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آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
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حرف صحیح
بـصـا مثالیں اردو قریباً
حرف مثال لفظ مثال
b[1] bestia; embuste; vaca; envidia; fútbol ب بارے
β bebé; obtuso; vivir; curva و (تقریباً) وجود
d[1] dedo; cuando; aldaba د دیر
ð diva; arder; admirar عربی ذ دھاک (تقریباً)، ذات
f fase; café ف فائدہ
ɡ[1] gato; lengua; guerra گ گاڑی
ɣ trigo; amargo; sigue; signo غ غیر
ʝ[1][2] ayuno; poyo ی (تقریباً) یونان
ɟʝ[1][2] cónyuge; abyecto ج (تقریباً)
k caña; laca; quise; kilo ک کیلو
l lino; alhaja; principal ل لال
ʎ[1][2] llave; pollo
m[3] madre; comer; campo; anfibio م مادری
ɱ[3] anfibio م بامسی
n[3] nido; anillo; anhelo; sin; álbum ن نیند
ɲ[3] ñandú; cañón; enyesar نیْـ (تقریباً) انسانیت
ŋ[3] cinco; venga; conquista ن٘گ رنگ
p pozo; topo پ ٹوپی
r[4] rumbo; carro; honra; amor; amor eterno عربی ر رب
ɾ[4] caro; bravo; amor eterno ر رستہ
s[5] saco; espita; xenón س سال
θ[5] cereal; encima; zorro; enzima; paz عربی ث ارتھ (تقریباً)، ثانية
t tamiz; átomo ت تمیز
chubasco; acechar چ چلو
v[6] afgano ڤ، انگریزی V افغانی (تقریباً)
x jamón; general; México;[7] hamster[8] خ ختم
z[6] isla; mismo; deshuesar ز زیر
Marginal phonemes
بـصـا مثالیں اردو قریباً
ʃ[9] show; Rocher; Freixenet ش شوک
ts abertzale; Pátzcuaro تسْ امرتسر (شہر)


مصوت
بـصـا مثالیں اردو قریباً
حرف مثال لفظ مثال
a azahar ◌َ، اَ، ـا، آ اژدھا
e vehemente ـیـ ، ے بین
i dimitir; mío; y ◌ِ، اِ، ◌ِـی، اِی، ی تِیسرا
o boscoso و، او بول
u cucurucho; dúo ◌ُ، ◌ُـو، اُو، و دُود
 
Semivowels[10]
بـصـا مثالیں اردو قریباً
حرف مثال لفظ مثال
j aliada; cielo; amplio; ciudad ی یاد
w[11] cuadro; fuego; Huila arduo وأ

(عربی و، انگریزی W)

ہوأ (تقریباً)
 
Stress and syllabification
بـصـا مثالیں اردو قریباً
ˈ ciudad [θjuˈðað] domain
. o [ˈmi.o] Mayan


Notes[ترمیم]

  1. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث /b, d, ɡ, ʝ/ are pronounced as the fricatives or approximants [β̞, ð̞, ɣ˕, ʝ˕] (represented here without the undertacks) in all places except after a pausa, after an /n/ or /m/ or, in the case of /d/ and /ʝ/, after an /l/, in which contexts they are stops [b, d, ɡ, ɟʝ], like English b, d, g, j, except that they are fully voiced in all positions unlike their English counterparts. When distinct from /ʝ/, /ʎ/ is realized as an approximant [ʎ] in all positions )[[#{{{REF}}}|]](.
  2. ^ ا ب پ Most Spanish speakers no longer distinguish /ʎ/ from /ʝ/; the actual realization depends on dialect, however. See yeísmo and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
  3. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ The nasal consonants /n, m, ɲ/ only contrast before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation, which is partially reflected in the orthography. The three do not contrast at the end of a word; depending on dialect, the صوتیہ nasal may appear as [n], [ŋ], or nasalization of the preceding vowel.
  4. ^ ا ب The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ and /r/ contrast only between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution, with [r] occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, and also represented here as before consonants, and word-finally (positions in which they vary); only [ɾ] is found elsewhere.
  5. ^ ا ب Northern and Central Spain still distinguish between ⟨s⟩ (/s/) and soft ⟨c⟩ or ⟨z⟩ (/θ/). Almost all other dialects treat the two as identical (which is called seseo) and pronounce them as /s/. There is a small number of speakers, mostly in southern Spain, who pronounce the soft ⟨c⟩, ⟨z⟩ and even ⟨s⟩ as /θ/, a phenomenon called ceceo. See phonological history of Spanish coronal fricatives and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
  6. ^ ا ب [v] and [z] are allophones of, respectively, /f/ and /s/ before voiced consonants.
  7. The letter ⟨x⟩ represents /x/ only in certain proper names like Ximena and some placenames in current or former Mexico (واخاکا, ٹیکساس).
  8. The letter ⟨h⟩ represents /x/ only in loanwords; in native words, it is always silent.
  9. /ʃ/ is used only in loanwords and certain proper nouns. It is nonexistent in many dialects, being realized as [] or [s]; e.g. show [tʃou]~[sou].
  10. The semivowels [w] and [j] can be combined with vowels to form rising diphthongs (e.g. cielo, cuadro). Falling diphthongs (e.g. aire, rey, auto) are transcribed with /i/ and /u/.
  11. Some speakers may pronounce word-initial [w] with an epenthetic [ɡ]; e.g. Huila [ˈɡwila]~[ˈwila].

References[ترمیم]

  • Martínez-Celdrán، Eugenio؛ Fernández-Planas، Ana Ma.؛ Carrera-Sabaté، Josefina (2003)، "Castilian Spanish"، Journal of the International Phonetic Association، 33 (2): 255–259 

External links[ترمیم]