معاونت:بین الاقوامی اصواتی ابجدیہ برائے انگریزی

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
(ویکیپیڈیا:IPA for English سے رجوع مکرر)
یہاں جائیں: رہنمائی، تلاش کریں
حرف صحیحs
IPA Examples
b buy, cab
d dye, cad, do
ð thy, breathe, father
giant, badge, jam
f fan, caff, phi
ɡ (ɡ)[1] guy, bag
h high, ahead
j[2] yes, hallelujah
k sky, crack
l lie, sly, gal
m my, smile, cam
n nigh, snide, can
ŋ sang, sink, singer
θ thigh, math
p pie, spy, cap
r[3] rye, try, very
s sigh, mass
ʃ shy, cash, emotion
t tie, sty, cat, atom
china, catch
v vie, have
w wye, swine
hw why[4]
z zoo, has
ʒ equation, pleasure, vision, beige[5]
Marginal consonants
x ugh, loch, Chanukah[6]
ʔ uh-oh /ˈʔʌʔoʊ/
 
Optional sounds
IPA Examples
ᵗs tsunami (/t/ is frequently dropped)
ʃⁱ nasturtium (/i/ is frequently dropped)
Vowels
IPA Full vowels IPA ... followed by R[7]
ɑː PALM, father, bra ɑr START, bard, barn, snarl, star (= /ɑːr/)
ɒ LOT, pod, John[8] ɒr moral, forage
æ TRAP, pad, shall, ban[9][10] ær barrow, marry[11]
PRICE, ride, file, fine, pie[12] aɪər Ireland, hire (= /aɪr/)
aɪ.ər higher, buyer[13]
MOUTH, loud, foul, down, how aʊər flour (= /aʊr/)
aʊ.ər flower[13]
ɛ DRESS, bet, fell, men[14] ɛr error, merry[14]
FACE, made, fail, vein, pay ɛər SQUARE, mare, scarce, cairn, Mary (= /eɪr/)[15]
eɪ.ər layer (one who lays)[13]
ɪ KIT, lid, fill, bin ɪr mirror, Sirius
FLEECE, seed, feel, mean, sea ɪər NEAR, beard, fierce, serious (= /iːr/)[16]
iː.ər freer
ɔː THOUGHT, Maud, dawn, fall, straw[17] ɔr NORTH, born, war, Laura (= /ɔːr/)[18][19]
ɔː.ər sawer
ɔɪ CHOICE, void, foil, coin, boy ɔɪər loir (= /ɔɪr/)
ɔɪ.ər employer[13]
GOAT, code, foal, bone, go[20] ɔər FORCE, more, boar, oral (= /oʊr/)[18][19]
oʊ.ər mower
ʊ FOOT, good, full, woman ʊr courier
GOOSE, food, fool, soon, chew, do ʊər boor, moor, tourist (= /uːr/)[18][19]
uː.ər truer
juː cued, cute, mule, tune, queue, you[21] jʊər cure (= /juːr/)
juː.ər fewer
ʌ STRUT, bud, dull, gun[22] ɜr NURSE, word, girl, fern, furry
ʌr borough, hurry[23]
Variable vowels
BATH, dance, laugh (either ɑː or æ) ɒː CLOTH, office, wrong (either ɒ or ɔː)
i HAPPY, serious[24] (either ɪ or ) u bedroom, roof, situation (either ʊ or )
Reduced vowels
ə Rosa’s, a mission, quiet, focus ər LETTER, perceive
ɨ roses, emission[25] (either ɪ or ə) ʉ beautiful, curriculum ([jʉ])[26] (either ʊ or ə)
ɵ omission[27] (either or ə) əl bottle (either əl or )
ən button (either ən or ) əm rhythm (either əm or )
 
Stress Syllabification
IPA Examples IPA Examples
ˈ intonation /ˌɪntɵˈneɪʃən/,[28]
battleship /ˈbætəlʃɪp/[29]
. moai /ˈmoʊ.aɪ/
ونڈہوک /ˈvɪnt.hʊk/
Vancouveria /væn.kuːˈvɪəriə/
Mikey /ˈmaɪki/, Myki /ˈmaɪ.kiː/[30]
ˌ

حوالہ جات[ترمیم]

  1. If the two characters سانچہ:Angle bracket and سانچہ:Angle bracket do not match and if the first looks like a سانچہ:Angle bracket, then you have an issue with your default font. See Rendering issues.
  2. The IPA value of the letter سانچہ:Angle bracket is counter-intuitive to many English speakers. However, it does occur with this sound in a few English words: Besides hallelujah, there's Jägermeister and jarlsberg cheese.
  3. Although the IPA symbol [r] represents a trill, /r/ is widely used instead of /ɹ/ in broad transcriptions of English.
  4. The phoneme /hw/ is not distinguished from /w/ in the many dialects with the wine–whine merger, such as RP and most varieties of GenAm. For more information on this sound, see voiceless labio-velar approximant.
  5. A number of English words, such as genre and garage, are pronounced with either /ʒ/ or /dʒ/.
  6. In most dialects, /x/ is replaced by /k/ in most words, including loch. Where the sound begins a word, such as Chanukah, it is sometimes replaced with /h/. In ugh, it is often replaced by /ɡ/ (a spelling pronunciation).
  7. In non-rhotic accents like RP, /r/ is not pronounced unless followed by a vowel. In some Wikipedia articles, /ɪər/ etc. may not be distinguished from /ɪr/ etc. These should be fixed to correspond with the chart here.
  8. /ɒ/ is not distinguished from /ɑː/ in dialects with the father–bother merger such as GenAm.
  9. Some regions, such as New York City and Philadelphia, separate this into two phonemes, /æ/ and /eǝ/, so that the vowel in man may be closer to that in mail than that in cat. See /æ/ tensing.
  10. In some regions, what would normally be [æŋ] is pronounced as [eŋ] or [eɪŋ], so that the a in rang is closer to the ai in rain than the a in rag.
  11. Pronounced the same as /ɛr/ in accents with the Mary–marry–merry merger.
  12. Many speakers, for example in most of Canada and much of the United States, have a different vowel in price and ride. Generally, an [aɪ] is used at the ends of words and before voiced sounds, as in ride, file, fine, pie, while an [ʌɪ] is used before voiceless sounds, as in price and write. Because /t/ and /d/ are often conflated in the middle of words in these dialects, derivatives of these words, such as rider and writer, may be distinguished only by their vowel: [ˈɹʷɾəɹ], [ˈɹʷʌɪɾəɹ]. However, even though the value of /aɪ/ is not predictable in some words, such as spider [ˈspʌɪɾəɹ][حوالہ درکار] dictionaries do not generally record it, so it has not been allocated a separate transcription here.
  13. ^ 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 Some speakers pronounce higher, flower, lawyer, layer (stratum) and mayor with two syllables, and hire, flour, loir, lair and mare with one. Others pronounce them the same.
  14. ^ 14.0 14.1 Transcribed as /e/ by many dictionaries.[ref 1]
  15. Pronounced the same as /ɛr/ in accents with the Mary–marry–merry merger. Often transcribed as /eə/ by British dictionaries and as /er/ by American ones. The OED uses /ɛː/ for BrE and /ɛ(ə)r/ for AmE.[ref 2]
  16. Same as /ɪr/ in accents with the mirror–nearer merger.
  17. /ɔː/ is not distinguished from /ɒ/ (except before /r/) in dialects with the cot–caught merger such as some varieties of GenAm.
  18. ^ 18.0 18.1 18.2 /ɔər/ is not distinguished from /ɔr/ in dialects with the horse–hoarse merger, which include most dialects of modern English.
  19. ^ 19.0 19.1 19.2 /ʊər/ is not distinguished from /ɔr/ in dialects with the pour–poor merger, including many younger speakers.
  20. Commonly transcribed /əʊ/ or /oː/.
  21. In dialects with yod dropping, /juː/ is pronounced the same as /uː/ after coronal consonants (/t/, /d/, /s/, /z/, /n/, /θ/, and /l/) in the same syllable, so that dew /djuː/ is pronounced the same as do /duː/. In dialects with yod coalescence, /tj/, /dj/, /sj/ and /zj/ are pronounced /tʃ/, /dʒ/, /ʃ/ and /ʒ/, so that the first syllable in Tuesday is pronounced the same as choose.
  22. This phoneme is not used in the dialects of the northern half of England, some bordering parts of Wales, and some broad eastern Ireland accents. These words would take the ʊ vowel: there is no foot–strut split.
  23. not a GenAm distinction
  24. Pronounced [iː] in dialects with the happy tensing, [ɪ] in other dialects. British convention used to transcribe it with سانچہ:Angle bracket, but the OED and other influential dictionaries recently converted to سانچہ:Angle bracket.
  25. Pronounced [ə] in Australian and many US dialects, [ɪ] in Received Pronunciation. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ɪ̈] and a reduced [ə]. Many phoneticians[ref 3] and the OED use the pseudo-IPA symbol سانچہ:Angle bracket,[ref 2] and Merriam–Webster uses سانچہ:Angle bracket.
  26. Pronounced [ʊ] in many dialects, [ə] in others. Many speakers freely alternate between a reduced [ʊ̈] and a reduced [ə]. The OED uses the pseudo-IPA symbol سانچہ:Angle bracket.[ref 2]
  27. Pronounced [ə] in many dialects, and [ɵw] or [əw] before another vowel, as in cooperate. Sometimes pronounced as a full /oʊ/, especially in careful speech.[ref 4] Usually transcribed as /ə(ʊ)/ (or similar ways of showing variation between /oʊ/ and /ə/) in British dictionaries.
  28. It is arguable that there is no phonemic distinction in English between primary and secondary stress,[ref 5] but it is conventional to notate them as here.
  29. Full vowels following a stressed syllable, such as the ship in battleship, are marked with secondary stress in some dictionaries (Merriam-Webster), but not in others (the OED). Such syllables are not actually stressed.
  30. Syllables are indicated sparingly, where necessary to avoid confusion, for example to break up sequences of vowels (moai) or consonant clusters which an English speaker might misread as a digraph (Vancouveria, Windhoek).
    Several dictionaries, such as the OED, do not indicate stress for words of one syllable. Thus hire /ˈhaɪər/ is transcribed سانچہ:Angbr, without a stress mark, contrasting with higher /ˈhaɪ.ər/, which is transcribed سانچہ:Angbr, without a syllable mark.

ملاحظات[ترمیم]

  1. Wells، John (18 March 2009). "e and ɛ". John Wells’s phonetic blog. Blogspot. اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 13 March 2015. 
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 "Key to pronunciation". Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press. اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 13 March 2015. 
  3. vd. Olive & Greenwood 1993:322
  4. Bolinger 1989
  5. vd. Ladefoged 1993