شہر ریاست

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
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شہر ریاست (City-state) ایک آزاد یا خود مختار سیاسی وجود ہے جو کسی اور مقامی حکومت کے زیر انتظام نہیں، جس کا علاقہ ایک شہر اور عام طور پر اس کے ارد گرد کے علاقے پر مشتمل ہے۔[1][2]

عام طور پر مندرجہ ذیل کو شہر ریاست کہا جاتا ہے۔

دیگر جدید شہر ریاستوں کے طور مندرجہ ذیل کا حوالہ دیا جاتا ہے:

حوالہ جات[ترمیم]

  1. The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition۔ Houghton Mifflin Company۔ 2009۔ "A sovereign state consisting of an independent city and its surrounding territory." 
  2. Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged۔ HarperCollins Publishers۔ 2003۔ "a state consisting of a sovereign city and its dependencies. Among the most famous are the great independent cities of the ancient world, such as Athens, Sparta, Carthage, and Rome." 
  3. "The emblem of Malta, Department of Information, Official Website of President of Malta"۔ Doi.gov.mt۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 20 October 2013۔ 
  4. "This very crowded isle: England is most over-populated country in EU"ڈیلی میل
  5. "''Draft National Strategy for the Cultural and Creative Industries – Creative Malta''"۔ Creativemalta.gov.mt۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 20 October 2013۔ 
  6. Malta - یورپی مرکزی بینک
  7. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث Mogens, Hansen. 2000. "Introduction: The Concepts of City-States and City-State Culture." In A Comparative Study of Thirty City-State Cultures, Copenhagen: Copenhagen Polis Centre. Pg. 19
  8. Parker, Geoffrey. 2005. Sovereign City: The City-state Through History Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
  9. ^ ا ب پ Mogens, Hansen. 2002. A Comparative Study of Six City-State Cultures: An InvestigationPg. 91
  10. Mogens, Hansen. 2000. "Introduction: The Concepts of City-States and City-State Culture." In A Comparative Study of Six City-State Cultures, Copenhagen: Copenhagen Polis Centre. Pg. 19
  11. ^ ا ب پ ت Parker, Geoffrey. 2005. Sovereign City: The City-state Through History Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Pg. 219
  12. Roberts, David. 2014. Qatar: Securing the Global Ambitions of a City-state. London: C Hurst & Co Publishers Ltd.
  13. El-Katiri, Laura, Bassam Fattouh and Paul Segal. 2011 Anatomy of an oil-based welfare state: rent distribution in Kuwait. Kuwait City: Kuwait Programme on Development, Governance and Globalisation in the Gulf States