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Vowels[ترمیم]

Respelling symbol(s) Example IPA symbol Notes
a trap /æ/ Australian /æ/ or /æː/[1] Scottish /a/
ah palm /ɑː/
a(h) trap or palm /æ/ or /ɑː/ Either in free variation, or pronounced with /ɑː/ in accents with trap-bath split, and with /æ/ in accents without the bath-trap split.
air square /ɛər/
ar start /ɑr/ Scottish /ar/
arr marry /ær/
aw thought /ɔː/ [2]
ay face /eɪ/
ə about /ə/ or /ɨ/ Unstressed neutral vowel.
(Sometimes i may be used for /ɨ/.)
ər letter /ər/ or /ɚ/ Unstressed neutral rhotic vowel
e dress /ɛ/
ee fleece /iː/ or /i/ also the second vowel of city[3]
eer near /ɪər/
err merry /ɛr/
ew ewe, dew /juː/ American /u/ or /ju/[4]
ewr cure /jʊər/
eye item /aɪ/ Respelled -y after a consonant.
The same vowel as the price example below
i kit /ɪ/
irr mirror /ɪr/
o lot /ɒ/ -o- by itself may be /ɵ/
oh goat /oʊ/
oo food /uː/ Scottish /ʉ/
oor poor /ʊər/
or or ohr force or wore /ɔər/ Australian /oː(r)/
or or awr north or war /ɔr/
orr orange /ɒr/ Scottish /ɔr/
ow mouth /aʊ/
owr hour /aʊər/
oy choice /ɔɪ/
u cut /ʌ/
ur nurse /ɜr/ or /ɝː/ American /ɜr, ɝ/ Scottish /ʌr, ɛr, ɪr, ɜr/[5]
urr hurry /ʌr/
uu foot /ʊ/ Scottish /ʉ/
y price, dye /aɪ/ with a consonant, otherwise respelled eye.
American /aɪ/ or /ʌɪ/[6]
yr fire /aɪər/

Consonants[ترمیم]

Respelling symbol Example IPA symbol(s) Notes
b but, web /b/
ch church, nature /tʃ/
d do, odd /d/
dh this, father, breathe /ð/ This sound is similar to th /θ/, but voiced.
f fool, enough, leaf /f/
g or gh go, beg, ghee /ɡ/ Not as in gem or gin, which is j /dʒ/. For legibility, ghee is used instead of gee in a few articles.
h ham, ahead /h/
j gin, joy, edge /dʒ/
k cat, kiss, skin, quick /k/
kh chutzpah, loch /x/ Pronounced like h (at the beginning of a syllable) or k (at the end of a syllable) by many speakers
l left, bell /l/
m man, ham /m/
n no, tin /n/
ng ring, singer, sink /ŋ/ Not the sound in finger, which is ng-g /ŋɡ/.
ng-g finger /ŋɡ/
p pen, spin, tip /p/
r run, very /r/
s or ss see, city, pass /s/ Not as in rose, which is z /z/. Use ss in positions where single s is normally /z/ in English, such as the end of a word after a vowel or a voiced consonant: for example, transliterate "ice" as eyess, not eyes and "tense" as tenss, not tens.
sh she, sure, emotion, leash /ʃ/
t two, sting, bet /t/
th thing, teeth /θ/
v voice, have /v/
w we, quick /w/
wh what /hw/ In many dialects, people substitute w for this sound.
y yes /j/
z zoo, rose, lens /z/
zh pleasure, vision, beige /ʒ/ Some speakers may substitute j /dʒ/ for this sound at the beginning of a word, except in proper names such as Zsa Zsa.
  1. See "Bad–lad split" for details of this distinction.
  2. This assumes the absence of the cot–caught merger. In accents with this merger, aw represents the same sound as o.
  3. This assumes "happy-tensing". In accents without happy-tensing, unstressed ee is pronounced like i.
  4. Dependent on accent, the /j/ is pronounced after some consonants, coalesceses with other consonants or is dropped entirely.
  5. See Fern–fir–fur merger for details of this distinction.
  6. Value depends on voicing of following consonant; phonemic for very few words. Distinction can be made by adjoining consonant: Myki MY-kee, Mikey MYK-ee.