معاونت:بین الاقوامی صوتیاتی ابجد/سکاٹش گیلک

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
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The charts below show the way in which the بین الاقوامی صوتیاتی ابجد represents سکاٹش گیلک pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Scottish Gaelic phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Scottish Gaelic, and Scottish Gaelic orthography for the exact correspondence between sounds and letters in Scottish Gaelic.

حرف صحیحs
Broad[1] Slender[2]
IPA Examples IPA Examples
f[3] fad, fead, pholl, pheann
ɣ dhà, deireadh, ghaol, dragh ʝ dh'iarr, dh'innis, gheall, ghin
h[3] thonn, thig, shùil, sheòl
j eala, beò, theàrn, iolaire, piuthar, shiùbhlainn, gràidh
k gaol, beagan, caileag, amharc gille, fairrge, thig, chunnaic
[4] còta kʲʰ[4] cìr
l̪ˠ làmh, balla, geal l mo leaba, cliathaich, baile, fuil
ʎ leaba, slige, gille
m[3] mac, mic, lampa, ìm
n̪ˠ nàire, snàmh, clann ɲ nighean, sneachda, cinneadh, ròin
n mo nàire, anail, bean
ŋ long ŋʲ aingeal
p[3] ball, nàbuidh, abair, corp
[3][4] peann, poll
rud, riochd, oirre, orra
ɾ rud, mo riochd, crann, fear ɾʲ cridhe, fir
solas, speal, sgialachd ʃ seòl, stiùir, slighe, snìomh
dall, fada, ad, falt dìleas, maide, thèid, fuilt
t̪ʰ[4] tana tʲʰ[4] tìr
v[3] bhean, sàibh, mhàthair, deimhinn, làmh
x chòta, balach ç chì, balaich
Monophthongs
Short Long
IPA Examples IPA Examples
a mac, glaine làmh, àite, gearr
e teth, fead, cheil glè, chèile, beud
ɛ fear, each ɛː cnàimh, sèimh
i mise, fios ìseal, pìobaire, cinn
o tobar, bodhar bò, còig
ɔ cnoc, sgoil, deoch ɔː bròn, mòine, cl, corr
u ugh, bun, sgioltachd, fliuch cùl, sùil, diombach, tiurr, cunntas
ɯ duine, uisge ɯː craobh, aois
ɤ dragh, coire ɤː fadhlach
ə fada, baile
Diphthongs
IPA Examples
ai claidheamh, chaill, cainnt
au amharc, abhainn, ball, gann
ɛu seall, theann, dream
ia Niall, pian, feur, beul
fiacail, iasg, ceud, deug, sìos, fìon
ɔu toll, tonn, com
ua uamhasach, suaineadh, uaine
fuar, uair, buaidh
ɯi chraoibh, ghaoith, tuill, tuinn
ɤi maighdean, greim, coibhneil, oighre, coilltean, broinn
Other symbols used in transcription of Scottish Gaelic pronunciation
IPA Explanation
ˈ Primary stress (placed before the stressed syllable) for example uinneag [ˈɯɲak]

Varying IPA conventions[ترمیم]

Materials published elsewhere use somewhat different conventions from those used at Wikipedia. Most systems vary from pure IPA, particularly the systems used in Celtic Studies. The following table lists some of the variations commonly encountered. If an IPA symbol is not in the table below, this indicates that the source uses the same symbol as above.

Borgstrøm (1937)[5]
(Barra)
Borgstrøm (1940)[6]
(Outer Hebrides)
Oftedal (1956)[7]
(Lewis)
Ó Murchú (1989)[8]
(East Perthshire)
Cox (2002)[9]
(Lewis)
Ó Maolalaigh (2008)[10]
(over-regional)
Black (2006)[11]
(over-regional)
Klevenhaus (2009)[12]
Bauer (2011)[13]
(both over-regional)
ç ç ç′ ç x′ ç ç ç ç
ʝ j j′ ǰ ɣ′ ʝ j j ʝ
k g̊, k g̬, k g ɡ g g g[14], k[15] g
g̊′, k′ g̬′, k′ ǵ ɡ′ g̭' gʲ, kʲ
k k k k k k
kʲʰ k′ʽ k′ʽ k′ k′
l̪ˠ L L L ɬ L ɫ̪ L L
ʎ L′ L′ L′ دستیاب نہیں L′ ʎ
l l′ l′ l l l l l l
n̪ˠ N N N دستیاب نہیں N ᵰ̪ N N
ɲ N′ N′ N′ دستیاب نہیں N′ ɲ
p b̥, p b̬, p b b b b b, p b
p p p p p p
R R, Ṛ R دستیاب نہیں R R R
ɾ r r r r r r r r
ɾʲ r′ r′, ð′ ð دستیاب نہیں ð
s s s s s s s s
ʃ ʃ ʃ ʃ š ʃ ʃ ʃ ʃ
d̥, t d̬, t d d d d, t d
d̥′ž, d̥′, t′ d̬′ž, d̬′, t′ d′ ǰ d′ dʲ, tʲ
t̪ʰ t t t t t
tʲʰ tʽ′ʃ, tʽ′ tʽ′ʃ, tʽ′ t′ č t′
ɯ ʎ ʎ ɯ ɯ ɯ ɯ ʎ ɯ
ɤ ø ø ə ɤ ɤ ɤ ə ɤ
ɛ ɛ, æ ɛ, æ ɛ ɛ ɛ ɛ ɛ ɛ
a a a a ɑ a a a a

Notes[ترمیم]

  1. Scottish Gaelic makes contrasts between velarized ("broad") and palatalized ("slender") consonants. Velarized consonants, denoted in the IPA by a superscript ‹ˠ›, are pronounced with the back of the زبان (تشریح) raised toward the نرم تالو, which happens to the /l/ in English pill in some accents, like RP and General American, and in all positions in Scottish English. In Scottish Gaelic orthography, broad consonants are surrounded by the letters ‹a›, ‹o›, ‹u›.
  2. "Slender" (palatalized) consonants, denoted in the IPA by a superscript ‹ʲ›, are pronounced with the body of the زبان (تشریح) raised toward the سخت تالو, in a manner similar to the articulation of the ‹y› sound in yes. In Scottish Gaelic orthography, slender consonants are surrounded by the letters ‹e›, ‹i›.
  3. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث Neither broad nor slender, slender positions instead having an on- or off-glide /j/.
  4. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ In initial position, the aspirated stops /kʰ, kʲʰ, pʰ, t̪ʰ, tʲʰ/ are postaspirated [kʰ, kʲʰ, pʰ, t̪ʰ, tʲʰ]. In medial or final position after a stressed vowel, they are preaspirated [ʰk, ʰkʲ, ʰp, ʰt̪, ʰtʲ].
  5. Borgstrøm، Carl Hjalmar (1937). "The Dialect of Barra in the Outer Hebrides". Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap 8: 71–242. 
  6. Carl Hjalmar Borgstrøm۔ The Dialects of the Outer Hebrides۔ A Linguistic Survey of the Gaelic Dialects of Scotland, vol. 1 (Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap suppl. vol. 1)۔ Oslo: Aschehoug۔
  7. Magne Oftedal۔ The Gaelic of Leurbost۔ A Linguistic Survey of the Gaelic Dialects of Scotland, vol. 3 (Norsk Tidsskrift for Sprogvidenskap suppl. vol. 4)۔ Oslo: Aschehoug۔
  8. Máirtín Ó Murchú۔ East Perthshire Gaelic۔ Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies۔ آئی ایس بی این 0-901282-93-6۔
  9. Richard A. V. Cox۔ The Gaelic Place-names of Carloway, Isle of Lewis۔ School of Celtic Studies, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies۔ آئی ایس بی این 1-85500-192-6۔
  10. Roibeard Ó Maolalaigh۔ Scottish Gaelic in Twelve Weeks۔ Edinburgh: Birlinn۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-1-84158-643-4۔
  11. Ronald Black۔ Cothrom Ionnsachaidh۔ Edinburgh۔ آئی ایس بی این 0906981336۔
  12. Michael Klevenhaus۔ Lehrbuch der schottish-gälischen Sprache۔ Hamburg: Buske۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-3-87548-520-2۔
  13. Michael Bauer۔ Blas na Gàidhlig: The Practical Guide to Scottish Gaelic Pronunciation۔ Glasgow: Akerbeltz۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-1907165009۔
  14. Word-initially
  15. Medially or final