast thrushes.[14]

The word kebab came to English in the late 17th century, from the عربی: كَبَاب (kabāb)، partly through Urdu, Persian and Turkish.[15] In Persian, the word is borrowed from Arabic.[16] According to Sevan Nişanyan، an etymologist of the Turkish language, the Turkish word kebap is also derived from the Arabic word kabāb، meaning roasted meat.[17] The word was first mentioned in a Turkish script of Kyssa-i Yusuf in 1377, which is the oldest known Turkish source where kebab is mentioned as a food.[حوالہ درکار] However, he states that the word has the equivalent meaning of "frying/burning" with "kabābu" in the old اکدی زبان، and "kbabā/כבבא" in آرامی زبان۔[17] The American Heritage Dictionary also gives a probable East Semitic root origin with the meaning of "burn"، "char"، or "roast"، from the Aramaic and Akkadian.[18] These words point to an origin in the prehistoric Proto-Afroasiatic language: *kab-، to burn or roast.[19]

Tradition has it that the dish was invented by medieval soldiers who used their swords to grill meat over open-field fires.[20][21] According to ابن بطوطہ، a مراکش traveller, in بھارت، kebab was served in the royal houses during the سلطنت دہلی period(1206–1526 AD)، and even commoners would enjoy it for breakfast with naan۔[22]

قومی اقسام[ترمیم]

افغانستان[ترمیم]

The Afghan variant of the kebab is the "kabab" (پشتو زبان/دری: کباب)۔ Kebab's in Pakistan are originally from Afghanistan. The kebab's that are known to be Iranian are also Afghan, dating back to when they were one empire.

ارمینیا[ترمیم]

Kebabs in Armenia are prepared of ground meat spiced with pepper, parsley and other herbs, and roasted on skewers.

آذربائیجان[ترمیم]

Tika kabab and lyula kabab from mutton, as served in Qəçrəş، قوبا ضلع (آذربائیجان)، north-eastern Azerbaijan

In the آذربائیجان، the main varieties include tika kabab, lyula kabab (doyma kabab in some places)، tas kababy and tava kabab. The meat for tika kabab is sometimes prepared in basdirma (an onion gravy and thyme) and then goes onto the ramrods. It may be served, wrapped in lavash، with sauce-like انار addon (انار) and other condiments۔[حوالہ درکار]

بنگلہ دیش[ترمیم]

In بنگلہ دیش there is various types of kebabs (In Bengali কাবাব or "Kabab")۔ In the old Bengal Subah capital of ڈھاکہ various persio-arabic influenced dishes started to be made. Amongst these were Kebabs. In Bangladesh most Kebabs are made using Beef whereas its Indian Bengali neighbours use chicken or mutton to make it. Amongst the popular kebabs are:

  • Shutli Kebab
  • شامی کباب
  • Jali Kebab
  • Shiik Kebab
  • Tikka Kebab
  • Kathi Kebab
  • Machher Kebab
  • Reshmi Kebab
  • Bihari Kebab
  • Hadi Kebab
  • Dimer Kebab

بلغاریا[ترمیم]

In بلغاریہ، the word кебап (kebap) is a generic term for meat stews with few or no vegetables. The döner kebab is widespread as fast food and is called дюнер (dyuner)۔ Shish kebap / shashlik is also common, and is called шишче (shishche - "small skewer")۔

چین[ترمیم]

Chuan-style lamb kebab sticks sold by a street vendor

Chuanr (چینی: ; پینین: chuàn)، often referred to as "chua'r" throughout the north, or kawap (كاۋاپ) in اویغور زبان، is a variation of kebab originating from the اویغور in the western province of سنکیانگ and a popular dish in Chinese Islamic cuisine۔ The dish has since spread across the rest of the country and become a popular street food۔

Although the most traditional form of chuanr uses lamb or mutton, other types of meat, such as chicken, beef, pork, and seafood, may be used as well. Small pieces of meat are skewered and either roasted or deep-fried. Common spices and condiments include زیرہ called "ziran"، شملہ مرچ، سمسم، and sesame oil۔

یونان[ترمیم]

Gyros sandwiches in Greece, with meat, onions, tomato, french fries, and tzatziki sauce rolled into a pita

While the history of street foods in Greece goes back to ancient times, the iconic Greek gyros and souvlaki as it is known today arose only following the Second World War. Introduced to Athens in the 1950s by immigrants from Turkey and the Middle East, gyros was originally known simply as döner kebab۔ It is typically served as a sandwich rolled in pita bread, or on a plate, with french fries and various salads and sauces such as tzatziki۔ Later in the 1960s, vendors also began selling dishes in the same style made with souvlaki, which resembles Turkish shish kebab, but is usually made with pork.[23]

Around the same time, the Greek word gyros replaced döner kebab، and the Greek style of the dish spread to become popular, particularly in North America, and various other parts of the world.[24]

In contrast to other areas of Greece, in Athens, both types of sandwich may be called souvlaki، with the skewered meat being called kalamaki۔

Although gyros is unquestionably of Middle Eastern origin, the issue of whether modern-day souvlaki came to Greece via Turkish cuisine, and should be considered a Greek styling of shish kebab, or is a contemporary revival of Greek tradition dating as far back as 17th century BC Minoan civilization،[25] is a topic of sometimes heated debate, at least between Greeks and Turks.[26] While English speakers may refer to souvlaki skewers as kebabs,[27] they are not properly called that in Greece.

بھارت[ترمیم]

Paneer Kebab being prepared, from India.

Ancient ہندو texts, such as مہا بھارت، mention a dish made of marinated game meats roasted on large, open fires.[28] Modern day kebabs in India trace their origin to the influence of the مغلائی پکوان in India. Some varieties of kebab in بھارت are more or less similar to other kebab preparations along with their distinct taste, which can be credited to the use of the Indian spices۔ Though there certain distinct versions like Tunde ke kabab، Tikka kebab، Shami kebab، Soovar ki Saanth (Pork belly kebabs from Rajasthan) and Rajpooti soolah، which are native to India. Also, owing to widespread prevalence of vegetarianism in India, there are many local, vegetarian varieties of Kebab, made from Paneer or potato.

All the varieties such as sheesh, doner (known as shawarma)، shammi, tikka, and other forms of roasted and grilled meats are savoured in بھارت۔[29] Some popular kebabs are:

  • کاکوری کباب
  • شامی کباب
  • کالمی کباب
  • ٹنڈے کے کباب
  • سنبھلی کباب
  • گال وٹی
  • بہاری کباب
  • بوٹی کباب
  • سیخ کباب
  • ریؤمی کباب
  • لاسونی کباب
  • چکن ملائی کباب
  • تکہ کباب
  • کلیجی کباب
  • ہاریلی چکن کباب
  • برہ کباب
  • سور کی سانتھ (راجستھان کے سور کے پیٹ کے گوشت کے کباب)

ایران[ترمیم]

Kabab (فارسی: کباب‎)، of which there are several distinct Persian varieties, is a قومی پکوان of ایران۔ Kebab may be served with either steamed, زعفرانed basmati or Persian چاول (chelow kebab; چلو کباب) or with the various types of bread that are the most commonly eaten in Iran, such as Lavash۔ Iran has more than seven types of kebab, which form a significant part of the Iranian diet.[حوالہ درکار]

It is served with the basic Iranian meal accompaniments، in addition to grilled tomatoes on the side of the rice and butter on top of the rice. It is an old northern tradition (probably originating in تہران) that a raw egg yolk should be placed on top of the rice as well, though this is strictly optional, and most restaurants will not serve the rice this way unless it is specifically requested. "Somagh"، powdered sumac، is also made available and its use varies based on tastes to a small dash on the rice or a heavy sprinkling on both rice and meat, particularly when used with red (beef/veal/lamb) meat.

At Persian restaurants, the combination of one kabab barg and one kabab koobideh is typically called Soltani، meaning "sultan's feast"۔ The traditional beverage of choice to accompany kebab is doogh، a sour yogurt drink with mint and salt.

In the old بازار tradition, the rice (which is covered with a tin lid) and accompaniments are served first, immediately followed by the kebabs, which are brought to the table by the waiter, who holds several skewers in his left hand, and a piece of flat bread (typically nan-e lavash) in his right. A skewer is placed directly on the rice and while holding the kebab down on the rice with the bread, the skewer is quickly pulled out. With the two most common kebabs, barg and koobideh، two skewers are always served. In general, bazaar kebab restaurants only serve these two varieties, though there are exceptions.

In Iranian Azerbaijan، "Binab (also Bonab) Kebabi" is very famous in Azerbaijani cuisine for its large size.[30] It is named after the city of Binab in East Azerbaijan province. This kebab and other types (e.g.، Shishlik, kubide, Berge, Gelin, etc.) can be served alone or with rice and fresh salad on the side. In this region Kebabs come usually with yogurt, hot bread, tomato, onion, parsley and paprika-salt, and tarragon.

کباب کوبیدہ[ترمیم]

Kabab koobideh (کباب کوبیده) or kūbide (کوبیده) is an Iranian minced meat kabab which is made from ground lamb, beef, or chicken, often mixed with parsley and پیاز۔

Kabab Koobideh contains: ground meat, onion, salt, pepper, turmeric, and seasoning. These ingredients are mixed together until the mixture becomes smooth and sticky. One egg is added to help the mix stick together. The mixture is then pressed around a skewer. Koobideh Kabab is typically 18 تا 20 سینٹیمیٹر (7–8 انچ) long.

کباب برگ[ترمیم]

Kabāb-e barg (فارسی: کباب برگ‎) is a Persian style barbecued lamb, chicken or beef kebab dish. The main ingredients of Kabab Barg – a short form of this name – are fillets of beef tenderloin, lamb shank or chicken breast, onions and olive oil.

Jujeh kabab، an Iranian chicken kebab

Marinade is prepared by the mixture of half a cup of olive oil, three پیازs, لہسن، half teaspoon زعفران، salt and black pepper. One kilogram of lamb is cut into 1 cm thick and 4–5 cm long pieces. It should be marinated overnight in refrigerator, and the container should be covered. The next day, the lamb is threaded on long, thin metal skewers. It is brushed with marinade and is barbecued for 5–10 minutes on each side. Kabab-e Barg

جوجہ کباب[ترمیم]

Jūje-kabāb (جوجه‌کباب) consists of pieces of chicken first marinated in minced onion and lemon juice with زعفران then grilled over a fire. It is sometimes served with grilled tomato and pepper. Jujeh kabab is one of the most popular Persian dishes.

کباب بختاری[ترمیم]

Kabab Bakhtiari is a combination of Jujeh kabab (chicken kabab) and Kabab barg (beef or lamb meat) in a decussate form and its name comes from the Bakhtiyari people۔

Iraq[ترمیم]

Several types of kebab are popular in Iraq, although the word kebab in local use is reserved for skewers of spiced ground lamb, traditionally grilled on natural wood charcoal to give the kebab its special flavor. Skewers of grilled marinated meat chunks are called tikka,[2] the most popular of which is the chicken tikka.

Kebabs in Iraq are consumed any time of the day, including for breakfast.

Israel[ترمیم]

مزراحی یہودی brought various types of grilled meat from occupied Palestine, where they are an essential part of the Arab native cuisine.[2] Among the most popular are skewers of elongated spiced ground meat, called kabab (عبرانی: קבב‎‎، qabab)، which have become a staple dish of the Israeli meat restaurants and the main dish of the traditional Israeli holiday barbecue, alongside the شاشلک۔ They are commonly made of beef, though lamb is also occasionally used, and are almost always served with the local pita bread, hummus and vegetable salads.

The Levant[ترمیم]

Several varieties of kebabs can be found at most restaurants representing this region. Among the most common are shish taouk، which are grilled chicken skewers marinated in olive oil and spices, and lahem meshwi، charcoal-grilled skewers of prime lamb cubes lightly seasoned with herbs.[2]

شاورما، although not considered a kebab in most countries of the Levant, is another very popular type of grilled meat preparation that characterizes this region.

Nepal[ترمیم]

In نیپال it is a popular dish in Nepalese cuisine as well as Newa cuisine and known as Sekuwa۔ It is a meat roasted in a natural wood/log fire in a real traditional نیپالese country style. At first while the meat is still in its raw stage is mixed with homemade natural herbs and spices and other necessary ingredients. Sekuwa could be of pork, lamb, goat or chicken, or a mixture. Sekuwa is very popular in نیپال، especially in the Eastern Nepal and کاٹھمنڈو۔ Tarahara، a small town in Sunsari District of Koshi State in the Eastern Nepal could be called as the sekuwa capital of Nepal.[حوالہ درکار]

پاکستان[ترمیم]

Pakistani-style seekh kebabs.

Kebabs in Pakistan trace their origin to the influence of the مغلائی پکوان۔ پاکستانی پکوان is rich with different kebabs. Meat including beef, chicken, lamb and fish is used in kebabs. Some popular kebabs are:

ترک[ترمیم]

Şiş kebap with "şehriyeli pilav" (orzo pilaf)، onions with sumac, a grilled pepper, a slice of tomato (also grilled) and rucula leaves.
Slicing döner kebab off a rotating vertical spit
مزید دیکھیے: ترک پکوان

سیخ[ترمیم]

Shish kebab is a dish consisting of small cubes of meat or fish threaded on a skewer اور grilled۔ Şiş، pronounced [ʃiʃ]، is a Turkish word meaning "sword" or "skewer"۔[31][32]

In the US, the word "kebab" usually refers to shish kebab.[33][34]

In Turkey, shish kebab does not normally contain vegetables, though they may be cooked on a separate skewer.[35] It can be prepared with lamb, beef, chicken, or fish, but pork is not used. In American and other Western shish kebab recipes, any kind of meat may be used; cubes of vegetables are often threaded on the spit as well. Typical vegetables include ٹماٹر، bell pepper، پیازs, and mushrooms۔

چاہ[ترمیم]

Before taking its modern form, as mentioned in سلطنت عثمانیہ travel books of the 18th century,[36][37] the doner used to be a horizontal stack of meat rather than vertical, probably sharing common ancestors with the Cağ Kebabı of the مشرقی اناطولیہ علاقہ province of ارض روم۔

In his family biography, İskender Efendi of 19th century بورصہ writes that "he and his grandfather had the idea of roasting the lamb vertically rather than horizontally, and invented for that purpose a vertical mangal

Since then, Hacı İskender is known as the inventor of Turkish döner kebab.[38][39] With time, the meat took a different marinade, got leaner, and eventually took its modern shape.[37]

ڈونیش[ترمیم]

Döner kebab, literally "rotating kebab" in Turkish, is sliced lamb, beef, or chicken, slowly roasted on a vertical rotating spit۔ The Middle Eastern شاورما، Mexican tacos al pastor، and Greek gyros are all derived from the Turkish döner kebab, which was invented in بورصہ in the 19th century by a cook named Hacı İskender.[40]

The German-style döner kebab sandwich, sometimes called simply "a kebab" in English, was introduced by Turkish immigrants in Berlin in the 1970s, and has become one of the most popular take-away foods in Germany and much of Europe. It is commonly sold by Turks, and considered a Turkish-German specialty, in Germany.[41]

عدانہ[ترمیم]

آدانا kebabı (or kıyma kebabı) is a long, hand-minced meat kebab mounted on a wide iron skewer and grilled over charcoal. It is generally "hot" or piquant. The traditional Adana Kebab is made using lamb, with a high fatty content cooked over hot coals. Only three ingredients are used in a proper Adana Kebab, minced lamb, red capsicum (pepper) and salt.

اسٹیم کباب[ترمیم]

Steam kebab (ترکی زبان: Buğu kebabı) is a Turkish stew which is cooked in a pan or an earthenware casserole. The casserole's lid is sealed in order to cook the meat in its own juices. The dish is prepared with pearl onions, لہسن، thyme، and other spices. In تکیرداغ، it is served with زیرہ; in ازمیر، it is served with mastic۔[42]

ٹیسٹی کباب[ترمیم]

A dish from وسطی اناطولیہ علاقہ and the Mid-Western بحیرہ اسود علاقہ، consisting of a mixture of meat and vegetables cooked in a clay pot or jug over fire (testi means jug in Turkish)۔ The pot is sealed with bread dough or foil and is broken when serving.[43][44]

دیگر[ترمیم]

کبابوں کی فہرست کے لیے، کباب کی اقسام ملاحظہ فرمائیں۔

کنجہ کباب[ترمیم]

Kebab Kenjeh, also known as Chenjeh (کنجہ کباب) is a meat, specifically and traditionally lamb, dish in the Middle East. Originating in Iran, kebab kenjeh is now found worldwide.[حوالہ درکار] The meat is cooked with olive oil, lemon juice, salt, and pepper and served with rice, grilled tomato, and raw onion.

حلبی کباب[ترمیم]

Kebab khashkhash from حلب

A kind of kebab served with a spicy tomato sauce and Aleppo pepper، very common in سوریہ and لبنان، named after the city of حلب (Halab)۔ Kebab Halabi has around 26 variants[45] including:

  • Kebab karaz (cherry kebab in Arabic): meatballs (lamb) along with cherries and cherry paste, pine nuts, sugar and pomegranate molasses. It is considered one of حلب's main dishes especially among Armenians۔
  • Kebab khashkhash: rolled lamb or beef with chili pepper paste, parsley, garlic and pine nuts.
  • Kebab Hindi: rolled meat with tomato paste, onion, capsicum and pomegranate molasses.
  • Kebab kamayeh: soft meat with truffle pieces, onion and various nuts.
  • Kebab siniyye (tray kebab in Arabic): lean minced lamb in a tray added with chili pepper, onion and tomato.

کاکوری[ترمیم]

Kakori kebab is an ہندوستانی پکوان kebab attributed to the city of کاکوری in اتر پردیش، India. There is much folklore about this famous kebab that takes its name from a hamlet called Kakori on the outskirts of Lucknow.[46]

One such story says that the kakori kebab was created by the Nawab of Kakori, Syed Mohammad Haider Kazmi, who, stung by the remark of a British officer about the coarse texture of the kebabs served at dinner, ordered his rakabdars (gourmet cooks) to evolve a more refined seekh kebab.[46] After ten days of research, they came up with a kebab so soft and so juicy it won the praise of the very British officer who had scorned the Nawab.[46] The winning formula that his rakabdars came upon included mince obtained from no other part but the raan ki machhli (tendon of the leg of mutton)، khoya, white pepper and a mix of powdered spices.[46]

چپلی[ترمیم]

برمنگھم، مملکت متحدہ کے ایک ہوٹل میں چپلی کباب

Chapli kebab is a patty made from beef mince, onions, tomatoes, green chilies, coriander seeds, cumin seeds, salt, black pepper, lemon juice or promegranate seeds, eggs, cornstarch and coriander leaves.[47] Chapli kebab is a common dish in Pashtun cuisine and popular in افغانستان، پاکستان۔ The kebab originates in Afghanistan.[47] مردان is famous for chapli kabab not only locally but also internationally.[حوالہ درکار]

Chapli kebab is prepared flat and round and generally served with naan.[47]

The word Chapli comes from the پشتو زبان word Chaprikh، which means "flat"۔[47]

براہ[ترمیم]

Burrah kebab is another kebab from India. This is usually made of goat or lamb meat, liberally marinated with spices and charcoal grilled. It uses cuts of chops and not other meat cuts

کالمی[ترمیم]

Kalmi Kebab served with onions and cabbage in دہلی، India

Kalmi kebab a popular snack in ہندوستانی پکوان۔ The dish is made by marinating chicken drumsticks and placing them in a tandoor۔ Various kinds of freshly ground Indian spices are added to the yogurt used for the marination of the chicken. When prepared, the drumsticks are usually garnished with mint leaves and served with onions and Indian bread۔

گالوٹی[ترمیم]

Galouti kabab as served in لکھنؤ، India

The Galouti kebab is a dish from South Asia, made of minced goat and green papaya, traditionally used to tenderize the meat. After mixing with herbs and spices, the very finely ground meat is shaped into patties and fried in pure گھی until it is browned.[48] Like Lucknowi biryani and Kakori kebab, it is a hallmark of Awadhi cuisine۔

Many leading Indian hotel chains have taken to popularising the Awadhi food tradition, with the Galouti kebab being a pièce de résistance۔ The home of this kebab is Lucknow. It is most famously had at the almost iconic eatery "Tundey Miyan" at Old Lucknow.

Legend has it that the galawati kebab was created for an aging Nawab Wajid Ali Shah of Lucknow who lost his teeth, but not his passion for meat dishes. Galawati means "melt in your mouth" and was perfect for the toothless Nawab who continued savouring this until his last days.[حوالہ درکار] The original recipe that brought many a smile on the Nawab's face, albeit toothless, and many a sigh of satisfaction, is supposed to have more than 100 aromatic spices.

Kebab in Western culture[ترمیم]

شیش کباب[ترمیم]

In contemporary American and British English، the word kebab commonly refers to a type of shish kebab, consisting of a skewer with small pieces of meat or seafood, together with vegetables such as onions, tomatoes, and bell peppers۔ Also known as shashlik،[49][50][51] kebabs are customarily prepared in homes and restaurants, and are usually cooked on a grill or barbeque۔ The word kebab may also be used as a general term in English to describe any similar-looking skewered food, such as brochette، satay، souvlaki، yakitori، or numerous small chunks of any type of food served on a stick. This is different from its use in the سرزمین شام، where shish (فارسی زبان/طبری زبان: شیش، ترکی: şiş) is the word for skewer, while kebab comes from the Persian word for grilling۔[2]

ڈونر کباب[ترمیم]

شمالی امریکا کے باہر انگریزی بولنے والے ممالک میں، لفظ کباب عام طور پراس کا مطلب ڈونیش کباب،[50] یا متعلقہ شاورما یا gyros یا ان کے ساتھ بنایا سینڈوچ،جو کباب کی دکان جیسا کہ فاسٹ فوڈ اور ٹیک اوے کھانے۔ Many layers of meat are stacked onto a large vertical rotating spit; the outer surface is gradually cooked and sliced off, and typically served as a sandwich in pita یا flatbread with salad and sauces. In Germany, the highly popular sandwich, introduced by Turkish immigrants, is called a döner، though Arab shops serve shawarma۔[52] In other countries in Europe and worldwide, the name used depends on the dish and on local customs.

ملتے جلتے پکوان[ترمیم]

افریقا
امریکین

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مزید دیکھیے[ترمیم]

حوالہ جات[ترمیم]

  1. "Kebab"۔ Dictionary.com۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ فروری 23, 2016۔
  2. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ Gil Marks۔ Encyclopedia of Jewish Food۔ Houghton Mifflin Harcourt۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-544-18631-6۔
  3. Ozlem Warren۔ "Eggplant kebab with yoghurt marinated chicken; Patlicanli Kebap"۔ Ozlem's Turkish Table۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ فروری 24, 2016۔
  4. Kenneth Miller۔ "Archaeologists Find Earliest Evidence of Humans Cooking With Fire"۔ Discover Magazine۔ Kalmbach Publishing Co.۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ فروری 19, 2016۔
  5. To Vima (in Greek)، 6-2-2011 (picture 2 of 7)
  6. Ancient Greeks Used Portable Grills at Their Picnics، LiveScience
  7. How to Cook Like a Mycenaean، Archaeology Magazine
  8. Homer, "Iliad" 1.465، on Perseus Digital Library
  9. Ancient Wine, Patrick E. McGovern
  10. Wright, Clifford A. (1999)۔ A Mediterranean Feast. New York: William Morrow. pp. 333.
  11. Jane Grigson۔ Jane Grigson's book of European cookery (انگریزی زبان میں)۔ Atheneum۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-689-11398-7۔ Kebabs were as popular among the ancient Greeks as they are today. Homer tells us how Achilles organised a barbecue when he had envoys from Troy to dinner.
  12. ὀβελίσκος، Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek-English Lexicon، on Perseus, dim. of ὀβελός (obelosὀβελός، ibid.
  13. Albert Jack۔ What Caesar Did For My Salad: The Secret Meanings of our Favourite Dishes (انگریزی زبان میں)۔ Penguin Books Limited۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-14-192992-7۔ ancient Greeks from Homer to Aristophanes wrote about an earlier variant of the kebab, the obeliskos (meaning 'little spit' […]
  14. Acharnians 1007
  15. "kebab – definition of kebab in English"۔ Oxford Dictionaries۔ Oxford University Press۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ اگست 3, 2017۔
  16. Francis Joseph Steingass۔ "A Comprehensive Persian-English Dictionary: Including the Arabic words and phrases to be met with in Persian literature"۔ London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited۔ صفحہ 1011۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ اگست 3, 2017۔
  17. ^ ا ب Nişanyan Sevan, Sözlerin Soyağacı، Çağdaş Türkçenin Etimolojik Sözlüğü، Online، Book
  18. The Editors of the American Heritage Dictionaries۔ "Appendix II – Semitic Roots"۔ American Heritage Dictionary۔ Houghton Mifflin Harcourt۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ جون 5, 2016۔
  19. Vladimir Orel؛ Olga V. Stolbova۔ Hamito-Semitic Etymological Dictionary: Materials for a Reconstruction۔ E. J. Brill۔ صفحہ 307۔ آئی ایس بی این 9004100512۔
  20. Food Around the World, p.45, Oxford University Press, 1986, Check on Google Books
  21. Middle Eastern Kitchen, Ghillie Basan Hippocrene Books, 2007, p.70, Check on Google Books
  22. K. T. Achaya۔ A Historical Dictionary of Indian Food۔ Delhi: Oxford University Press۔ صفحہ 115۔
  23. Antonia-Leda Matalas؛ Mary Yannakoulia۔ "Greek Street Food Vending: An Old Habit Turned New"۔ بہ Artemis P. Simopoulos؛ Ramesh Venkataramana Bhat۔ Street Foods۔ Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers۔ صفحہ 6۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-3-8055-6927-9۔
  24. "The Gyro, a Greek Sandwich, Selling Like Hot Dogs"۔ The New York Times۔ صفحہ 23۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ فروری 22, 2016۔
  25. Tassoula Eptakili۔ "Prehistoric Gastronomy"۔ Greece Is۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ فروری 21, 2016۔
  26. David L. Gold۔ Studies in Etymology and Etiology With Emphasis on Germanic, Jewish, Romance and Slavic Languages۔ Universidad de Alicante۔ صفحہ 323۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-84-7908-517-9۔ Greeks and Turks also battle over the similar dishes which the first call soublaki (> english souvlaki) and the second şiş kebabı (> English shish kebab)، each claiming to be the originators.
  27. "Souvlaki (Wicked kebabs)"۔ Jamie Oliver Recipes۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ فروری 22, 2016۔
  28. "Kebabs: Different spice combinations can help create a relishing dish – The Economic Times on Mobile"۔
  29. "The kebab on your plate is 1000 years old"۔ Times of India۔
  30. "5,000 Bonab Kebabs per Day"۔ Financial Tribune Daily۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ جون 13, 2016۔
  31. Glenn Randall Mack, Asele Surina۔ Food culture in Russia and Central Asia۔ Greenwood Publishing Group۔ صفحات 83–84۔
  32. Internet dictionary نسخہ محفوظہ 14 جنوری 2013 در وے بیک مشین of Turkish Language Association
  33. Alan Davidson۔ Oxford Companion to Food۔ Oxford: Oxford University Press۔ صفحہ 429۔
  34. Prosper Montagne (ویکی نویس.)۔ Larousse Gastronomique۔ New York: Clarkson Potter۔ صفحہ 646۔ آئی ایس بی این 0-609-60971-8۔
  35. Steven Raichlen۔ The Barbecue! Bible 10th Anniversary Edition۔ Workman Publishing Company۔ صفحات 214–۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-7611-5957-5۔
  36. "Döner Hakkında – Dönerin Tarihçesi" (Turkish زبان میں)۔ Dönercibaşı- Özbilir Grup۔ مورخہ 4 دسمبر 2008 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 3 مارچ 2009۔
  37. ^ ا ب Yavuz İskenderoğlu۔ "Yavuz İskenderoğlu-Kebapçı İskender Tarihçesi" (Turkish زبان میں)۔ Kebapçı İskender۔ مورخہ 24 دسمبر 2008 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 3 مارچ 2009۔
  38. Kenneth F. Kiple, Kriemhild Coneè Ornelas, eds.، Cambridge World History of Food, Cambridge, 2000. ISBN 0-521-40216-6۔ Vol. 2, p. 1147.
  39. İskenderoğlu، Yavuz (2008) (Turkish میں). Yavuz İskenderoğlu-Kebapçı İskender Tarihçesi. "Yüzyıllardır yerdeki ateşe paralel olarak pişirilen kuzuyu, dik mangalda ayağa kaldırma!": Kebapçı İskender. http://www.kebapciiskender.com.tr/tr/?PID=7۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 3 مارچ 2009 
  40. Kenneth F. Kiple, Kriemhild Coneè Ornelas, eds.، Cambridge World History of Food، Cambridge, 2000. ISBN 0-521-40216-6۔ Vol. 2, p. 1147.
  41. "Doner kebab 'inventor' Kadir Nurman dies in Berlin"۔ BBC۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 1 نومبر 2013۔
  42. Kebab aux petits oignons، Turkish Ministry of Culture and Tourism
  43. Testi kebab: a general description۔ Retrieved on 22 مئی 2009
  44. Testi kebab: a specialty of Cappadocia۔ Retrieved on 22 مئی 2009 (scroll to the bottom of the page)
  45. "Kuwait News Agency (KUNA)"۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 1 نومبر 2014۔
  46. ^ ا ب پ ت Classic Cooking of Avadh – Google Books۔ books.google.co.uk۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2 جنوری 2010۔
  47. ^ ا ب پ ت The multicultural cookbook for students – Google Books۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2 جنوری 2010۔
  48. Sanjeev Kapoor۔ "Galouti Kabab"۔ Zee Khana Khazana۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 15 نومبر 2013۔
  49. Kebab، Oxford Dictionaries
  50. ^ ا ب "kebab Definition in the Cambridge English Dictionary"۔ The Cambridge English Dictionary۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ فروری 23, 2016۔
  51. "Shashlik – definition of shashlik by The Free Dictionary"۔ The Free Dictionary۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ فروری 23, 2016۔
  52. Doner kebab becomes Germany's favorite fast food، USAToday، 4/11/2010

مزید پڑھیے[ترمیم]

بیرونی روابط[ترمیم]

سانچہ:Cuisine of Turkey سانچہ:African cuisine سانچہ:Barbecue سانچہ:Meat سانچہ:Street food