معاونت:بین الاقوامی صوتیاتی ابجد/کینٹنی

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
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The charts below show the way in which the بین الاقوامی صوتیاتی ابجد represents کینٹنی pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Cantonese phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of کینٹنی. Please note that English equivalents given in this page may only represent very approximate sounds to the original pronunciations.

معاونت:با ابجدیہ Yale Jyutping Chinese English approximation
Non-syllabic حرف صحیحs
f f fan
h h house
j y j you
k syllable-initial g scan
syllable-final k doctor
syllable-initial k can
gw[1] squeak
kʷʰ kw[2] quick
l l leaf
m m moon
n n noon
ŋ ng singing
p b span
syllable-final p apt
syllable-initial p pan
s s 西 saw
t d stand
syllable-final t Atkins
syllable-initial t tan
ts j z cats
tsʰ ch c cats hissing
w w water
Syllabic consonants
m rhythm
ŋ̩
ŋ̍
ng[3] (syllabic ng)

All non-syllabic consonants except [p̚, t̚, k̚] may begin a
syllable, though some speakers do not have initial [n, ŋ].[4]
The six non-syllabic consonants [p̚, t̚, k̚, m, n, ŋ] may end a syllable.[5]

معاونت:با ابجدیہ Yale Jyutping Chinese English approximation
مصوتs
aa,
syllable-final a
aa father (Australian English)
aːi aai time
aːu aau how
ɐ non-syllable-final a a cut
ɐi ai kite (short)
ɐu au house (short)
ei ei hey
ɛː e yes
ɛːu eu [6] roughly like yeah well
e i before k or ng sick
i see
iːu iu roughly like few
ou ou hoe (American English)
ɔː o law
ɔːy oi roughly like boy; Häuser in German
œː eu before k or ng
or syllable-finally
oe roughly like fur in British English; fleuve in French
ɵ eu before n or t eo roughly like again but rounded
ɵy eui eoi No English equivalent; like Japanese koi but rounded even at the end
o u before k or ng look
u food
uːy ui roughly like phooey; almost like nouille in French
non-syllable-initial yu[7] yu No English equivalent; menu in French
IPA Yale Jyutping Chinese Description
Tones
síː si1[8] high level: siː˥˥
sîː high falling: siː˥˧
sǐː si2 mid rising: siː˧˥
sīː si si3 mid level: siː˧˧
si̭ː
sȉː
sìh si4 low falling: siː˨˩
or very low: siː˩˩
si̬ː síh si5 low rising: siː˨˧
sìː sih si6 low level: siː˨˨
píːt̚ bīt bit1 high checked: piːt̚˥
sīːt̚ sit sit3 mid checked: siːt̚˧
sìːt̚ siht sit6 low checked: siːt̚˨

حواشی[ترمیم]

  1. [kʷ] is often merged with [k] before [ɔː] in Hong Kong Cantonese.
  2. [kʷʰ] is often merged with [] before [ɔː] in Hong Kong Cantonese.
  3. Some speakers replace [ŋ̩] by [m̩].
  4. Non-syllabic initial [ŋ] is not pronounced in Hong Kong Cantonese by younger speakers, leaving a glottal stop [ʔ] before a, e, o, and initial [n] may be replaced by [l].
  5. Non-syllabic final [ŋ] may be replaced by [n] in Hong Kong Cantonese, except after [e, o]. [i, u] in diphthongs are equivalent to a final /j, w/. After rounded vowels, an i becomes [y].
  6. [ɛːu] is pronounced only in colloquial speech.
  7. Syllable-initial yu is [jo] before k or ng, and [jyː] otherwise.
  8. The high level and high falling tones have merged to high level in Hong Kong Cantonese for most words.

Bibliography[ترمیم]

  • Eric Zee، "Chinese (Hong Kong Cantonese)"، Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet، Cambridge: Cambridge University Press، آئی ایس بی این 0-521-65236-7