معاونت:بین الاقوامی صوتیاتی ابجد/لیٹویائی
See Latvian phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of Latvian.
At the time of its inception, a conscious decision was made that Latvian orthography would not show gemination/lengthening of consonants because it was unnecessary to do so. Nevertheless, single obstruent consonants (as opposed to consonant clusters) between two short vowels are always long: Atis would be ⟨attis⟩ and aka would be ⟨akka⟩ or [ˈatːis] and [ˈakːa]. In transcribing Latvian in IPA, however, consonant length is usually not indicated. Sonorants, however, indicated in orthography: in mamma, panna, allaž, ķerra, the long sonorants should probably be indicated both in phonetic as well as صوتیہ [less precise] transcriptions: [mamːa], [panːa], [alːaʒ], [cærːa].
Standard Latvian has three tones called, by convention, the level (stiepts), broken (lauzts) and falling (krītošs,) indicated by a tilde (~), circumflex (^) or grave (`) accents, respectively. Different tones are distinguished if the stressed syllable (the first syllable, in most all cases) has either a long vowel or a diphthong. Short vowels and unstressed syllables do not take on different tones.
In Riga, Latvian the falling tone has been syncretized with the broken: its users differentiate only between the level and broken tones and perceive the falling tone as broken.
Tone is usually omitted transcribing Latvian in IPA.[why?][حوالہ درکار] English Wiktionary for its Latvian entries, however, uses a notation of macron, circumflex or grave accent if necessary (the tilde is already reserved for indicating nasal vowels in IPA so it is replaced it with a macron.)
- ^ ا ب پ An unvoiced consonant, in a compound, followed by a voiced consonant becomes voiced: atdarīt → [ˈadːariːt] or [ˈadˌdariːt].
- ^ ا ب [f] and [x] occur only in loanwords.
- ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ Before the masculine ending -s, voiced consonants are devoiced: smags → [smaks]. The -s is assimilated after a devoiced fricative, producing a long consonant: mazs → [masː] and mežs → [meʃː]. Devoicing also occurs in compounds: labprātīgs → [ˈlapːraːtiːks] or [ˈlapˌpraːtiːks].
- Allophone of nasals before طبقی حروف صحیح.
- ^ ا ب پ The letter ⟨o⟩ in Latvian orthography usually represents the diphthong [uɔ]): Lithuanian nuoma and Latvian noma. [ɔ] and its long counterpart, [ɔː], occur only in loanwords.
- "DIVSKAŅI". اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 1 اپریل 2021ء.
- ^ ا ب پ ت In closed syllables, [ai], [ɛi], [oi], and [ui] may be transcribed as vowel-glide sequences: tais [tajs], veikt [vɛjkt], boikots [bɔjkɔts], and muita [mujta].
- ^ ا ب پ Only in loanwords or onomatopoeiatic words.
- Only in loanwords and onomatopoeiatic words or as the result of vocalization in open syllables of [v].
- ^ ا ب Kortmann، Bernd (2011). The Languages and Linguistics of Europe. Walter de Gruyter. صفحہ 5. ISBN 3110220253. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 1 اپریل 2021ء.
Consonant quantity is well-developed in Latvian as a result of Fennic substratum influence. Sonorants show distinctive quantity mainly in loanwords, cf. manna [manːa] 'manna' vs. mana [mana] (nom.sg.fem. of 1st ps. sg possesive pronoun). Non-distinctive quantitative variation in obstruents occurs in native words: immediately post-tonic voicless obstruents are automatically lengthened between short vowels, cf. lapa [lapːa] 'leaf' vs. lāpa [laːpa] 'torch,' lapā [lapaː] 'leaf (loc.sg.)'. In Lithuanian there is no consonantal quantity and on the morphemic boundary geminates are shortened.
- Masļanska، Olga؛ Rubīna، Aina (1992). Valsts valoda - Курс лекций латышского языка. Rīga. صفحہ 11.
В латышском языке имеется слоговая интонация, которая может быть протяжной (~), прерывистой (^) и нисходящей (\). В некоторых случаях интонация имеет смыслоразличительное значение, например: за~ле ("зал"), за^ле ("трава"), za\les ("лекарство")
- Kortmann، Bernd (2011). The Languages and Linguistics of Europe. Walter de Gruyter. صفحہ 6. ISBN 3110220253. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 1 اپریل 2021ء.
Both Latvian and Lithuanian are pitch languages. In Lithuanian, stressed long vocalic segments (long vowels, diphthongs, and sequences of vowel plus sonorant) show a distinctive opposition of rising and falling pitch, cf. kar̃tų 'time:gen.pl' vs. kártų 'hang:irr.3'. In standard Latvian (and some of the dialects), long vocalic sequences (of the same type as in Lithuanian) distinguish three varieties of pitch: 'even', 'falling', and 'broken' ('broken pitch' being a falling pitch with superadded glottalisation). They are fully differentiated in stressed syllables only: unstressed syllables have an opposition of glottalised and non-glottalised long vocalic segments. Segments with 'even' pitch are ultra long. Neither Lithuanian nor Latvian mark pitch in their standard orthography.