معاونت:بین الاقوامی اصواتی ابجدیہ برائے ویتنامی

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
Jump to navigation Jump to search


حرف صحیحs
  IPA   Examples English approximation
ʔ anh (pronounced before a vowel) button (glottal stop)
ɓ ba [ʔb] almost like bee
c chè (Saigon final [t] after e/i/y [1]) cheese (unaspirated)
ɗ đi [ʔd] almost like day
f ph fight
h hàng high
j y; mai (may follow all vowels but e/i/y [1]) yellow
k cô, kem sky
l là low
m mai my
n nam (Saigon final [ŋ] after a/o/u [2]) no
ɲ nhà (Saigon final [n] after after e/i/y [1]) roughly like singing
ŋ ngam (before a/o/u [2]); nghe (before e/i/y [1]) singer
p đáp sport
s xa so
ʂ sao (Hanoi [s]) almost like show
t tây (Saigon final [k] after o/u [2]) stop
thầy top
ʈʂ tra [ʈ] (Hanoi c) almost like choose (unaspirated)
v về ([j] in informal Southern Vietnamese) van
w u; oanh (Hanoi initial [ʔw]) (may follow all vowels but a/o/u [2]) we
x khô (Saigon []) loch (Scottish English)
ɣ ga (before a/o/u [2]); ghế (before e/i/y [1]) No English equivalent ; amigo in Spanish
z da; già (Saigon [j]) zero
ʐ ra (Hanoi [z], Saigon could be [ɹ]) almost like pleasure
Monophthongs
IPA Examples English approximation
ă ăn; anh almost like cut
a ba [3] between cat and father
e v almost like sit
ɛ xe set
ə̆ ân; bênh person
ɤ bơ [ɤː] almost like sir (British English)
i khi; quy see
ɯ tư No English equivalent ; unrounded [u]
o cô almost like good
ɔ có; xoong law
u ru too
Diphthongs
IPA Examples English approximation
vn, bia beer (British English)
ɯə xương, chưa No English equivalent
uống, mua sure (British English)
ʷ (see /w/ above) we
Tones
IPA Examples
a ə a (Hanoi [˧], Saigon [˧])
â ə̂ à (Hanoi [˨˩], Saigon [˨˩])
ǎ ə̌ á (Hanoi [˧˥], Saigon [˧˥])
a᷉ ə᷉[4] (Hanoi [˧˩], Saigon [˧˩˧])
ǎˀ ə̌ˀ ã (Hanoi [˧ˀ˥], Saigon [˧˩˧])
âˀ ə̂ˀ (Hanoi [˧ˀ˩ʔ], Saigon [˨˧])
ə́k[5] ấc (Hanoi [˦˥], Saigon [˦˥])
ə̀k[5] ậc (Hanoi [˩], Saigon [˩])

حوالہ جات[ترمیم]

  1. ^ 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 The front vowels ([i], [e], [ɛ], [j]) which are based on the letters e, i, and y.
  2. ^ 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 The non-front vowels, which are based on the letters a, o, and u.
  3. /aː/ may be pronounced [æ].
  4. This is a dipping tone. It looks similar to ã ə̃ ([  ̃  ] (nasalized mark). The dipping tone differs only in being angular in shape, but is not widely supported by IPA fonts.
  5. ^ 5.0 5.1 Before a final /p, t, c, k/, the six tones of Vietnamese are reduced to two.