جدول بین الاقوامی اصواتی ابجدیہ برائے انگریزی لہجات

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عنوان "IPA for English" اس صفحے سے رجوع مکرر ہے۔ the help page regarding IPA for English on Wikipedia pages دیکھیے؛ Help:IPA for English۔

سانچہ:Copy to Wiktionary This concise chart shows the most common applications of the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) to represent انگریزی زبان pronunciations.

See Pronunciation respelling for English for phonetic transcriptions used in different dictionaries.

Chart[ترمیم]

This chart gives a partial system of diaphonemes for English. The symbols for the diaphonemes are given in bold, followed by their most common phonetic values. For the vowels, a separate phonetic value is given for each major dialect, and words used to name corresponding lexical sets are also given. The diaphonemes and lexical sets given here are based on RP and General American; they are not sufficient to express all of the distinctions found in other dialects, such as Australian English.

Dia-
phoneme
[1]
Phones Examples
IPA: English حرف صحیحs
p , p pen, spin, tip
b b but, web
t , t, ɾ, ʔ[2] two, sting, bet
d d, ɾ[3] do, odd
t͡ʃ t͡ʃʰ,   t͡ʃ chair, nature, teach
d͡ʒ d͡ʒ gin, joy, edge
k , k cat, kill, skin, queen, unique, thick
ɡ ɡ go, get, beg
f f fool, enough, leaf, off, photo
v v voice, have, of
θ θ, [4] thing, teeth
ð ð, [5] this, breathe, father
s s see, city, pass
z z zoo, rose
ʃ ʃ she, sure, session, emotion, leash
ʒ ʒ pleasure, beige, equation, seizure
x x loch (Scottish),[6] ugh [7]
h h, ɦ,[8] ç[9] ham
m m, ɱ[10] man, ham
n n no, tin
ŋ ŋ ringer, sing,[11] finger, drink
l l, ɫ,[12] ɤ[13] w, o, ʊ[14] left, bell
r ɹʷ, ɹ, ɾ,[15] ɻ, ʋ[16] run, very
w w we, queen
j j yes, nyala
hw ʍ, w[17] what
 
IPA: Marginal consonants
ʔ ʔ uh-oh
 
IPA: Reduced vowels[18]
ə Reduced /ʌ, æ, ɑ:, ɒ/
ɪ̈ (ɪ, ə) Reduced /ɪ, i:, ɛ, eɪ, aɪ/
ʊ̈ (ʊ, ə) Reduced /ʊ, u:/
ɵ (ə) Reduced /oʊ/
ɚ (ə) Reduced /ɜr, ɑr, ɔr/
IPA: English مصوتs and diphthongs
Dia-
phoneme
[1]
AuE[19]
Flag of آسٹریلیا
CaE
Flag of کینیڈا
GA[20][21][22]
Flag of ریاستہائے متحدہ
InE[23]
Flag of بھارت
IrE[24]
Flag of جمہوریہ آئرلینڈ
NZE[22][25]
Flag of نیوزی لینڈ
RP[26][27]
Flag of مملکت متحدہ
ScE[28]
Flag of سکاٹ لینڈ
SAE[29][30]
Flag of جنوبی افریقا
SSE
Flag of سنگاپور
WaE[31]
Flag of ویلز
Keyword Examples
æ æ,
Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "æ:" not found in list[32]
æ, ~ɛə[33] æ~ɛ ɑ~a~æ ɛ æ~a ɐ̟ a~æ~ɛ ɛ[34] a TRAP lad, bad, cat[35]
ɑ: or æ Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ä:" not found in list Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ä:" not found in list Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ɐ:" not found in list Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ɑ:" not found in list Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ä:" not found in list~Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ɑ:" not found in list~
Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ɒ:" not found in list~Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ɔ:" not found in list
ɑ[36] BATH pass, path, sample
ɑ: ɑ~ɒ ɑ~ä Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ɑ:" not found in list Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "a:" not found in list PALM father
ɒ ɔ ɒ~ä ɑ ɔ ɒ~ɔ ɔ ɒ̈~ʌ̈ ɔ ɒ LOT not, wasp
ɒ~ɔ~ɑ[37] ɒ̈~ʌ̈,
Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ɔ:" not found in list~Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "o:" not found in list
CLOTH off, loss, cloth, long, dog, chocolate[38]
ɔ: Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "o:" not found in list Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ɒ:" not found in list Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ɔ:" not found in list Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "o:" not found in list Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "o:" not found in list Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ɔ:" not found in list~Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "o:" not found in list Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ɒ:" not found in list THOUGHT law, caught, all, halt, talk
ə ə ə ə ə ɘ ə ə ə COMMA about
ɨ ɪ̈ ɪ ɨ ɨ KIT spotted
ɪ ɪ ɪ ɪ~i, ə[39] i, ɪ ɪ sit
i i i i ɪj e, i i Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "i:" not found in list HAPPY city
i: ɪi̯ i Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "i:" not found in list Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "i:" not found in list ɘi̯ ɪj i Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "i:" not found in list FLEECE see
Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "e:" not found in list meat
æɪ̯ eɪ̯~e Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "e:" not found in list æe̯ ɛɪ̯ e eɪ̯~ɛɪ̯~
æɪ̯~äɪ̯~
ʌɪ̯
e[40] Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "e:" not found in list FACE date
ei day, pain, whey, rein
ɛ e ɛ e~ɪ e~ɛ ɛ ɛ~e~ɪ ɛ, e[41] ɛ DRESS bed[42]
ɜr ɵ:(ɹ)~
ɘ:(ɹ)
ɝ~ɹ̩ ɜ:(ɾ)~äɾ ɔɹ~ʊɹ[43] ɵ:(ɹ)~
ø̞̈:(ɹ)~
œ̈:(ɹ)
ə:(ɹ)~
ɜ:(ɹ)
ʌɾ[43] ø̈:(ɹ)~
ø̞̈:(ɹ)~
ə:(ɹ)
ə(ɹ) ɜ:(ɾ) NURSE burn
ɛɹ[43] ɛɾ[43] herd, earth
ɪɹ[43] ɪɾ[43] bird
ər ə(ɹ) ɚ~ɹ̩ ə(ɾ) ɚ~ɹ̩ ɘ(ɹ) ə(ɹ) əɾ ə(ɹ) ə(ɾ) LETTER winner,massacre[44]
Dia-
phoneme
[1]
AuE
Flag of آسٹریلیا
CaE
Flag of کینیڈا
GA
Flag of ریاستہائے متحدہ
InE
Flag of بھارت
IrE
Flag of جمہوریہ آئرلینڈ
NZE
Flag of نیوزی لینڈ
RP
Flag of مملکت متحدہ
ScE
Flag of سکاٹ لینڈ
SAE
Flag of جنوبی افریقا
SSE
Flag of سنگاپور
WaE
Flag of ویلز
Keyword Examples
ʌ ä ʌ ʌ̈~ɐ̝ ə~ɜ ɞ, ʊ ɐ ə ~ ʌ ~ ɑ [45] ʌ ɐ~ä ɑ, ʌ ə~ɜ STRUT run, won, flood
ʊ ʊ ʊ~ɵ̠ ʊ~ɵ̠ ʉ ʊ~ʊ̈ u ʊ FOOT put
u: hood
u: Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ʉ:" not found in list Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "u:" not found in list Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ʉ:" not found in list ɵu̯ u̟:~Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ʉ:" not found in list~
Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "y:" not found in list
Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "u:" not found in list GOOSE through, you
ɪu[46] threw, yew
ju: jʉ: (j)u̟ ju: jʉ: ju̟:~jʉ: ju̟:~jʉ:~
jy:
ju cute, dew, ewe
ɑe̯~ɑɪ̯ aɪ̯, ɐɪ̯~ʌɪ̯][47] äɪ̯ ɔɪ̯ ɐe̯ ɑɪ̯ əi̯~ae̯ äɪ̯~Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ä:" not found in list~
ɑɪ̯~ɑ̟:
ai̯, ɑ[48] ai̯ PRICE my, wise, high

flight, mice

ɔɪ oɪ̯ ɔɪ̯ ɔɪ̯~oɪ̯ ɒɪ̯ ɒɪ̯~oɪ̯ oe̯ oɪ̯ oi̯ ɔɪ̯~ɒɪ̯ ɔi̯ ɒi̯ CHOICE boy, hoist
əʉ̯~ɐʉ̯ oʊ̯~o Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "o:" not found in list ɑʉ̯ əʊ̯ o ɛʊ̯~œʊ̯~
œʉ̯~œɤ̯̈~
œ:~ʌʊ̯
o[40] o: GOAT no, toe, soap
ou̯ tow, folk
ɔʊ̯ o~oə̯~oʊ̯ ɔʊ̯ əʊ̯~ɒʊ̯~ɔʊ̯ soul, roll, cold
æɔ̯~æʊ̯ äʊ̯, ʌu̯[47] äʊ̯~æʊ̯ äʊ̯ æu̯~ɛu̯ æɔ̯ au̯ ɘʉ̯ äʊ̯~Error using {{IPA symbol}}: "ä:" not found in list~
æʊ̯
au̯ MOUTH now, trout
ɑr ä:(ɹ) ɑɹ ä:(ɾ) a:ɹ~

ä:ɹ

ɐ:(ɹ) ɑ:(ɹ) ɐ̟ɾ ä:(ɹ)~ɑ:(ɹ)~
ɒ:(ɹ)~ɔ:(ɹ)
ɑ(ɹ) a:(ɾ) START arm, car
ɪər ɪ:(ɹ)~
ɪ:.ä(ɹ)
ɪɹ ~
iə̯ɹ
ɪə̯(ɾ)~
i:(ɾ)
i:ɹ iə̯(ɹ)~
ɪə̯(ɹ)
ɪə̯(ɹ)~
ɪ:(ɹ)
ɪə̯(ɹ)~
ɪ:(ɹ)
jə(ɹ) ɪə̯(ɾ) NEAR deer, here
ɛər e:(ɹ)~
e:.ä(ɹ)
ɛɹ ɛ(ə̯)ɹ~
ɛə̯(ɾ)~
e:(ɾ)
e:ɹ iə̯(ɹ)~
eə̯(ɹ)
ɛə̯(ɹ)~
ɛ:(ɹ)[49]
ɛə̯(ɹ)~
ɛ:(ɹ)~
e:(ɹ)
ɛ(ɹ) ɛ:(ɾ) SQUARE mare, there, bear
ɔr o:(ɹ) ɔɹ ɔɹ~ ɒ:(ɾ) ɑɹ o:(ɹ) o:(ɹ) ɔɾ ɔ:(ɹ)~
o:(ɹ)
ɔ(ɹ) ɒ:(ɾ) NORTH sort, warm
ɔər o:ɹ o:(ɾ) FORCE tore, boar, port
ʊər ʉ:.ə(ɹ)~
o:(ɹ)
ʊɹ ʊɹ~ɔɹ~ ʊə̯(ɾ)~
u:(ɾ)
u:ɹ,
o:ɹ
ʊɐ̯(ɹ)~
ʉ:.ɐ(ɹ)
ɵ:(ɹ)~
o:(ɹ)[50]
ʊə̯(ɹ)~
o:(ɹ)
wə(ɹ) ʊə̯(ɾ) CURE tour, moor
jʊər jʉ:.ə(ɹ)~
jo:(ɹ)
jʊɹ, jɝ jʊə̯(ɾ)~
ju:(ɾ)
juɹ, jo:ɹ jʊɐ̯(ɹ),
jʉ:.ɐ(ɹ)
jɵ:(ɹ)~
jo:(ɹ)
juɾ jʊə̯(ɹ),
jo:(ɹ)
jɔ(ɹ) ɪʊə̯(ɾ) pure, Europe
Dia-
phoneme
[1]
AuE
Flag of آسٹریلیا
CaE
Flag of کینیڈا
GA
Flag of ریاستہائے متحدہ
InE
Flag of بھارت
IrE
Flag of جمہوریہ آئرلینڈ
NZE
Flag of نیوزی لینڈ
RP
Flag of مملکت متحدہ
ScE
Flag of سکاٹ لینڈ
SAE
Flag of جنوبی افریقا
SSE
Flag of سنگاپور
WaE
Flag of ویلز
Keyword Examples
IPA: Other symbols used in transcription of English pronunciation
IPA Explanation
ˈ Primary stress indicator (placed before the stressed syllable); for example, rapping /ˈræpɪŋ/
ˌ Secondary stress/full vowel indicator (placed before the stressed syllable); for example, pronunciation /prəˌnʌnsiˈeɪʃən/
. ہجا separation indicator; for example, ice cream /ˈaɪs.kri:m/ vs. I scream /ˌaɪ.ˈskri:m/
̩ ̍ Syllabic consonant indicator (placed under the syllabic consonant); for example, ridden [ˈɹɪdn̩]

مزید دیکھیے[ترمیم]

حواشی[ترمیم]

  1. ^ ا ب پ ت This is a compromise IPA transcription, which covers most dialects of English.
  2. Pronounced [ɾ] in some positions in GA and Australian English, and is possible in RP in words like butter, [ʔ] in some positions in Scottish English, English English, American English and Australian English, and [t̞] non-initially in Irish English.
  3. Pronounced [ɾ] in some positions in GA and Australian English.
  4. Pronounced [t̪] in Irish English, Newfoundland English, and New York English, merges with /f/ in some varieties of English English, and merges with /t/ in some varieties of Caribbean English. [t̪] also occurs in other dialects as an allophone of /θ/.
  5. Pronounced [d̪] in Irish English, Newfoundland English, and New York English, merges with /v/ in some varieties of English English, and merges with /d/ in some varieties of Caribbean English. [d̪] also occurs in other dialects as an allophone of /ð/.
  6. Marginal elsewhere, and otherwise merged with /k/, see Lock–loch merger.
  7. This common English interjection is usually pronounced with [x] in unscripted spoken English, but it is most often read /ʌɡ/ or /ʌk/
  8. /h/ is often pronounced [ɦ] between vowel sounds and after voiced consonants
  9. /h/ is pronounced [ç] before the palatal approximant, /j/, and sometimes before high front vowels.
  10. /m/ is pronounced [ɱ] before f and v (e.g. symphony [ˈsɪɱfəni], circumvent [ˌsɝkəɱˈvɛnt], some value [ˌsʌɱˈvæɫju:])
  11. In some dialects (e.g. Brummie) "ringer", "sing" etc are pronounced with an additional /ɡ/, like "finger": /ˈɹɪŋɡə/ rather than /ˈɹɪŋə/
  12. [ɫ] traditionally does not occur in Irish English; [l] does not occur in Australian, New Zealand, Scottish, or American English. RP and some other English accents, along with South African English, however, have clear [l] in syllable onsets and dark [ɫ] in syllable rimes.
  13. L-vocalization as [ɤ] is prevalent in Standard Singapore English.
  14. L-vocalization as [w], [o], and [ʊ] occurs in New Zealand English and many regional accents not included in the chart. Notably Cockney, New York English, Estuary English, Pittsburgh English, and African-American Vernacular English.
  15. The tap [ɾ] is found in some varieties of Scottish and Irish English.
  16. R-labialization as [ʋ] is found in some varieties of Southern England.
  17. Some dialects, such as Scottish English, Hiberno-English, and much of the American South dialects, distinguish ʍ from w; see whine and wine and voiceless labiovelar approximant
  18. /ɔ:, aʊ, ɔɪ/ are never reduced. In some dialects, such as Australian, all reduced vowels become [ə].
  19. Harrington, Cox & Evans (1997)
  20. Kenyon, Knott & 1944/1953)
  21. Kenyon (1950)
  22. ^ ا ب Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009)
  23. Sailaja (2009:19–26)
  24. Wells (1982:422)
  25. Bauer et al. (2007:97–102)
  26. Roach (2004:241–243). See Pronunciation respelling for English#International Phonetic Alphabet for the alternative system devised by Clive Upton for Oxford University Press dictionaries.
  27. "Case Studies – Received Pronunciation Phonology – RP Vowel Sounds"۔ British Library۔ مورخہ 25 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔
  28. Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006:7)
  29. Bekker (2008)
  30. Lass (2002:111–119)
  31. Coupland (1990:93–136)
  32. See bad–lad split for this distinction.
  33. In most of the United States (with high dialectal variation), and to a lesser degree in Canada, special /æ/ tensing systems occur.
  34. Suzanna Bet Hashim and Brown, Adam (2000) 'The [e] and [æ] vowels in Singapore English'. In Adam Brown, David Deterding and Low Ee Ling (eds.) The English Language in Singapore: Research on Pronunciation, Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics ISBN 981-04-2598-8, pp. 84–92.
  35. Often transcribed /a/ for RP, for example in dictionaries of the اوکسفرڈ یونیورسٹی پریس.
  36. Deterding, David (2003) 'An instrumental study of the monophthong vowels of Singapore English', English World Wide, 24(1), 1–16.
  37. ɒ~ɔ occurs in American accents without the cot–caught merger (about half of today's speakers); the rest have ɑ.
  38. In American accents without the cot–caught merger, the LOT vowel (generally written o) appears as ɒ~ɔ instead of ɑ before the fricatives /f/, /θ/ and /s/ and the velar nasal /ŋ/; also usually before /ɡ/, especially in single-syllable words (dog, log, frog, etc.), and occasionally before /k/ (as in chocolate). See lot–cloth split. In American accents with the cot–caught merger (about half of today's speakers), only ɑ occurs.
  39. It is not clear whether this a true phonemic split, since the distribution of the two sounds is predictable; see Kit–bit split .
  40. ^ ا ب Deterding, David (2000) 'Measurements of the /eɪ/ and /oʊ/ vowels of young English speakers in Singapore'. In Adam Brown, David Deterding and Low Ee Ling (eds.), The English Language in Singapore: Research on Pronunciation, Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics, pp. 93–99.
  41. Tay Wan، Joo; Mary (1982). "'The phonology of educated Singapore English'". English World-Wide 3 (2): 135–45. doi:10.1075/eww.3.2.02tay. 
  42. Often transcribed /e/ for RP, for example in Collins English Dictionary.
  43. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث See Fern–fir–fur merger for this distinction.
  44. Sometimes transcribed for GA as [əɹ], especially in transcriptions that represent both rhotic and non-rhotic pronunciations, as [ə(ɹ)].
  45. The STRUT vowel in BrE is highly variable in the triangle defined by ə, ʌ and ɑ, see 'STRUT for Dummies'
  46. In Welsh English, you, yew and ewe are /ju:/, /jɪu/ and /ɪu/ respectively; in most other varieties of English they are homophones.
  47. ^ ا ب Canadian English has a phenomenon called Canadian raising in which raised diphthongs [ʌi̯] and [ʌu̯] are found before voiceless consonants, as in right [ɹʷʌi̯t] and out [ʌu̯t]; in other environments, [aɪ̯] and [aʊ̯] are used. In much of U.S. English, this happens with [ʌɪ̯], primarily when a voiceless consonant phoneme follows /aɪ̯/. For example, dike, life, and sight end with voiceless /k/, /f/, and /t/, so the diphthongs differ from those in wives and side, which have voiced /v/ and /d/. For some speakers, [ʌɪ̯] also occurs before voiced consonants when another syllable follows, but only when no morpheme break occurs; hence [ʌɪ̯] in tiger and/or spider, but [aɪ̯] in rider because -er is a separate morpheme. Most U.S. English distinguishes between writer [ˈɹʌɪ̯ɾəɹ] and rider [ˈɹaɪ̯ɾəɹ] purely based on this vowel difference.
  48. Lee, Ee May and Lim, Lisa (2000) ' Diphthongs in Singaporean English: their realisations across different formality levels, and some attitudes of listeners towards them. In Adam Brown, David Deterding and Low Ee Ling (eds.), The English Language in Singapore: Research on Pronunciation, Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics, pp. 100–111.
  49. While the actual pronunciation is [ɛə(ɹ) ~ ɛ:(ɹ)], it can also be transcribed /eə(ɹ)/.
  50. Roach (2004) notes that many people in England use [[[Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "o:" not found in list|o:]]] for this vowel, but also that RP traditionally distinguishes between maw /mɔ:/ and moor /mʊə/, tore /tɔ:/ and tour /tʊə/, as well as paw /pɔ:/ and poor /pʊə/. If one wishes to make that distinction today it would be best to use ɵ instead of ʊə. This will lead to tore as to: and tour as tɵ:.

حوالہ جات[ترمیم]

بیرونی روابط[ترمیم]