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حرف صحیحs
معاونت:با ابجدیہ Examples English approximation
b[1] bestia; embuste; vaca; envidia; fútbol best
β bebé; obtuso; vivir; curva between baby and bevy
d[1] dedo; cuando; aldaba dead
ð diva; arder; admirar this
f fase; café face
ɡ[1] gato; lengua; guerra got
ɣ trigo; amargo; sigue; signo like go, but without completely blocking air flow on the g
ʝ[1][2] ayuno; poyo you
ɟʝ[1][2] cónyuge; abyecto job
k caña; laca; quise; kilo scan
l lino; alhaja; principal lean
ʎ[1][2] llave; pollo million
m[3] madre; comer; campo; anfibio mother
n[3] nido; anillo; anhelo; sin; álbum need
ɲ[3] ñandú; cañón; enyesar canyon
ŋ[3] cinco; venga; conquista sing
p pozo; topo spouse
r[4] rumbo; carro; honra; amor; amor eterno trilled r
ɾ[4] caro; bravo; amor eterno batter (American English)
s[5] saco; espita; xenón sack
θ[5] cereal; encima; zorro; enzima; paz thing
t tamiz; átomo stand
chubasco; acechar choose
v[6] afgano van
x jamón; general; México;[7] hamster[8] Scottish loch
z[6] isla; mismo; deshuesar quiz
Marginal phonemes
معاونت:با ابجدیہ Examples English approximation
ʃ[9] show; Rocher; Freixenet shack
ts abertzale; Pátzcuaro cats
Vowels
معاونت:با ابجدیہ Examples English approximation
a azahar father
e vehemente set
i dimitir; mío; y see
o boscoso sole
u cucurucho; dúo food
 
Semivowels[10]
معاونت:با ابجدیہ Examples English approximation
j aliada; cielo; amplio; ciudad yet
w[11] cuadro; fuego; Huila arduo wine
 
Stress and syllabification
معاونت:با ابجدیہ Examples English approximation
ˈ ciudad [θjuˈðað] domain
. o [ˈmi.o] Mayan

Notes[ترمیم]

  1. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث /b, d, ɡ, ʝ/ are pronounced as the fricatives or approximants [β̞, ð̞, ɣ˕, ʝ˕] (represented here without the undertacks) in all places except after a pausa, after an /n/ or /m/ or, in the case of /d/ and /ʝ/, after an /l/, in which contexts they are stops [b, d, ɡ, ɟʝ], like English b, d, g, j, except that they are fully voiced in all positions unlike their English counterparts. When distinct from /ʝ/, /ʎ/ is realized as an approximant [ʎ] in all positions )[[#{{{REF}}}|]](.
  2. ^ ا ب پ Most Spanish speakers no longer distinguish /ʎ/ from /ʝ/; the actual realization depends on dialect, however. See yeísmo and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
  3. ^ ا ب پ ت The nasal consonants /n, m, ɲ/ only contrast before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation, which is partially reflected in the orthography. The three do not contrast at the end of a word; depending on dialect, the صوتیہ nasal may appear as [n], [ŋ], or nasalization of the preceding vowel.
  4. ^ ا ب The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ and /r/ contrast only between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution, with [r] occurring word-initially, after /l/, /n/, and /s/, and also represented here as before consonants, and word-finally (positions in which they vary); only [ɾ] is found elsewhere.
  5. ^ ا ب Northern and Central Spain still distinguish between ⟨s⟩ (/s/) and soft ⟨c⟩ or ⟨z⟩ (/θ/). Almost all other dialects treat the two as identical (which is called seseo) and pronounce them as /s/. There is a small number of speakers, mostly in southern Spain, who pronounce the soft ⟨c⟩, ⟨z⟩ and even ⟨s⟩ as /θ/, a phenomenon called ceceo. See phonological history of Spanish coronal fricatives and Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:258) for more information.
  6. ^ ا ب [v] and [z] are allophones of, respectively, /f/ and /s/ before voiced consonants.
  7. The letter ⟨x⟩ represents /x/ only in certain proper names like Ximena and some placenames in current or former Mexico (واخاکا, ٹیکساس).
  8. The letter ⟨h⟩ represents /x/ only in loanwords; in native words, it is always silent.
  9. /ʃ/ is used only in loanwords and certain proper nouns. It is nonexistent in many dialects, being realized as [] or [s]; e.g. show [tʃou]~[sou].
  10. The semivowels [w] and [j] can be combined with vowels to form rising diphthongs (e.g. cielo, cuadro). Falling diphthongs (e.g. aire, rey, auto) are transcribed with /i/ and /u/.
  11. Some speakers may pronounce word-initial [w] with an epenthetic [ɡ]; e.g. Huila [ˈɡwila]~[ˈwila].

References[ترمیم]

  • Eugenio Martínez-Celdrán؛ Ana Ma. Fernández-Planas؛ Josefina Carrera-Sabaté، "Castilian Spanish"، Journal of the International Phonetic Association (2): 255–259

External links[ترمیم]