معاونت:بین الاقوامی صوتیاتی ابجد/سونسکا

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
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The chart below shows how the بین الاقوامی صوتیاتی ابجد represents سونسکا pronunciations in Wikipedia articles. The Sweden pronunciation is based primarily on Central Standard Swedish, and the Finland one on Helsinki pronunciation. See Swedish phonology for details about pronunciation.

حرف صحیحs
Flag of سویڈن

SWE

Flag of فن لینڈ

FIN

Examples English approximation
b audio speaker iconbok book
ɕ t͡ɕ audio speaker iconkjol, audio speaker icontjock, audio speaker iconkön like sheep, but more "y"-like
d audio speaker icondop dad
ɖ rd audio speaker iconnord[1] ہم مخرجی حروف صحیح /d/
f audio speaker iconfot foot
ɡ audio speaker icongod good
h audio speaker iconhot hat
ɧ ɕ audio speaker iconsju, audio speaker iconstjärna, audio speaker iconskör, audio speaker iconstation, audio speaker iconpension, audio speaker icongeni, audio speaker iconchoklad[2] somewhat like Scottish loch (varies regionally)
j audio speaker iconjord, audio speaker icongenom, audio speaker iconGöteborg yoyo
k audio speaker iconkon cone
l ɫ audio speaker iconlov lack
ɭ rl audio speaker iconrl[1] ہم مخرجی حروف صحیح /l/
m audio speaker iconmod mode
n audio speaker iconnod node
ɳ rn audio speaker iconbarn[1] ہم مخرجی حروف صحیح /n/
ŋ audio speaker iconng long
p audio speaker iconpol pole
r audio speaker iconrov[3] a trilled r when articulated clearly or in slow or
formal speech; in normal speech, it is usually
a tapped r or an alveolar approximant
most consistently [r] in Finland.
s audio speaker iconsot soot
ʂ rs audio speaker icontorsdag[1] ہم مخرجی حروف صحیح /ʃ/
t audio speaker icontok tea
ʈ rt audio speaker iconparti[1] ہم مخرجی حروف صحیح /t/
v audio speaker iconvåt vote
Rare sounds
Flag of سویڈن

SWE

Flag of فن لینڈ

FIN

Examples English approximation
w Wales Wales
Audio file "Sv-Zlatan.ogg" not found, Audio file "Sv-Bratislava.ogg" not found father
œɪ Audio file "Sv-Creutz.ogg" not found, Audio file "Sv-Reuter.ogg" not found void
مصوتs
Flag of سویڈن

SWE

Flag of فن لینڈ

FIN

Examples English approximation
a ɑ audio speaker iconmatt[4] cut
ɑː audio speaker iconmat[4] bra
audio speaker iconfet there
ɛ e audio speaker iconhäll, audio speaker iconfett sell
ɛː audio speaker iconhäl RP pair
æ audio speaker iconvärk[5],audio speaker iconverk[5] trap
æː audio speaker iconära[5] ham
ɪ i audio speaker iconsill hit
audio speaker iconsil leave
ɔ o audio speaker iconmoll[6] RP pot
Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "o̫" not found in list audio speaker iconmål[6] floor
Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "œ̫˔" not found in list ø audio speaker iconnött[6] فرانسیسی زبان sœur. somewhat like RP nurse
Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "œ̫" not found in list audio speaker iconöra[5][6] جرمن زبان Schön. somewhat like RP burn
Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ø̫" not found in list audio speaker iconnöt[6]
ɵ ʉ audio speaker iconfull,
audio speaker iconmusik[6][7]
ولندیزی زبان hut
Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ʏ̈" not found in list Audio file "Sv-duell.ogg" not found,
Audio file "Sv-känguru.ogg" not found[6][7][8]
Australian goose; like جرمن زبان audio speaker iconmüssen
ʉː audio speaker iconful[6][9] Australian choose; like German audio speaker iconüben
Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "u͍˕" not found in list u audio speaker iconbott[6] put
audio speaker iconbot[6] boot
Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ʏ̫" not found in list y audio speaker iconsyll[6][8] somewhat like hit; نورویجینی زبان Audio file "No-nytt.ogg" not found
audio speaker iconsyl[6][9] somewhat like leave; Norwegian Audio file "No-lys.ogg" not found
Stress, tone and syllabification
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈ anden[10]
[ˈanːdɛn][11]
tone 1 / acute accent:[12]
² anden[15]
[²anːdɛn][11]
tone 2 / grave accent:[12]
  • falling-falling tone in Stockholm: audio speaker icon[ˈânːdɛ̂n]
  • falling-rising tone in Gothenburg: [ˈânːdɛ̌n]
  • rising-falling tone in Malmö: [ˈǎnːdɛ̂n]
  • simple primary stress in Finland[13] and (rarely) some
    parts of mainland Sweden: [ˈanːdɛn][14]
ˌ Oxenstierna
[²ʊksɛnˌɧæːɳa]
secondary stress, as in intonation
. fria
[²friː.a]
syllable break: co-op, rower

Notes[ترمیم]

  1. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ In many of the dialects that have an apical rhotic consonant, a recursive sandhi process of retroflexion occurs, and clusters of /r/ and dental consonants /rd/, /rl/, /rn/, /rs/, /rt/ produce ہم مخرجی حروف صحیح realisations: [ɖ], [ɭ], [ɳ], [ʂ], [ʈ]. In dialects with a guttural R, such as Southern Swedish, they are [ʁd], [ʁl], [ʁn], [ʁs], [ʁt]. Nevertheless, retroflexion might occur in some varieties of Finland Swedish, especially among young speakers and in fast speech.
  2. Swedish /ɧ/ varies regionally and is sometimes [], [ɸˠ], or [ʂ].
  3. /r/ varies considerably in different dialects. It is pronounced alveolar or similarly in virtually all dialects, but in South Swedish dialects, it is لہوی حروف صحیح, similar to the Parisian French "r". At the beginning of a syllable, it can also be pronounced as a fricative [ʒ], as in English "genre" or "vision".
  4. ^ ا ب The quality of the vowels tends to change a lot between Finland dialects and those of Sweden, especially Southern and Central Sweden. In general terms, [ɑː] is realised more often as [ɒː] in Sweden and as a true [ɑː] in Finland. In the area of Helsinski (Helsingfors) it may be fully centralised [äː]. No difference in the vowel quality occurs in Finland Swedish.
  5. ^ ا ب پ ت Before /r/, the quality of non-high front vowels is changed: the unrounded vowels /ɛ/ and /ɛː/ are lowered to [æ] and [æː], whereas the rounded /[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "œ̫˔" not found in list|œ]]/ and /[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ø̫" not found in list|øː]]/ are lowered to open-mid [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "œ̫" not found in list|œ]]] and [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "œ̫" not found in list|œː]]]. For simplicity, no distinction is made between the mid [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "œ̫˔" not found in list|œ]]] and the open-mid [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "œ̫" not found in list|œ]]], with both being transcribed as ⟨œ⟩. Note that younger speakers use lower allophones [ɶ] and [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ɶː" not found in list|ɶː]]].
  6. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث ج چ ح خ د ڈ [ɔ, Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "o̫" not found in list, Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "œ̫˔" not found in list, Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "œ̫" not found in list, Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ø̫" not found in list, Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ʏ̫" not found in list, Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "y̫" not found in list] are protruded vowels, and [ɵ, Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ʏ̈" not found in list, Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ʏ͍" not found in list, Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "u͍˕" not found in list, Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "u͍" not found in list] are compressed. See roundedness for details.
  7. ^ ا ب [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ɵ̞" not found in list|ɵ]]] and [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ̈" not found in list|ʉ]]] are unstressed allophones of a single phoneme /ɵ/ (stressed /ɵ/ is always realized as [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ɵ̞" not found in list|ɵ]]]):
    • [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ɵ̞" not found in list|ɵ]]] is used in all closed syllables (as in kultur audio speaker icon[kɵlˈtʉːr]) but also in some open syllables, as in musikal Audio file "Sv-musikal.ogg" not found. Some cases involve resyllabification caused by retroflexion, which makes the syllable open, as in kurtisan Audio file "Sv-kurtisan.ogg" not found.
    • [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ̈" not found in list|ʉ]]] appears only in open syllables. In some cases, [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ̈" not found in list|ʉ]]] is the only possible realization, as in känguru Audio file "Sv-känguru.ogg" not found, such as when /ɵ/ appears in hiatus, as in duell Audio file "Sv-duell.ogg" not found.
    • In other cases, [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ɵ̞" not found in list|ɵ]]] is in free variation with [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ̈" not found in list|ʉ]]] so musik can be pronounced as audio speaker icon[mɵˈsiːk] or [mʉˈsiːk] (لوا خطا ماڈیول:Footnotes میں 290 سطر پر: attempt to call field 'has_accept_as_written' (a nil value)۔). For simplicity, only [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ɵ̞" not found in list|ɵ]]] will be used.
  8. ^ ا ب The distinction between compressed [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ̈" not found in list|ʉ]]] and protruded [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ̫" not found in list|ʏ]]] is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
    • Swedish compressed [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ̈" not found in list|ʉ]]] sounds very close to جرمن زبان compressed [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ͍" not found in list|ʏ]]] (as in müssen audio speaker icon[ˈmʏsn̩]).
    • Swedish protruded [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ̫" not found in list|ʏ]]] sounds more similar to English unrounded [ɪ] (as in hit) than to German compressed [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ͍" not found in list|ʏ]]], and it is very close to نورویجینی زبان protruded [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ̫" not found in list|ʏ]]] (as in nytt Audio file "No-nytt.ogg" not found).
  9. ^ ا ب The distinction between compressed [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ͍" not found in list|ʉː]]] and protruded [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "y̫" not found in list|yː]]] is particularly difficult to hear for non-native speakers:
    • Swedish compressed [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʏ͍" not found in list|ʉː]]] sounds very close to German compressed [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "y͍" not found in list|yː]]] (as in üben audio speaker icon[ˈyːbn̩]).
    • Swedish protruded [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "y̫" not found in list|yː]]] sounds more similar to English unrounded [] (as in leave) than to German compressed [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "y͍" not found in list|yː]]], and it is very close to Norwegian protruded [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "y̫" not found in list|yː]]] (as in lys Audio file "No-lys.ogg" not found).
  10. Meaning the duck.
  11. ^ ا ب Placed before the stressed syllable. For words with the second toneme, ⟨²⟩ will be used instead of the primary stress mark.
  12. ^ ا ب Unless it is needed, the narrow phonetic transcription of Swedish tonemes is not to be used in articles.
  13. ^ ا ب The variety of Swedish spoken on the Åland Islands usually resembles phonetically speaking the dialects of the Uppland area rather than Finland Swedish, but the pitch accent is largely missing
  14. ^ ا ب Finland Swedish, as well as a few accents of Mainland Sweden, have a simple primary stress rather than a contrastive pitch accent. In such accents, anden (meaning 'wild duck') and anden (meaning 'spirit') are pronounced identically.
  15. Meaning the spirit.

Bibliography[ترمیم]

  • Engstrand، Olle (1999)، "Swedish"، Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet.، Cambridge: Cambridge University Press، صفحات 140–142، ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Reuter، Mikael (1971). "Vokalerna i finlandsvenska: En instrumentell analys och ett försök till systematisering enligt särdrag". Studier i nordisk filologi (بزبان السويدية). Svenska litteratursällskapet i Finland. 46: 240–249. 
  • Riad، Tomas (2014)، The Phonology of Swedish، Oxford University Press، ISBN 978-0-19-954357-1 

External links[ترمیم]