معاونت:بین الاقوامی صوتیاتی ابجد/المانی جرمن

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے

The charts below show the way in which the بین الاقوامی صوتیاتی ابجد represents Swabian, Low Alemannic, High Alemannic and Highest Alemannic pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

Notes:

  • No Alemannic dialect uses all of the sounds described in this guide.
  • Each example word is tagged with the name of the dialect from which it comes.
  • The majority of the example words are from the Zurich dialect.
  • Most Alemannic dialects are not written very often, and thus do not have official spellings. For the sake of consistency, this guide uses the Zurich German spelling convention proposed by Dieth & Schmid-Cadalbert (1986).[1]

See Bernese German phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of one of the Alemannic dialects.

حرف صحیحs
IPA Examples Closest equivalent
[[|b̥]] Huube [ˈhuːb̥ə] 'bonnet' (ZH)[2] bare
[[|d̥]] Lade [ˈlɒd̥ə] 'store' (ZH)[2] dart
[[|f]] offe [ˈofə] 'open' (VS) foot
[[|fː]] offe [ˈofːə] 'open' (BE) staff function
[[|ɡ̊]] haage [ˈhɒːɡ̊ə] 'fence in' (ZH)[2] go
[[|ɣ̊]] mache [ˈmɒɣ̊ə] 'to make' (ZH)[2][3] Scottish loch
[[|ʁ̥]] mache [ˈmɒʁ̥ə] 'to make' (ZH)[2][3]
besser [ˈbesʁ̥] 'better' (BS)[4]
[[|h]] Hand [hɒnd̥] 'hand' (ZH) hat
[[|j]] Jaar [jɒːr] 'year' (ZH) you
[[|k]] Egge [ˈekə] 'edge' (BS) scan
[[|kː]] Egge [ˈɛkːə] 'edge' (BE) scan
[[|kʰ]] Kind [kʰind̥] 'child' (BSG)[5] cone
[[|kx]] hocke [ˈhokxə] 'sit' (ZH)[3] Broad cockney cake
[[|qχ]] hocke [ˈhoqχə] 'sit' (ZH)[3]
[[|l]] maale [ˈmɒːlə] 'to paint' (ZH) louver
[[|lː]] ller [ˈmylːər] 'miller' (ZH) real life
[[|m]] zaame [ˈtsɒːmə] 'tame' (ZH) mood
[[|mː]] Hammer [ˈhɒmːər] 'hammer' (BE) film-maker
[[|n]] zaane [ˈtsɒːnə] 'to teethe' (ZH) noon
[[|nː]] Sunne [ˈz̥ʊnːə] 'sun' (BE) cleanness
[[|ŋ]] Zange [ˈtsɒŋə] 'pliers' (ZH) ring
[[|ŋː]] Zange [ˈtsɑŋːə] 'pliers' (BE) ring, but longer
[[|p]] huupe [ˈhuːpə] 'to hoot' (BS) span
[[|pː]] öppe [ˈœpːə] 'around' (BE) span
[[|pʰ]] Pack [pʰɒkx] 'parcel' (ZH)[5] pole
[[|pf]] Soipfe [ˈz̥oi̯pfə] 'soap' (ZH) cupfull
[[|r]] faare [ˈv̥ɒːrə] 'to drive' (ZH)[4] اطالوی زبان però
[[|rː]] cheerren [ˈxeːrːən] 'to sweep' (Haslital)[4] اطالوی زبان burro
[[|ɾ]] faare [ˈv̥ɒːɾə] 'to drive' (ZH)[4] American water
[[|ʀ]] faare [ˈv̥ɒːʀə] 'to drive' (ZH)[4] No English equivalent
[[|ʁ]] faare [ˈv̥ɒːʁə] 'to drive' (ZH)[4] roughly like go, but without completely blocking air flow on the g
[[|ʕ]] ändard [ˈend̥aʕd̥] 'changes' (SWG)[6] No English equivalent
[[|s]] hasse [ˈhɑsə] 'to hate' (VS) soon
[[|sː]] hasse [ˈhɑsːə] 'to hate' (BE) class size
[[|ʃ]] tüüsche [ˈtyːʃə] 'to exchange' (VS) ship
[[|ʃː]] Äsche [ˈæʃːə] 'ash' (BE) cash shortage
[[|t]] Latte [ˈlɑtə] 'lath' (BS) stand
[[|tː]] Latte [ˈlɑtə] 'lath' (BE) stand
[[|tʰ]] Thee [tʰeː] 'tea' (ZH)[5] too
[[|ts]] butze [ˈb̥utsə] 'to clean' (ZH) cats
[[|tʃ]] tsche [ˈtætʃə] 'to clap' (ZH) chip
[[|v̥]] Ofe [ˈov̥ə] 'oven' (ZH)[2] foot
[[|ʋ]] Wand [ʋɒnd̥] 'wall' (ZH) between wine and vine
[[|ʋː]] niww [niʋː] 'new' (Haslital) between wine and vine
[[|w]] chalt [ɣ̊awt] 'cold' (BE)[7] wine
[[|wː]] Balle [ˈb̥awːə] 'ball' (BE)[8] roughly like bowwow
[[|x]] lache [ˈlɑxə] 'to laugh' (VS)[3] Scottish loch
[[|xː]] lache [ˈlɑxːə] 'to laugh' (BE)[3] Scottish loch, but longer
[[|χ]] lache [ˈlɑχə] 'to laugh' (VS)[3] Scottish loch
[[|χː]] lache [ˈlɑχːə] 'to laugh' (BE)[3] Scottish loch, but longer
[[|z̥]] Hase [ˈhɒz̥ə] 'hares' (ZH)[2] soon
[[|ʒ̊]] nuusche [ˈnuːʒ̊ə] 'to rummage' (ZH)[2] ship
مصوتs
IPA Examples Closest equivalent
[[|a]] Affe [ˈafə] 'apes' (BE)[9] art
[[|ɑ]] Mane [ˈmɑnə] 'men' (ZH)[9][10]
[[|aː]] schlaaffe [ˈʒ̊laːfə] 'to sleep' (BE)[9] father
[[|ɑː]] maane [ˈmɑːnə] 'to remind' (ZH)[9][10]
[[|ɒ]] Mane [ˈmɒnə] 'men' (ZH)[9][10] RP hot
[[|ɒː]] maane [ˈmɒːnə] 'to remind' (ZH)[9][10] RP nod
[[|æ]] gäll [ɡ̊æl] 'isn't it?' (ZH) hat
[[|æː]] gääl [ɡ̊æːl] 'yellow' (ZH) had
[[|e]] Bett [ˈb̥et] 'bed' (ZH) Scottish late
[[|eː]] deene [ˈd̥eːnə] 'stretch' (ZH) Scottish day
[[|ɛ]] Hèr [hɛr] 'mister' (ZH)[11] bet
[[|ɛː]] hèèr [hɛːr] 'from' (ZH)[11] bed
[[|ə]] schwèche [ˈʒ̊ʋɛxə] 'to weaken' (ZH)[12] about
[[|i]] sibe [ˈz̥ib̥ə] 'seven' (ZH) leaf
[[|iː]] siibe [ˈz̥iːb̥ə] 'to sieve' (ZH) leave
[[|ɪ]] Rìtter [ˈrɪtər] 'knight' (BE) kit
[[|ɪː]] Rììs [rɪːz̥] 'giant' (BE) kid
[[|o]] hole [ˈholə] 'to fetch' (ZH) Scottish oak
[[|oː]] hool [hoːl] 'hollow' (ZH) Scottish stove
[[|ɔ]] Òfe [ˈɔv̥ə] 'oven' (BE)[11] RP/Australian hot
[[|ɔː]] Gòòfe [ˈɡ̊ɔːv̥ə] 'kids' (BE)[11] RP/Australian nod
[[|ø]] Böge [ˈb̥øɡ̊ə] 'sheets of paper' (ZH) Somewhat like nurse
[[|œ]] Blö̀ff [b̥lœf] 'bluff' (ZH)[11]
[[|øː]] Böögge [ˈb̥øːkə] 'fools' (ZH) Somewhat like fur
[[|œː]] tö̀ö̀rfe [ˈtœːrfə] 'to be allowed to' (ZH)[11]
[[|u]] Bruch [b̥rux] 'break' (ZH) boot
[[|uː]] Bruuch [b̥ruːɣ̊] 'custom' (ZH) food
[[|ʉː]] Muus [mʉːs] 'mouse' (BSG)[13] Modern RP goose
[[|ʊ]] Schùtt [ʒ̊ʊt] 'debris' (BE) foot
[[|ʊː]] Brùùch [b̥rʊːɣ̊] 'break' (BE) good
[[|y]] Füli [ˈv̥yli] 'pen' (ZH) Somewhat like cute
[[|ʏ]] hǜtt [hʏt] 'today' (BE)
[[|yː]] Füüli [ˈv̥yːli] 'laziness' (ZH) Somewhat like feud
[[|ʏː]] Tǜǜre [ˈtʏːrə] 'door' (BE)
Diphthong offsets
معاونت:با ابجدیہ Examples English approximation
nia [nia̯] 'never' (SWG) roughly like ear
æ̯ niä [niæ̯] 'never' (UR)
ə̯ nie [niə̯] 'never' (ZH)
frei [v̥rei̯] 'free' (ZH) The y-like ending in day
Chüo [xyo̯] 'cow' (VS) The w-like ending in go
äu [æu̯] 'also' (ZH)
vlöüge [ˈv̥lœy̑ɡ̊ə] 'to fly' (Saanenland) Roughly like the w-like ending in go
بین الاقوامی صوتیاتی ابجد
معاونت:با ابجدیہ Examples Explanation
[[|ˈ]] deene [ˈd̥eːnə] 'stretch' (ZH) Primary stress, as in deer /ˈdɪər/
[[|ˌ]] Hèrdöpfel [ˈhɛrˌd̥øpfəl] 'potato' (ZH)[14] Secondary stress, as in as in commandeer /ˌkɒmənˈdɪər/

Notes[ترمیم]

  1. Cited in Fleischer & Schmid (2006:251)
  2. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث ج چ Some scholars choose to transcribe the lenis obstruents with the symbols ⟨p, t, k, x, s, ʃ⟩, rather than ⟨b̥, d̥, ɡ̊, ɣ̊, v̥, z̥, ʒ̊⟩. In that case, the fortis obstruents are transcribed ⟨pː, tː, kː, xː, sː, ʃː⟩ or ⟨pp, tt, kk, xx, ss, ʃʃ⟩, rather than ⟨p, t, k, x, s, ʃ⟩. Here, we choose to transcribe the lenis obstruents as ⟨b̥, d̥, ɡ̊, ɣ̊, v̥, z̥, ʒ̊⟩, whereas the fortis obstruents are transcribed ⟨p, t, k, x, s, ʃ⟩. Long fortis obstruents or geminates occur in most of Switzerland except for the extreme Northeast, Wallis, and the Grisons–St. Gall Rhine valley.
  3. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث ج چ The dorsal obstruents /kx, x, ɣ̊/ are realized as velar [[[|kx]], [[|x]], [[|ɣ̊]]] or uvular [[[|qχ]], [[|χ]], [[|ʁ̥]]], depending on the dialect.
  4. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث The /r/ phoneme can be pronounced as an alveolar trill [r], an alveolar tap [ɾ], a uvular trill [ʀ], a voiced uvular fricative [ʁ], a voiceless lenis uvular fricative [ʁ̥], or as a uvular approximant [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʁ̞" not found in list|ʁ̞]]] (for simplicity, we transcribe it the same as a voiced uvular fricative), depending on the dialect. Some dialects (e.g. Zurich German) use all six realizations (Fleischer & Schmid (2006:244)).
  5. ^ ا ب پ The aspirated consonants [pʰ, tʰ, kʰ] occur in borrowings from Standard German (Fleischer & Schmid (2006:244)). In the dialects of Basel and Chur, an aspirated [kʰ] is also present in native words.
  6. In Swabian German, /r/ is realized as a uvular approximant [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʁ̞" not found in list|ʁ̞]]] in syllable onset, but as a pharyngeal approximant [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʕ̞" not found in list|ʕ̞]]] in other positions (Markus Hiller. "Pharyngeals and "lax" vowel quality" (PDF). Mannheim: Institut für Deutsche Sprache. ). For simplicity, we transcribe these sounds as, respectively, [ʁ] and [ʕ].
  7. In Bernese German, /l/ in the syllable ہجا is realized as [w].
  8. In Bernese German, the geminate /lː/ is realized as [].
  9. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث The open vowels /a, aː/ can be front unrounded [[[|a]], [[|aː]]], central unrounded [[[|ä]], [[|äː]]] (although for simplicity, we transcribe these variants the same as the front [a, aː]), back unrounded [[[|ɑ]], [[|ɑː]]] or back rounded [[[|ɒ]], [[|ɒː]]], depending on the dialect.
  10. ^ ا ب پ ت Zurich German has a free variation between back unrounded [ɑ, ɑː] and back rounded [ɒ, ɒː] realizations (Fleischer & Schmid (2006:248)).
  11. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث The mid vowels /ɛ, ɛː, œ, œː, ɔ, ɔː/ can be open-mid [[[|ɛ]], [[|ɛː]], [[|œ]], [[|œː]], [[|ɔ]], [[|ɔː]]] or true-mid [[[|ɛ̝]], [[|ɛ̝ː]], [[|œ̝]], [[|œ̝ː]], [[|ɔ̝]], [[|ɔ̝ː]]] (e.g. in Bernese German (Marti (1985:28)), depending on the dialect. For simplicity, we transcribe both open-mid and true-mid realizations simply as [ɛ, ɛː, œ, œː, ɔ, ɔː].
  12. The schwa /ə/ occurs only in unstressed syllables.
  13. In Basel German and in the dialect of Markgräflerland, /uː/ is fronted to [ʉː].
  14. Less common variant: Hö̀rdöpfel [ˈhœrˌd̥øpfəl] (Fleischer & Schmid (2006:247)).

Bibliography[ترمیم]

  • Dauwalder، Hans (1992)، Wie mma s seid und cha schriiben. Eine haslideutsche Kurzgrammatik، Meiringen: Gemeinnütziger Verein 
  • Dieth، Eugen؛ Schmid-Cadalbert، Christian (1986)، Schwyzertütschi Dialäktschrift. Dieth-Schreibung (اشاعت 2nd۔)، Aarau: Sauerländer 
  • Fleischer، Jürg؛ Schmid، Stephan (2006)، "Zurich German" (PDF)، Journal of the International Phonetic Association، 36 (2): 243–253، doi:10.1017/S0025100306002441 
  • Hotzenköcherle، Rudolf، مدیر۔ (1962–1997)، Sprachatlas der deutschen Schweiz، Bern: Francke 
  • Werlen، Iwar (1977)، Lautstrukturen des Dialekts von Brig im schweizerischen Kanton Wallis، Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner 
  • Marti، Werner (1985)، Berndeutsch-Grammatik، Bern: Francke، ISBN 3-7720-1587-5