معاونت:بین الاقوامی اصواتی ابجدیہ برائے امہری

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Vowels
Vowel Orders IPA Transliteration[1] English Approximation
First Order ɛ~ə ä[2] (e, eh) The e in set (sometimes a schwa)
Second Order ʊ~u u (ou, oo) The "oo" in foot or soon
Third Order i i (ii, ee) The "ea" in seat
Fourth Order ä[2] a (ah) The "o" in cot SAE
Fifth Order (ʲ)e e, é (ie, ié) Similar to "a" in Way except with no glide
Sixth Order ɨ~ə ə (i, ih) The "e" in Roses (sometimes a schwa)
Seventh Order o (ɔ) o (oh or au) The "oa" in Boat (or the au in maul)
ابوگیدا
IPA [3] ɛ u i ä e ɨ o ʷä ʲɛ English approximation Transliteration[1]
b[4]   Bed b
d[5]   Dad d
d͡ʒ   Judge ǧ, j
f Far f
Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "g" not found in list   Go g
h [6]   How h
h [6]   h,
h [6]   h,
h[7]   h, kh


ابوگیدا (cont.)
IPA [3] ɛ u i ä e ɨ o ʷä ʲɛ English approximation Transliteration[1]
j   Yes y
k   King k
  Ski[8] q, ḳ, k', k
l   Let l
m Match m
n   Now n
ɲ   Onion ň, gn, ñ, ny
p[7][9]   Pin p


ابوگیدا (cont.)
IPA [3] ɛ u i ä e ɨ o ʷä ʲɛ English approximation Transliteration[1]
[7]   Upper[8] p̣, p', p
ɾ ~ r Water SAE r
s   Sight s
s   ś
ʃ   Short š, sh, ʃ, sch
t[5]   Talk t
t͡sʼ   Pizza[8] ṣ, ts, ts', tz, z
t͡sʼ   ṣ́
t͡ʃ   Church č, ch, tʲ


ابوگیدا (cont.)
IPA [3] ɛ u i ä e ɨ o ʷä ʲɛ English approximation Transliteration[1]
t͡ʃʼ   Achoo[8] č̣, č', ch', ch, tsch, ṭʲ
  Stick[8] ṭ, t', t
v ~ β[7]   Vault v
w [10] [10]   Walk w
z   Zoo z
ʒ   Pleasure ž, zh, z, s, j, g
ʔ[11] [6] [7][12]   Uh-oh ʾ , -
ʔ[11] [6]   ʿ, ʾ, -


Labiovelar Abugida
IPA ɛ ~ ɔ[10] u i ä e ɨ ~ ʊ[10] o
   
[13]    
   
kʼʷ    


حوالہ جات[ترمیم]

  1. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ The standard transliteration of the Ethiopian Semitic consonants and vowels are listed first (except for letters used for loanwords).
  2. ^ ا ب The letter ä has two functions in this article. When it is shown in IPA (or between slashes) it represents the open central unrounded vowel. When ä is used in the transliteration it represents the first order vowel (usually ɛ).
  3. ^ ا ب پ ت The Abugida uses the IPA pronunciations that are used specifically when reading the alphabet or spelling a word in Amharic. The letters' pronunciations in spoken Amharic sometime differ from the IPA vowels given in this chart (dependent on word and stress).
  4. The በ series is pronounced with the consonant /β/ in between two vowels.
  5. ^ ا ب The ደ and ተ series are dentals unlike the English d & t (which are alveolar). The dentals are articulated at the top of the teeth instead of the Alveolar ridge.
  6. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ሀ, ኀ, & ሐ are not pronounced as /hɛ/ nor are አ & ዐ pronounced like /ʔɛ/. Instead they are pronounced as if they were fourth orders (/hä/ & /ʔä/ respectively).
  7. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ The ቨ, ፐ, ጰ series along with the letter ኧ are all used for loan words. Sometimes ኸ is used to represent the Arabic خ in loanwords but ከ is usually used in modern Amharic instead.
  8. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ The ejectives have no equivalent in English. The way that ejectives are sounded is by building up pressure in your throat, like when you sneeze, and then release the built-up air as you articulate the consonant where you normally would. So, /t'/ and /t/ are articulated in the same place but the difference is whether you build up pressure or not.
  9. This sound was introduced through loan words. It is sometimes pronounced unaspirated as the "p" in spin and is often confused with the /b/ sound
  10. ^ ا ب پ ت Sometimes when /ɛ/ and /ɨ/ are proceeded by /w/ the rounding carries over and they are pronounced like /wɔ/ and /wʊ/ respectively. Because of this, first and sixth orders of the ወ series are sometimes respelled with seventh and second orders respectively.
  11. ^ ا ب The አ and ዐ series have lost their consonantal values and are vowel carriers in modern Amharic. Though sometimes the consonant /ʔ/ is pronounced in word initial and medial positions, the glottal stop is often dropped.
  12. ኧ, being irregular, is not pronounced like 'ʷa but like 'ä and is the only way to write such sound in Amharic.
  13. The modern ኀ isn't a velar. The character was once a velar in ancient Ge'ez, which is why it has a written labial form today, but it became a glottal fricative in modern Amharic. ኀ's labial form is the only way used to write /hʷ/ in Amharic.