معاونت:بین الاقوامی اصواتی ابجدیہ برائے نارویجن

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
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حرف صحیحs
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
b bil bee
ç kjip Similar to huge
d dag day
ɖ sardin[1] North American order
f fot foot
ɡ god good
h hatt hat
j jojo yoyo
k kafé café
l lake lack
ɭ Karl[1] North American twirl
m man man
n natt night
ɳ barn[1] North American turner
ŋ ting thing
p pappa papa
r år[2][1] A tapped or trilled "r".
s sabel sabre
ʂ sjø, torsdag[1] shoe
t tirsdag tea
ʈ parti[1] North American cartel
v vaktel vat
مصوتs
IPA Examples Nearest English equivalent
ɑ fast Modern RP stack; North American lot
ɑː mat bra, RP car
æ fersk[3] trap
æː ære[3] Australian ham
ɛ helle[3] North American and RP set
hel[3] Scottish save
ɪ sill hill
i need
ɔ åtte RP lot; North American fort
mål Scottish stove; RP law
œ nøtt similar to Burt; German short ö
øː dø similar to bird; German long ö
ʊ ond put, with tight lips
bot[4] fool
ʉ full Estuary butcher
ʉː ful[4] fuel; Australian and Estuary food, with tight lips
ʏ nytt[4] No English equivalent; German short ü
syl[4] No English equivalent; German long ü
unstressed
ə påle about
Stress and لہجے والی زبان
IPA Examples Explanation
ˈa Rana
[ˈrɑːnɑ]
Tone 1 / acute accent:
• Low tone in اوسلو: [ˈrɑ̀ːnɑ]
• Falling tone in western Norway: [ˈrɑ̂ːnɑ]
ˈa.ˈa rana
[ˈrɑːˈnɑ]
Tone 2 / grave accent:
• Falling-rising tone in Oslo: [ˈrɑ̂ːˈnɑ̌]
• Rising-falling tone in western Norway: [ˈrɑ̌ːˈnɑ̂]

Notes[ترمیم]

  1. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث In many of the dialects that have an apical rhotic consonant, a recursive Sandhi process of retroflexion occurs wherein clusters of /r/ and dental consonants /rd/, /rl/, /rn/, /rs/, /rt/ produce ہم مخرجی حروف صحیح realizations: [ɖ], [ɭ], [ɳ], [ʂ], [ʈ]. In dialects with a guttural R, such as Southern and Western Norwegian dialects, these are [ʁd], [ʁl], [ʁn], [ʁs], [ʁt].
  2. /r/ varies considerably in different dialects, being alveolar in some dialects and uvular in others.
  3. ^ ا ب پ ت Before /r/, the quality of non-high front vowels is changed: /eː/ and /ɛ/ lower to [æː] and [æ].
  4. ^ ا ب پ ت Vowels spelt u, o are compressed vowels. Those spelt ö/ø, y, å, on the other hand, are protruded vowels.

References[ترمیم]

  • Gjert Kristoffersen، The Phonology of Norwegian، Oxford University Press، آئی ایس بی این 978-0-19-823765-5
  • سانچہ:SOWL
  • Ingebjørg Skaug، Norsk språklydlære med øvelser، Oslo: Cappelen Akademisk Forlag AS، آئی ایس بی این 82-456-0178-0
  • Åse-Berit Strandskogen، Norsk fonetikk for utlendinger، Oslo: Gyldendal، آئی ایس بی این 82-05-10107-8
  • Arne Vanvik، Norsk fonetikk، Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo، آئی ایس بی این 82-990584-0-6