معاونت:بین الاقوامی اصواتی ابجدیہ برائے ڈینش

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
حرف صحیحs
IPA Examples Closest equivalent
[[|b̥]] bog [ˈb̥ɔʊ̯ˀ] 'book' ball
[[|d̥]] dåb [ˈd̥ɔːˀb̥] 'christening' done
[[|ð]] øde [ˈøːðə] 'deserted' bathe
[[|ð̩]] skinnede [ˈsɡ̊enð̩ðə] 'shone'[1] the book (pronounced quickly)
[[|f]] fod [ˈfoðˀ] 'foot' foot
[[|ɡ̊]] god [ˈɡ̊oðˀ] 'good' guest
[[|h]] hat [ˈhad̥] 'hat' hat
[[|j]] jord [ˈjoɐ̯ˀ] 'earth' you
[[|kʰ]] kone [ˈkʰoːnə] 'wife' cone
[[|l]] lov [ˈlɒʊ̯] 'law' louver
[[|l̩]] solen [ˈsoːˀl̩n] 'the sun'[1] bottle
[[|m]] mod [ˈmoðˀ] 'courage' mood
[[|m̩]] København [kʰøb̥m̩ˈhɑʊ̯ˀn] 'Copenhagen'[1] rhythm
[[|n]] node [ˈnoːðə] 'note' noon
[[|n̩]] vinden [ˈʋenˀn̩] 'the wind'[1] suddenly
[[|ŋ]] lang [ˈlɑŋˀ] 'long' long
[[|ŋ̍]] ryggen [ˈʁœɡ̊ŋ̍] 'the spine'[1] take an interest
[[|pʰ]] pol [ˈpʰoːˀl] 'pole' pole
[[|ʁ]] rød [ˈʁœðˀ] 'red' guttural R
[[|s]] sod [ˈsoðˀ] 'soot' soon
[[|ɕ]] Sjælland [ˈɕɛˌlanˀ] 'زیلینڈ'[2] sheep
[[|tˢ]] tak [ˈtˢɑɡ̊] 'thank you' too
[[|tɕ]] tjener [ˈtɕeːnɐ] 'servant'[2] cheer
[[|ʋ]] våd [ˈʋɔðˀ] 'wet' vote
مصوتs
IPA Examples Closest equivalent
monophthongs
[[|a]] kat [ˈkʰad̥] 'cat' hat
[[|ɑ]] tak [ˈtˢɑɡ̊] 'thank you' art
[[|ɑː]] barn [ˈbɑːˀn] 'child' father
[[|ʌ]] ånd [ˈʌnˀ] 'spirit' RP/Australian hot
[[|ɒ]] og [ˈɒʊ̯] 'and'
[[|ɒː]] i går [iˈɡ̊ɒːˀ] 'yesterday' RP/Australian nod
[[|æ]] frisk [ˈfʁæsɡ̊] 'fresh' bet
[[|æː]] gade [ˈɡ̊æːðə] 'street' bed
[[|e]] fed [ˈfeð] 'fat' kit
[[|eː]] hel [ˈheːˀl] 'whole' kid
[[|ɛ]] ven [ˈʋɛn] 'friend' Scottish late
[[|ɛː]] hæl [ˈhɛːˀl] 'heel' Scottish day
[[|i]] tisse [ˈtˢisə] 'pee' leaf
[[|iː]] si [ˈsiːˀ] 'sieve' leave
[[|o]] flod [ˈfloðˀ] 'river' Scottish oak
[[|oː]] kone [ˈkʰoːnə] 'wife' Scottish stove
[[|ɔ]] ost [ˈɔsd̥] 'cheese' RP thought
[[|ɔː]] måle [ˈmɔːlə] 'to measure' RP law
[[|ø]] nød [ˈnøðˀ] 'nut' Somewhat like nurse
[[|œ]] bønne [ˈb̥œnə]) 'bean'
[[|øː]] løber [ˈløːb̥ɐ] 'runner' Somewhat like fur
[[|œː]] afgrøde [ˈaʊ̯ɡ̊ʁœːðə] 'crop'
[[|ɶ]] tør [ˈtˢɶɐ̯ˀ]) 'dry' cat (rounded)
[[|ɶː]] fyrre [ˈfɶːɐ] 'forty' lad (rounded)
[[|u]] ud [ˈuðˀ] 'out' boot
[[|uː]] hule [ˈhuːlə] 'cave' food
[[|y]] tyk [ˈtˢyɡ̊] 'thick' Somewhat like cute
[[|yː]] synlig [ˈsyːnli] 'visible' Somewhat like feud
diphthongs[3]
æɐ̯ er [æɐ̯] 'am, are, is' Traditional RP there
eɐ̯ Per [ˈpʰeɐ̯] 'Per (a male given name)' Somewhat like near in traditional RP
iɐ̯ birk [ˈb̥iɐ̯ɡ̊] 'birch'
yɐ̯ styrke [ˈsd̥yɐ̯ɡ̊ə] 'force'
oɐ̯ sort [ˈsoɐ̯d̥] 'black (adj.)' Somewhat like cure in traditional RP
uɐ̯ ur [uɐ̯ˀ] 'watch'
øɐ̯ mørne [ˈmøɐ̯nə] 'tenderize' Somewhat like fur
œɐ̯ mørk [ˈmœɐ̯ɡ̊] 'dark'
ɑɪ̯ mig [ˈmɑɪ̯] 'me' price
æɪ̯ lag [ˈlæɪ̯ˀ] 'layer' face
ɛɪ̯ hæg! [ˈhɛɪ̯ˀ] 'harbour!'
eɪ̯ sneg [ˈsneɪ̯ˀ] 'sneaked'
uɪ̯ huje [ˈhuɪ̯ə] 'to whoop' Somewhat like to eat
øɪ̯ søg! [ˈsøɪ̯ˀ] 'seek!' Somewhat like choice
ʌɪ̯ møg [ˈmʌɪ̯] 'crap'
ɑʊ̯ hav [ˈhɑʊ̯] 'sea' mouth
æʊ̯ hæv! [ˈhæʊ̯ˀ] 'raise!' Australian/New Zealand mouth
ɛʊ̯ evne [ˈɛʊ̯nə] 'ability' Somewhat like new
eʊ̯ lev [ˈleʊ̯ˀ] 'live!'
iʊ̯ ivrig [ˈiʊ̯ʁi] 'eager'
yʊ̯ tyv [ˈtˢyʊ̯ˀ] 'thief'
oʊ̯ slog [ˈsloʊ̯ˀ] 'slain' go
ɔʊ̯ låg [ˈlɔʊ̯ˀ] 'cover'
ɒʊ̯ lov [ˈlɒʊ̯] 'law'
øʊ̯ øvrig [ˈøʊ̯ʁi] 'additional' Somewhat like go
œʊ̯ støvle [ˈsd̥œʊ̯lə] 'to boot'
stød (وقف مزمار)
ˀ ti [ˈtˢiːˀ] 'ten' button
unstressed only
[[|ɐ]] løber [ˈløːb̥ɐ] 'runner' but
[[|ə]] hoppe [ˈhʌb̥ə] 'jump' about
[[|ɪ]] kage [ˈkʰæːɪ] 'cake'[4] hit
[[|ʊ]] mave [ˈmæːʊ] 'stomach'[4] foot

References[ترمیم]

  1. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ The syllabic consonants [m̩, n̩, ŋ̍, ð̩, l̩] do not occur in names.[in which circumstances?]
  2. ^ ا ب [tɕ] is phonemically /tj/, whereas [ɕ] is phonemically /sj/.
  3. Diphthongs with an underlying long vowel always have stød, whereas the ones with an underlying short vowel do not. [eɪ̯, ɛɪ̯, æɪ̯, øɪ̯, æʊ̯, oʊ̯, ɔʊ̯] all have an underlying long vowel, and thus always have stød. Conversely, [ɑɪ̯, ʌɪ̯, uɪ̯, ɑʊ̯, ɒʊ̯] have an underlying short vowel, and thus never have stød. The other diphthongs (including all of the diphthongs ending with [ɐ̯]) appear both with and without stød (Grønnum (2005:294)).
  4. ^ ا ب [ɪ] and [ʊ] are assimilatory variants of, respectively, [ɪ̯ə] and [ʊ̯ə].

Bibliography[ترمیم]

  • Basbøll، Hans (2005)، The Phonology of Danish، ISBN 0-203-97876-5 
  • Grønnum، Nina (1998)، "Illustrations of the IPA: Danish"، Journal of the International Phonetic Association، 28 (1 & 2): 99–105، doi:10.1017/s0025100300006290 
  • Grønnum، Nina (2005)، Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (اشاعت 3rd۔)، Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag، ISBN 87-500-3865-6