معاونت:بین الاقوامی اصواتی ابجدیہ برائے کاتالان

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
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IPA حرف صحیحs
Flag of کاتالونیا
C
Flag of ویلنسیائی کمیونٹی
V
Examples English approximation
b b bell, àmbit, capgròs [1] best
v* vell, watts [1][2] best (V), vest (V)
β avanç, selva [3] a vest[4]
b* abans, arbre [3] a vest[4] (C), the best (V)
d drac, indret, ritme [1] door
ð cada, lladre [3] other
f força, bafs face
ɡ guant, angle, guiar, ècdisi [1] get
ɣ aigües, agrat, lloguer [3] somewhat like away[5]
k cors, quan, qui, llarg, Folch, kiwi scan
l laca, tela, cel·la,[6] val [7] US look – dark l
ʎ* llacs, cella,[6] vall, Elx [7] billion
m meu, em, canvi [7] mode
n neu, on, dansa [7] need
ɲ nyeu, any, penges [7] onion
ŋ sang, tinc, cigne [7] ring
p por, dubte span
Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "r̠" not found in list ruc, mirra, honra [8] Scots aretrilled r
ɾ truc, mira, hora, per [8] US ladder
s set, rossa, està; ascens, cel, feliç sack
Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ts̺" not found in list tsar, potser, tots, fluids, hertz cats
ʃ ʃ Xixona, guix [9] fishes
jʃ caixa, peix fishes (C), geisha (V)
xec, clenxa, Barx fishes (C), cheap (V)
txec, empatx, raig, mig [9] cheap
t terra, fred stand
v hafni, bafs d'aigua [1] of
Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "z̺" not found in list zel, onze, rosa, esma, feliçment [1] zebra
Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "dz̺" not found in list dotze, utilitza, tots alhora [1] pads
ʒ ʒ guix blau [1][9] rouge
jʒ caixmir, peix al forn [1][9] rouge (C), beige (V)
ʝ jo, ja [1][9] rouge (C), yeast (V)
joc, aljub, gespa, sorgir [9] rouge (C), jeep (V)
mitjà, viatge, adjunt, migdia [1][9] jeep
IPA Marginal consonants
θ theta thing
h ehem [10] ham
x Jaén, Bach, kharja loch
IPA Stressed vowels[11]
Flag of کاتالونیا
C
Flag of ویلنسیائی کمیونٹی
V
Examples English approximation
a sac, ànecs bra
ɛ ɛ set, pèls, essències let
e sec, cafè / café, què let (C), they (V)
e séc, anells they
i sic, ties, veí, raïm ski
ɔ soc, mòlt, això UK hot ~ US fort
o sóc, molt US crow
u suc, dues, ús, reüll rule
IPA Unstressed vowels
Flag of کاتالونیا
C
Flag of ویلنسیائی کمیونٹی
V
Examples English approximation
ə a dona, amb, entens alpha (C), grandma (V)
e dones, pels, en alpha (C), survey (V)
i naixement alpha (C), kiwi (V)
i fillet, llavi, hi posa kiwi
u o oratge, ferro, baixos, posar-ho igloo (C), pillow (V)
u fullet, ritu, coberts, ho posa igloo
IPA Marginal reduced vowels
e real survey
o mourà [12] pillow
IPA Semivowels[13]
Flag of کاتالونیا
C
Flag of ویلنسیائی کمیونٹی
V
Examples English approximation
j iogurt, llei, hi ha, posa-hi, York young / joy
w quatre, Güell, lleu, posa-ho, web quick / grow
IPA Suprasegmentals
Flag of کاتالونیا
C
Flag of ویلنسیائی کمیونٹی
V
Examples Explanation
ˈ dac [ˈdiðək] (E) / [ˈdiðak] (V) primary stress
ˌ Bellpuig [ˌbeʎˈputʃ] (C / V) secondary stress
. Maria [məˈɾi.ə] (C) / [maˈɾi.a] (V) syllable break
ː Anna [ˈanːə] (C) / [ˈanːa] (V) gemination
  • Sounds with (*) are merged by young generations.


حواشی[ترمیم]

  1. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث ج چ ح خ د Obstruents assimilate to the place of articulation of the following consonant and vowel. In syllables produced in utterance-final position (i.e. the coda), voiced obstruents become devoiced.
  2. Several dialects (in particular, Alguerese, Balearic, Standard and Traditional Valencian, and partly in Southern Catalan), as well as some cultivated Catalan speakers, contrast ‹b› /b/ and ‹v› /v/. Betacism (that is, merging of /b/ and /v/, into [b] and [β]) is general in the rest of Catalan areas, being especially common in Aragon and Catalonia (and now also Valencia). In Valencian, the ‹b› and ‹v› contrast is retained in the standard and in some traditional dialects; with betacism now being present everywhere, especially among young speakers and speakers from the largest cities and towns.
  3. ^ ا ب پ ت Voiced stops /b, d, ɡ/ become lenited [β, ð, ɣ] (that is, fricatives or approximants of the same place of articulation) when in the syllable onset and after a continuant. Otherwise they are pronounced as voiced or devoiced stops, similar to English b, d, g and p, t, k. Exceptions include /d/ after a lateral consonant, and /b/ after /f/. In traditional non-betacist dialects, /b/ fails to lenite and /v/ may lenite to [ʋ] (often in complementary distribution with [w]).
  4. ^ ا ب In Standard Catalan, as well as the rest of betacist dialects, the pronunciation of [β] is made by approximating the normal "v" sound between the two lips.
  5. The pronunciation of [ɣ] is made somewhat like the English "w", but with spread lips.
  6. ^ ا ب Standard Catalan and Valencian orthographies distinguish between ‹ll› (representing /ʎ/) and ‹l·l› (representing a geminated /lː/). In regular speech gemination of ‹l·l› is ignored altogether.
  7. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث The sonorants /l/, phonetically [ɫ], and /n/ only contrast before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation (e.g. [m] occurs before a labial consonant, [ɲ] and [ʎ] before a palatal consonant, and [ŋ] before a velar consonant). Between a vowel and a pause, only [ɫ] and [n] are found.
  8. ^ ا ب The rhotic consonants ‹r› /ɾ/ and ‹rr› /r/ only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as ‹r› with, [r] occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, and in compounds; and [ɾ] after hard plosives (plus their soft counterparts) and /f/. Syllable-final /ɾ/ varies according to dialect, emphasis, morpheme or the following sound. In all Catalan dialects, except most of Valencian, /ɾ/ is lost in coda position in suffixes of nouns and adjectives denoting the masculine singular and in the infinitive suffixes of verbs, except when the following morpheme begins with a vowel (although this may vary).
  9. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث ج While /ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ/ are often described simply as "postalveolar" by many sources, phonetic work done by Daniel Recasens shows the postalveolar sibilants to be alveolo-palatal ([ɕ], [ʑ], [] and [], respectively). Nevertheless, since ‹ʃ ʒ tʃ dʒ› are overwhelmingly used in the linguistic literature on Catalan and Valencian, those characters are also used at Wikipedia.
  10. Other than in loanwords and interjections, the letter ‹h› is always silent.
  11. All Catalan dialects contrast seven stressed vowels /a, ɛ, e, i, ɔ, o, u/ (except for Balearic dialects that contrast eight stressed vowels—i.e. /a, ɛ, e, i, ɔ, o, u/, plus /ə/: sec /ˈsək/). In unstressed position, the seven-way vowel contrast is reduced in all dialects.
    • Eastern Catalan (Alguerese, Balearic, Central and Northern): /e/, /ɛ/, and /a/ reduce to [ə] (though in Alguerese /e/, /ɛ/, and /a/ merge to [a]) while /o/ and /ɔ/ reduce to [u] (however, in most of Majorcan /ɔ/ and /o/ merge to [o]).
    • Western Catalan (North-Western and Valencian): /ɛ/ reduces to [e] and /ɔ/ reduces to [o]. Exceptionally there are some cases where unstressed ‹e› and ‹o› may reduce to [a] and [u] respectively.
  12. Unstressed ‹o› before [w], may merge with [ə] in Eastern dialects.
  13. The semivowels /w/ and /j/ can be combined with most vowels to form diphthongs and triphthongs.

Bibliography[ترمیم]

Catalan

  • Francesc Burguet Ardiaca۔ Introducció a la fonologia, fonètica i ortografia del català (Catalan زبان میں)۔ Mataró (Barcelona): Robrenyo۔ آئی ایس بی این 84-7466-025-4۔
  • Carbonell، Joan F.; Llisterri، Joaquim (1992). "Catalan". Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1-2): 53–56. 
  • Daniel Recasens i Vives۔ Fonètica descriptiva del català : assaig de caracterització de la pronúncia del vocalisme i consonantisme del català al segle XX (Catalan زبان میں)۔ Institut d'Estudis Catalans۔ آئی ایس بی این 8472831728۔
  • Xavier Romeu i Juvé۔ Manual de fonologia catalana (Catalan زبان میں)۔ Barcelona: Barcanova۔ آئی ایس بی این 847533119X۔
  • Joan Veny۔ Els Parlars (Catalan زبان میں)۔ Barcelona: Dopesa۔ آئی ایس بی این 8472353885۔
  • Max W Wheeler۔ The Phonology Of Catalan۔ Oxford: Oxford University Press۔ آئی ایس بی این 0199258147۔

Valencian

  • "L'estàndard oral valencià" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف) (Catalan زبان میں)۔ Valencia: Acadèmia Valenciana de la Llengua (AVL)۔