معاونت:با ابجدیہ

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
:چھلانگ بطرف رہنمائی، تلاش

ویکیپیڈیا پر با ابجدیہ (IPA) کے بارے میں معلومات کا صفحہ۔

اہم علامات[ترمیم]

   علامت     مثالیں تفصیل
A
 (i) listen [ a ]   a   Mandarin 他 tā, German Mann For many English speakers, the first part of the ow sound in cow. Found in some dialects of English in cat or father.
 (i) listen [ ä ]   ä   American English ah, Spanish casa, French patte
 (i) listen [ aː ]   aː   German آچن, French gare Long [a].
 (i) listen [ ɐ ]   ɐ   RP cut, German کائزرسلائوٹرن (In transcriptions of English, [ɐ] is usually written سانچہ:Angle bracket.)
 (i) listen [ ɑ ]   ɑ   Finnish Linna, Dutch bad
 (i) listen [ ɑː ]   ɑː   RP father, French pâte Long [ɑ].
 (i) listen [ ɑ̃ ]   ɑ̃   French کان (فرانس), sans, temps Nasalized [ɑ].
 (i) listen [ ɒ ]   ɒ   RP cot Like [ɑ], but with the lips slightly rounded.
 (i) listen [ ʌ ]   ʌ   American English cut Like [ɔ], but without the lips being rounded. (When سانچہ:Angle bracket is used for English, it may really be [ɐ] or [ɜ].)
 (i) listen [ æ ]   æ   RP cat
B
 (i) listen [ b ]   b   English babble
 (i) listen [ ɓ ]   ɓ   Swahili bwana Like a [b] said with a gulp. See درانفجاری حروف صحیح.
 (i) listen [ β ]   β   Spanish la Bamba, Kinyarwanda abana "children" Like [b], but with the lips not quite touching.
C
 (i) listen [ c ]   c   Turkish kebap "kebab", Czech stín "shadow", Greek και "and" Between English tune (RP) and cute. Sometimes used instead for [tʃ] in languages like Hindi.
 (i) listen [ ç ]   ç   German Ich More of a y-coloration (more palatal) than [x]. Some English speakers have a similar sound in huge. To produce this sound, try whispering loudly the word "ye" as in "Hear ye!".
 (i) listen [ ɕ ]   ɕ   Mandarin شیان, Polish ściana More y-like than [ʃ]; something like English she.
 (i) listen [ ɔ ]   ɔ   see under O
D
 (i) listen [ d ]   d   English dad
 (i) listen [ ɗ ]   ɗ   Swahili Dodoma Like [d] said with a gulp.
 (i) listen [ ɖ ]   ɖ   American English harder Like [d] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
 (i) listen [ ð ]   ð   English the, bathe
 (i) listen [ dz ]1   dz   English adds, Italian zero
 (i) listen [ dʒ ]1   dʒ   English judge
 (i) listen [ dʑ ]1   dʑ   Polish niewiedź "bear" Like [dʒ], but with more of a y-sound.
 (i) listen [ dʐ ]1   dʐ   Polish em "jam" Like [dʒ] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
E
 (i) listen [ e ]   e   Spanish fe; French clé
 (i) listen [ eː ]   eː   German Klee Long [e]. Similar to English hey, before the y sets in.
 (i) listen [ ə ]   ə   English above, Hindi ठग [ʈʰəɡ] (thug) "thief" (Only occurs in English when not stressed.)
 (i) listen [ ɚ ]   ɚ   American English runner
 (i) listen [ ɛ ]   ɛ   English bet
[ ɛ̃ ]   ɛ̃   French سینٹ-ایٹیینے, vin, main Nasalized [ɛ].
 (i) listen [ ɜ ]   ɜ   RP bird (long)
[ ɝ ]   ɝ   American English bird
F
 (i) listen [ f ]   f   English fun
 (i) listen [ ɟ ]   ɟ   see under J
 (i) listen [ ʄ ]   ʄ   see under J
G
 (i) listen [ ɡ ]   ɡ   English gag (Should look like Opentail g.svg. No different from a Latin "g")
 (i) listen [ ɠ ]   ɠ   Swahili Uganda Like [ɡ] said with a gulp.
 (i) listen [ ɢ ]   ɢ   Like [ɡ], but further back, in the throat. Found in Persian and some Arabic dialects for /q/, as in معمر قذافی.
 (i) listen [ ʒ ]   ʒ   see under Z English beige.
H
 (i) listen [ h ]   h   American English house
 (i) listen [ ɦ ]   ɦ   English ahead, when said quickly.
[ ʰ ] The extra puff of air in English top [tʰɒp] compared to stop [stɒp], or to French or Spanish [t].
 (i) listen [ ħ ]   ħ   Arabic محمد Muhammad Far down in the throat, like [h], but stronger.
 (i) listen [ ɥ ]   ɥ   see under Y
[ ɮ ]   ɮ   see under L
I
 (i) listen [ i ]   i   French ville, Spanish بلدولید
 (i) listen [ iː ]   iː   English sea Long [i].
 (i) listen [ ɪ ]   ɪ   English sit
 (i) listen [ ɨ ]   ɨ   Russian ты "you" Often used for unstressed English roses.
J
 (i) listen [ j ]   j   English yes, hallelujah, German Junge
[ ʲ ]   ʲ   Russian Ленин [ˈlʲenʲɪn] Indicates a sound is more y-like.
 (i) listen [ ʝ ]   ʝ   Spanish cayo (some dialects) Like [j], but stronger.
 (i) listen [ ɟ ]   ɟ   Turkish gör "see", Czech díra "hole" Between English dew (RP) and argue. Sometimes used instead for [dʒ] in languages like Hindi.
 (i) listen [ ʄ ]   ʄ   Swahili jambo Like [ɟ] said with a gulp.
K
 (i) listen [ k ]   k   English kick, skip
L
 (i) listen [ l ]   l   English leaf
 (i) listen [ ɫ ]   ɫ   English wool
Russian малый [ˈmɑɫɨj] "small"
"Dark" el.
 (i) listen [ ɬ ]   ɬ   Welsh llwyd [ɬʊɪd] "grey"
Zulu hlala [ɬaːla] "sit"
By touching roof of mouth with tongue and giving a quick breath out. Found in Welsh placenames like Llangollen and Llanelli and نیلسن منڈیلا's Xhosa name Rolihlahla.
 (i) listen [ ɭ ]   ɭ   Like [l] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
 (i) listen [ ɺ ]   ɺ   A flapped [l], like [l] and [ɾ] said together.
 (i) listen [ ɮ ]   ɮ   Zulu dla "eat" Rather like [l] and [ʒ], or [l] and [ð], said together.
M
 (i) listen [ m ]   m   English mime
 (i) listen [ ɱ ]   ɱ   English symphony Like [m], but lips touch teeth as they do in [f].
[ ɯ ]   ɯ   see under W
 (i) listen [ ʍ ]   ʍ   see under W
N
 (i) listen [ n ]   n   English nun
 (i) listen [ ŋ ]   ŋ   English sing
 (i) listen [ ɲ ]   ɲ   Spanish Peña, French champagne Rather like English canyon.
 (i) listen [ ɳ ]   ɳ   Hindi वरुण [ʋəruɳ] Varuna Like [n] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
 (i) listen [ ɴ ]   ɴ   Castilian Spanish Don Juan [doɴˈχwan] Like [ŋ], but further back, in the throat.
O
 (i) listen [ o ]   o   Spanish no, French eau
 (i) listen [ oː ]   oː   German Boden, French Vosges Long [o]. Somewhat reminiscent of English no.
 (i) listen [ ɔ ]   ɔ   German Oldenburg, French Garonne
 (i) listen [ ɔː ]   ɔː   RP law, French لیموژ Long [ɔ].
 (i) listen [ ɔ̃ ]   ɔ̃   French لیون, son Nasalized [ɔ].
 (i) listen [ ø ]   ø   French feu, bœufs Like [e], but with the lips rounded like [o].
 (i) listen [ øː ]   øː   German گوئٹے, French Dle, neutre Long [ø].
 (i) listen [ ɵ ]   ɵ   Swedish dum Halfway between [o] and [ø]. Similar to [ʊ] but with the tongue slightly more down and front.
 (i) listen [ œ ]   œ   French bœuf, seul, German Göttingen Like [ɛ], but with the lips rounded like [ɔ].
 (i) listen [ œː ]   œː   French œuvre, heure Long [œ].
 (i) listen [ œ̃ ]   œ̃   French brun, parfum Nasalized [œ].
 (i) listen [ θ ]   θ   see under other
 (i) listen [ ɸ ]   ɸ   see under other
P
 (i) listen [ p ]   p   English pip
Q
 (i) listen [ q ]   q   Arabic قرآن Like [k], but further back, in the throat.
R
 (i) listen [ r ]   r   Spanish perro, Scots borrow "Rolled R". (Generally used for English [ɹ] when there's no need to be precise.)
 (i) listen [ ɾ ]   ɾ   Spanish pero, Tagalog daliri, Malay kabar, American English kitty/kiddie "Flapped R".
 (i) listen [ ʀ ]   ʀ   Dutch rood and German rot (some speakers) A trill in the back of the throat. Found for /r/ in some conservative registers of French.
 (i) listen [ ɽ ]   ɽ   Hindi साड़ी [sɑːɽiː] "sari" Like flapped [ɾ], but with the tongue curled back.
 (i) listen [ ɹ ]   ɹ   RP borrow
 (i) listen [ ɻ ]   ɻ   American English borrow, butter Like [ɹ], but with the tongue curled or pulled back, as pronounced by many English speakers.
 (i) listen [ ʁ ]   ʁ   French پیرس, German برنہارڈ ریمان Said back in the throat, but not trilled.
S
 (i) listen [ s ]   s   English sass
 (i) listen [ ʃ ]   ʃ   English shoe
 (i) listen [ ʂ ]   ʂ   Mandarin 少林 (Shàolín), Russian الیکزاندرپشکن Acoustically similar to [ʃ], but with the tongue curled or pulled back.
T
 (i) listen [ t ]   t   English tot, stop
 (i) listen [ ʈ ]   ʈ   Hindi ठग [ʈʰəɡ] (thug) "thief" Like [t], but with the tongue curled or pulled back.
 (i) listen [ ts ]2   ts   English cats, Russian царь tsar
 (i) listen [ tʃ ] 2   tʃ   English church
 (i) listen [ tɕ ]2   tɕ   Mandarin 北京  (i) listen Běijīng, Polish ciebie "you" Like [tʃ], but with more of a y-sound.
 (i) listen [ tʂ ]2   tʂ   Mandarin zh, Polish czas Like [tʃ] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
U
 (i) listen [ u ]   u   French vous "you"
 (i) listen [ uː ]   uː   French Rocquencourt, German مائیکل شوماکر, close to RP food Long [u].
 (i) listen [ ʊ ]   ʊ   English foot, German Bundesrepublik
 (i) listen [ ʉ ]   ʉ   Australian English food (long) Like [ɨ], but with the lips rounded as for [u].
 (i) listen [ ɥ ]   ɥ   see under Y
 (i) listen [ ɯ ]   ɯ   see under W
V
 (i) listen [ v ]   v   English verve
 (i) listen [ ʋ ]   ʋ   Hindi वरुण [ʋəruɳə] "Varuna" Between [v] and [w]. Used by some Germans and Russians for v/w, and by some speakers of British English for r.
 (i) listen [ ɤ ]   ɤ   see under Y
[ ɣ ]   ɣ   see under Y
[ ʌ ]   ʌ   see under A
W
 (i) listen [ w ]   w   English wow
[ ʷ ]   ʷ   English rain [ɹʷeɪn] Indicates a sound has lip rounding, quick.
 (i) listen [ ʍ ]   ʍ   what (some dialects) like [h] and [w] said together
 (i) listen [ ɯ ]   ɯ   Turkish kayık "caïque" Like [u], but with the lips flat; something like [ʊ].
 (i) listen [ ɰ ]   ɰ   Spanish agua
X
 (i) listen [ x ]   x   Scottish English loch, German جوہن باخ, Russian хороший [xɐˈroʂɨj] "good", Spanish joven between [k] and [h]
 (i) listen [ χ ]   χ   northern Standard Dutch Scheveningen, Castilian Spanish Don Juan [doɴˈχwan] Like [x], but further back , in the throat. Some German and Arabic speakers have [χ] for [x].
Y
 (i) listen [ y ]   y   French rue Like [i], but with the lips rounded as for [u].
 (i) listen [ yː ]   yː   German Bülow, French sûr Long [y].
 (i) listen [ ʏ ]   ʏ   German ڈسلڈورف Like [ɪ], but with the lips rounded as for [ʊ].
 (i) listen [ ɣ ]   ɣ   Arabic / Swahili ghali "expensive", Spanish suegro Sounds rather like French [ʁ] or between [ɡ] and [h].
 (i) listen [ ɤ ]   ɤ   Mandarin ہینان Like [o] but without the lips rounded, something like a cross of [ʊ] and [ʌ].
 (i) listen [ ʎ ]   ʎ   Italian tagliatelle Like [l], but more y-like. Rather like English volume.
 (i) listen [ ɥ ]   ɥ   French lui Like [j] and [w] said together.
Z
 (i) listen [ z ]   z   English zoos
 (i) listen [ ʒ ]   ʒ   English vision, French journal
 (i) listen [ ʑ ]   ʑ   formal Russian жжёшь [ʑːoʂ] "you burn", Polish źle More y-like than [ʒ], something like beigey.
 (i) listen [ ʐ ]   ʐ   Mandarin 人民日报 Rénmín Rìbào "People's Daily", Russian жир "fat" Like [ʒ] with the tongue curled or pulled back.
[ ɮ ]   ɮ   see under L
Other
 (i) listen [ θ ]   θ   English thigh, bath
 (i) listen [ ɸ ]   ɸ   Japanese 富士 [ɸɯdʑi] کوہ فیوجی, Māori [ˌɸaːɾeːˈnuiː] wharenui Like [p], but with the lips not quite touching
 (i) listen [ ʔ ]   ʔ   English uh-oh, Hawaii, German die Angst The 'glottal stop', a catch in the breath. For some people, found in button [ˈbʌʔn̩], or between vowels across words: Deus ex machina [ˌdeɪəsˌʔɛksˈmɑːkɨnə]; in some nonstandard dialects, in a apple [ʌˈʔæpl̩].
 (i) listen [ ʕ ]   ʕ   Arabic عربي carabī "Arabic" A light sound deep in the throat.
 (i) listen [ ǀ ]   ǀ   English tsk-tsk! or tut-tut!, Zulu icici "earring" (The English click used for disapproval.) Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [ kǀ ], [ ɡǀ ], [ ŋǀ ]. The Zimbabwean MP Ncube has this click in his name, as did Cetshwayo.
 (i) listen [ ǁ ]   ǁ   English tchick! tchick!, Zulu ixoxo "frog" (The English click used to urge on a horse.) Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [ kǁ ], [ ɡǁ ], [ ŋǁ ]. Found in the name of the Xhosa.
 (i) listen [ ǃ ]   ǃ   Zulu iqaqa "polecat" (The English click used to imitate the trotting of a horse.) A hollow popping sound, like a cork pulled from a bottle. Several distinct sounds, written as digraphs, including [ kǃ ], [ ɡǃ ], [ ŋǃ ].
  • ^1 ^2  These symbols are officially written with a tie linking them (e.g. t͡ʃ), and are also sometimes written as single characters (e.g. ʧ) though the latter convention is no longer official. They are written without ligatures here to ensure correct display in all browsers.