مشکلات (شمالی آئرلینڈ)

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مشکلات
The Troubles
تاریخ1968–1998[2][3][4][5]
مقامشمالی آئرلینڈ
Violence occasionally spread to the جمہوریہ آئرلینڈ, England, and mainland Europe
نتیجہ
محارب

State security forces


Irish republican paramilitaries

Supported by:
Libyan Arab Jamahiriya (arms shipments)

Ulster loyalist paramilitaries

Supported by:
Flag of South Africa (1928–1994).svg جنوبی افریقا (arms shipments)[1]
ہلاکتیں اور نقصانات

British Army: 705
 ∟(inc. UDR)
RUC: 301
NIPS: 24
TA: 7
Other UK police: 6
شاہی فضائیہ: 4
شاہی بحریہ: 2
Total: 1,049[8]


Irish Army: 1
Gardaí: 9
IPS: 1
Total: 11[8]
PIRA: 291
INLA: 39
OIRA: 27
IPLO: 9
RIRA: 2
Total: 368[8]
UDA: 91
UVF: 62
RHC: 4
LVF: 3
UR: 2[9]
Total: 162[8]
Civilians killed: 1,841[10] (or 1,935 inc. ex-combatants)[8]
Total dead: 3,532[10]
Total injured: 47,500+[11]
All casualties: around 50,000[12]

مشکلات (انگریزی: The Troubles) (آئرش: Na Trioblóidí) بیسویں صدی کے آخر میں شمالی آئر لینڈ میں ایک ایک نسلی-قوم پرستی تنازع تھا۔ [13][14][15][16] اسے بین الاقوامی طور پر شمال آئرلینڈ تنازع (انگریزی: Northern Ireland conflict) کے طور پر بھی جانا جاتا ہے، [17][18][19][20][21] ایک "گوریلا جنگ" یا "کم سطحی جنگ" تھی۔ [22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29]

حوالہ جات[ترمیم]

  1. https://www.washingtonpost.com/archive/politics/1989/08/28/international-arms-merchants-stock-both-sides-in-n-ireland/6a8e61de-2eee-463e-b416-810936eba8dd/?noredirect=on&utm_term=.b6a38f9519f6
  2. Frequently Asked Questions – The Northern Ireland Conflict, cain.ulst.ac.uk. Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  3. Arthur Aughey. The Politics of Northern Ireland: Beyond the Belfast Agreement, p. 7; ISBN 978-0-415-32788-6.
  4. "The troubles were over, but the killing continued. Some of the heirs to Ireland's violent traditions refused to give up their inheritance."
    Jack Holland: Hope against History: The Course of Conflict in Northern Ireland. Henry Holt & Company, 1999, p. 221; ISBN 0-8050-6087-1
  5. Gordon Gillespie, Historical Dictionary of the Northern Ireland Conflict, p. 250; ISBN 978-0-8108-5583-0.
  6. Peter Taylor. Behind the mask: The IRA and Sinn Féin, Chapter 21: Stalemate, pp. 246–61.
  7. "Ministry of Defence Annual Report and Accounts 2006–2007 HC 697" (PDF)۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 24 فروری 2016۔
  8. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ Malcolm Sutton's Index of Deaths from the Conflict in Ireland: Status of person killed. Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN). Retrieved 18 May 2017.
  9. Organizations: U (look under "Ulster Resistance"). Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN)
  10. ^ ا ب Malcolm Sutton's Index of Deaths from the Conflict in Ireland: Status summary. Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN)
  11. Security and defence-related statistics. Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN)
  12. "History – The Troubles – Violence"۔ BBC۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 26 مئی 2013۔
  13. Claire Mitchell۔ Religion, Identity and Politics in Northern Ireland۔ Ashgate Publishing۔ صفحہ 5۔ The most popular school of thought on religion is encapsulated in McGarry and O'Leary's Explaining Northern Ireland (1995), and it is echoed by Coulter (1999) and Clayton (1998). The central argument is that religion is an ethnic marker, but that it is not generally politically relevant in and of itself. Instead, ethnonationalism lies at the root of the conflict. Hayes and McAllister (1999a) point out that this represents something of an academic consensus.
  14. John McGarry & Brendan O'Leary۔ Explaining Northern Ireland۔ Wiley-Blackwell۔ صفحہ 18۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-631-18349-5۔
  15. Dermot Keogh (ویکی نویس.)۔ Northern Ireland and the Politics of Reconciliation۔ Cambridge University Press۔ صفحات 55–59۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-521-45933-4۔
  16. John Coakley۔ "ETHNIC CONFLICT AND THE TWO-STATE SOLUTION: THE IRISH EXPERIENCE OF PARTITION"۔ مورخہ 3 اپریل 2012 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 15 فروری 2009۔ ...these attitudes are not rooted particularly in religious belief, but rather in underlying ethnonational identity patterns.
  17. A Glossary of Terms Related to the Conflict. Conflict Archive on the Internet (CAIN). Quote: "The term 'the Troubles' is a euphemism used by people in Ireland for the present conflict. The term has been used before to describe other periods of Irish history. On the CAIN web site the terms 'Northern Ireland conflict' and 'the Troubles', are used interchangeably."
  18. Joanne McEvoy. The Politics of Northern Ireland. Edinburgh University Press, 2008. p. 1. Quote: "the Northern Ireland conflict, known locally as 'the Troubles', endured for three decades and claimed the lives of more than 3,500 people".
  19. David McKittrick & David McVea. Making Sense of the Troubles: A History of the Northern Ireland Conflict. Penguin, 2001.
  20. Gordon Gillespie. The A to Z of the Northern Ireland Conflict. Scarecrow Press, 2009.
  21. Aaron Edwards & Cillian McGrattan. The Northern Ireland Conflict: A Beginner's Guide. Oneworld Publications, 2012.
  22. "Who Won The War? Revisiting NI on 20th anniversary of ceasefires"۔ BBC۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 26 ستمبر 2014۔
  23. "Troubles 'not war' motion passed"۔ BBC۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 3 مارچ 2015۔
  24. "Frost over the World – "7:19 Paisley Describes Troubles As War""۔ YouTube۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 3 مارچ 2015۔
  25. Thomas Hennessey۔ The Northern Ireland peace process: ending the troubles?۔ Palgrave Macmillan۔ صفحہ 48۔ آئی ایس بی این 0312239491۔
  26. Arthur Aughey. The Politics of Northern Ireland: Beyond the Belfast Agreement, p. 7; ISBN 978-0-41532-788-6.
  27. Gordon Gillespie. Historical Dictionary of the Northern Ireland Conflict p. 250; ISBN 978-0810855830
  28. Marianne Elliot. The Long Road to Peace in Northern Ireland: Peace Lectures from the Institute of Irish Studies at Liverpool University. University of Liverpool Institute of Irish Studies, Liverpool University Press, 2007, pp. 2, 188; ISBN 1-84631-065-2.
  29. Michael Goodspeed. When reason fails: Portraits of armies at war: America, Britain, Israel, and the future. Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002, pp. 44, 61; ISBN 0-275-97378-6

بیرونی روابط[ترمیم]