معاونت:بین الاقوامی صوتیاتی ابجد/سونسکا

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
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This article used to be a joint pronunciation guide for Swedish and نورویجینی زبان. For the pronunciation guide for the latter language, see معاونت:بین الاقوامی اصواتی ابجدیہ برائے نارویجن.

The chart below shows how the بین الاقوامی صوتیاتی ابجد represents سونسکا pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. The Sweden pronunciation is based primarily on Central Standard Swedish, and the Finland one on Helsinki pronunciation. See Swedish phonology for details about pronunciation.

حرف صحیحs
Flag of سویڈن

SWE

Flag of فن لینڈ

FIN

Examples English approximation
b اس آڈیو کے متعلق bok book
ɕ t͡ɕ اس آڈیو کے متعلق kjol, اس آڈیو کے متعلق tjock, اس آڈیو کے متعلق kön like sheep, but more "y"-like
d اس آڈیو کے متعلق dop dad
ɖ rd اس آڈیو کے متعلق nord[1] ہم مخرجی حروف صحیح /d/
f اس آڈیو کے متعلق fot foot
ɡ اس آڈیو کے متعلق god good
h اس آڈیو کے متعلق hot hat
ɧ ɕ اس آڈیو کے متعلق sju, اس آڈیو کے متعلق stjärna, اس آڈیو کے متعلق skör, اس آڈیو کے متعلق station, اس آڈیو کے متعلق pension, اس آڈیو کے متعلق geni, اس آڈیو کے متعلق choklad[2] somewhat like Scottish loch (varies regionally)
j اس آڈیو کے متعلق jord, اس آڈیو کے متعلق genom, اس آڈیو کے متعلق Göteborg yoyo
k اس آڈیو کے متعلق kon cone
l ɫ اس آڈیو کے متعلق lov lack
ɭ rl اس آڈیو کے متعلق rl[1] ہم مخرجی حروف صحیح /l/
m اس آڈیو کے متعلق mod mode
n اس آڈیو کے متعلق nod node
ɳ rn اس آڈیو کے متعلق barn[1] ہم مخرجی حروف صحیح /n/
ŋ اس آڈیو کے متعلق ng long
p اس آڈیو کے متعلق pol pole
r اس آڈیو کے متعلق rov[3] a trilled r when articulated clearly or in slow or
formal speech; in normal speech, it is usually
a tapped r or an alveolar approximant
most consistently [r] in Finland.
s اس آڈیو کے متعلق sot soot
ʂ rs اس آڈیو کے متعلق torsdag[1] ہم مخرجی حروف صحیح /ʃ/
t اس آڈیو کے متعلق tok tea
ʈ rt اس آڈیو کے متعلق parti[1] ہم مخرجی حروف صحیح /t/
v اس آڈیو کے متعلق våt vote
Rare sounds
Flag of سویڈن

SWE

Flag of فن لینڈ

FIN

Examples English approximation
w Wales Wales
اس آڈیو کے متعلق Zlatan, اس آڈیو کے متعلق Bratislava father
œɪ اس آڈیو کے متعلق Creutz, اس آڈیو کے متعلق Reuter void
مصوتs
Flag of سویڈن

SWE

Flag of فن لینڈ

FIN

Examples English approximation
a ɑ اس آڈیو کے متعلق matt[4] cut
ɑː اس آڈیو کے متعلق mat[4] bra
اس آڈیو کے متعلق fet there
ɛ e اس آڈیو کے متعلق häll, اس آڈیو کے متعلق fett sell
ɛː اس آڈیو کے متعلق häl RP pair
æ اس آڈیو کے متعلق värk[5],اس آڈیو کے متعلق verk[5] trap
æː اس آڈیو کے متعلق ära[5] ham
ɪ i اس آڈیو کے متعلق sill hit
اس آڈیو کے متعلق sil leave
ɔ o اس آڈیو کے متعلق moll[6] RP pot
Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "o̫" not found in list اس آڈیو کے متعلق mål[6] floor
Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "œ̫˔" not found in list ø اس آڈیو کے متعلق nött[6] فرانسیسی زبان sœur. somewhat like RP nurse
Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "œ̫" not found in list اس آڈیو کے متعلق öra[5][6] جرمن زبان Schön. somewhat like RP burn
Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ø̫" not found in list اس آڈیو کے متعلق nöt[6]
ɵ ʉ اس آڈیو کے متعلق full,
اس آڈیو کے متعلق musik[6][7]
ولندیزی زبان hut
Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ʏ̈" not found in list اس آڈیو کے متعلق duell,
اس آڈیو کے متعلق känguru[6][7][8]
Australian goose; like جرمن زبان اس آڈیو کے متعلق müssen
ʉː اس آڈیو کے متعلق ful[6][9] Australian choose; like German اس آڈیو کے متعلق üben
Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "u͍˕" not found in list u اس آڈیو کے متعلق bott[6] put
اس آڈیو کے متعلق bot[6] boot
Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ʏ̫" not found in list y اس آڈیو کے متعلق syll[6][8] somewhat like hit; نورویجینی زبان اس آڈیو کے متعلق nytt
اس آڈیو کے متعلق syl[6][9] somewhat like leave; Norwegian اس آڈیو کے متعلق lys
Stress, tone and syllabification
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ anden[10]
[ˈanːdɛn][11]
tone 1 / acute accent:[12]
² anden[15]
[²anːdɛn][11]
tone 2 / grave accent:[12]
  • falling-falling tone in Stockholm: اس آڈیو کے متعلق [ˈânːdɛ̂n]
  • falling-rising tone in Gothenburg: [ˈânːdɛ̌n]
  • rising-falling tone in Malmö: [ˈǎnːdɛ̂n]
  • simple primary stress in Finland[13] and (rarely) some
    parts of mainland Sweden: [ˈanːdɛn][14]
ˌ Oxenstierna
[²ʊksɛnˌɧæːɳa]
secondary stress, as in intonation
. fria
[²friː.a]
syllable break: co-op, rower

Notes[ترمیم]

  1. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ In many of the dialects that have an apical rhotic consonant, a recursive sandhi process of retroflexion occurs, and clusters of /r/ and dental consonants /rd/, /rl/, /rn/, /rs/, /rt/ produce ہم مخرجی حروف صحیح realisations: [ɖ], [ɭ], [ɳ], [ʂ], [ʈ]. In dialects with a guttural R, such as Southern Swedish, they are [ʁd], [ʁl], [ʁn], [ʁs], [ʁt]. Nevertheless, retroflexion might occur in some varieties of Finland Swedish, especially among young speakers and in fast speech.
  2. Swedish /ɧ/ varies regionally and is sometimes [], [ɸˠ], or [ʂ].
  3. /r/ varies considerably in different dialects. It is pronounced alveolar or similarly in virtually all dialects, but in South Swedish dialects, it is لہوی حروف صحیح, similar to the Parisian French "r". At the beginning of a syllable, it can also be pronounced as a fricative [ʒ], as in English "genre" or "vision".
  4. ^ ا ب The quality of the vowels tends to change a lot between Finland dialects and those of Sweden, especially Southern and Central Sweden. In general terms, [ɑː] is realised more often as [ɒː] in Sweden and as a true [ɑː] in Finland. In the area of Helsinski (Helsingfors) it may be fully centralised [äː]. No difference in the vowel quality occurs in Finland Swedish.
  5. ^ ا ب پ ت Before /r/, the quality of non-high front vowels is changed: the unrounded vowels /ɛ/ and /ɛː/ are lowered to [æ] and [æː], whereas the rounded /[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "œ̫˔" not found in list|œ]]/ and /[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ø̫" not found in list|øː]]/ are lowered to open-mid [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "œ̫" not found in list|œ]]] and [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "œ̫" not found in list|œː]]]. For simplicity, no distinction is made between the mid [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "œ̫˔" not found in list|œ]]] and the open-mid [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "œ̫" not found in list|œ]]], with both being transcribed as ⟨œ⟩. Note that younger speakers use lower allophones [ɶ] and [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ɶː" not found in list|ɶː]]].
  6. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث ج چ ح خ د ڈ [ɔ, Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "o̫" not found in list, Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "œ̫˔" not found in list, Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "œ̫" not found in list, Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ø̫" not found in list, Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ʏ̫" not found in list, Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "y̫" not found in list] are protruded vowels, and [ɵ, Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ʏ̈" not found in list, Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ʏ͍" not found in list, Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "u͍˕" not found in list, Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "u͍" not found in list] are compressed. See roundedness for details.
  7. ^ ا ب [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ɵ̞" not found in list|ɵ]]] and [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ̈" not found in list|ʉ]]] are unstressed allophones of a single phoneme /ɵ/ (stressed /ɵ/ is always realized as [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ɵ̞" not found in list|ɵ]]]):
    • [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ɵ̞" not found in list|ɵ]]] is used in all closed syllables (as in kultur اس آڈیو کے متعلق [kɵlˈtʉːr]) but also in some open syllables, as in musikal اس آڈیو کے متعلق [mɵsɪˈkɑːl]. Some cases involve resyllabification caused by retroflexion, which makes the syllable open, as in kurtisan اس آڈیو کے متعلق [kɵʈɪˈsɑːn].
    • [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ̈" not found in list|ʉ]]] appears only in open syllables. In some cases, [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ̈" not found in list|ʉ]]] is the only possible realization, as in känguru اس آڈیو کے متعلق [ˈɕɛŋːɡʉrʉ], such as when /ɵ/ appears in hiatus, as in duell اس آڈیو کے متعلق [dʉˈɛlː].
    • In other cases, [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ɵ̞" not found in list|ɵ]]] is in free variation with [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ̈" not found in list|ʉ]]] so musik can be pronounced as اس آڈیو کے متعلق [mɵˈsiːk] or [mʉˈsiːk] (Riad (2014:28-29)). For simplicity, only [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ɵ̞" not found in list|ɵ]]] will be used.
  8. ^ ا ب The distinction between compressed [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ̈" not found in list|ʉ]]] and protruded [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ̫" not found in list|ʏ]]] is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
    • Swedish compressed [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ̈" not found in list|ʉ]]] sounds very close to جرمن زبان compressed [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ͍" not found in list|ʏ]]] (as in müssen اس آڈیو کے متعلق [ˈmʏsn̩]).
    • Swedish protruded [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ̫" not found in list|ʏ]]] sounds more similar to English unrounded [ɪ] (as in hit) than to German compressed [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ͍" not found in list|ʏ]]], and it is very close to نورویجینی زبان protruded [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ̫" not found in list|ʏ]]] (as in nytt اس آڈیو کے متعلق [nʏtː]).
  9. ^ ا ب The distinction between compressed [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ͍" not found in list|ʉː]]] and protruded [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "y̫" not found in list|yː]]] is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
    • Swedish compressed [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ͍" not found in list|ʉː]]] sounds very close to German compressed [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "y͍" not found in list|yː]]] (as in üben اس آڈیو کے متعلق [ˈyːbn̩]).
    • Swedish protruded [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "y̫" not found in list|yː]]] sounds more similar to English unrounded [] (as in leave) than to German compressed [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "y͍" not found in list|yː]]], and it is very close to Norwegian protruded [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "y̫" not found in list|yː]]] (as in lys اس آڈیو کے متعلق [lyːs]).
  10. Meaning the duck.
  11. ^ ا ب Placed before the stressed syllable. For words with the second toneme, ⟨²⟩ will be used instead of the primary stress mark.
  12. ^ ا ب Unless it is needed, the narrow phonetic transcription of Swedish tonemes is not to be used in articles.
  13. ^ ا ب The variety of Swedish spoken on the Åland Islands usually resembles phonetically speaking the dialects of the Uppland area rather than Finland Swedish, but the pitch accent is largely missing
  14. ^ ا ب Finland Swedish, as well as a few accents of Mainland Sweden, have a simple primary stress rather than a contrastive pitch accent. In such accents, anden (meaning 'wild duck') and anden (meaning 'spirit') are pronounced identically.
  15. Meaning the spirit.

Bibliography[ترمیم]

  • Olle Engstrand، "Swedish"، Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet.، Cambridge: Cambridge University Press، صفحات 140–142، آئی ایس بی این 0-521-63751-1
  • Reuter، Mikael (1971). "Vokalerna i finlandsvenska: En instrumentell analys och ett försök till systematisering enligt särdrag" (Swedish میں). Studier i nordisk filologi (Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland) 46: 240–249. 
  • Tomas Riad، The Phonology of Swedish، Oxford University Press، آئی ایس بی این 978-0-19-954357-1

External links[ترمیم]