مجاہدین خلق

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
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People's Mojahedin Organization
سازمان مجاهدين خلق
مخففMKO, MEK, PMOI
رہنماMaryam Rajavi and Massoud Rajavi[ا]
سیکرٹری جنرلZohreh Akhyani[3]
نعرہعربی: فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ الْمُجَاهِدِينَ عَلَى الْقَاعِدِينَ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا "God Has Preferred The Mujahideen Over Those Who Remain [behind] With A Great Reward." [قرآن 4:95]
تاسیس5 ستمبر 1965؛ 55 سال قبل (1965-09-05)
تقسیم ازFreedom Movement[4]
صدر دفتر
پیرس، فرانس (1981–1986;[5] 2003–)
اخبارMojahed[6]
Military wingNational Liberation Army (NLA)
Political wingNational Council of Resistance (NCR)
رکنیت  (2011)5,000 to 13,500 (DoD estimate)[5]
نظریات
سیاسی حیثیتبایاں بازو
مذہباہل تشیع
جماعت کا پرچم
Flag of the People's Mujahedin of Iran.svg

Flag of the People's Mujahedin of Iran (Yellow).svg
ویب سائٹ
www.Mojahedin.org
مجاہدین خلق
Black ستمبر، انقلاب ایران، Iran hostage crisis، Consolidation of the Iranian Revolution، ایران عراق جنگ، 1991 uprisings in Iraq، 2003 invasion of Iraq، 2011 Camp Ashraf raid، 2013 Camp Ashraf attack، Iran–Israel proxy conflict، Iran–Saudi Arabia proxy conflict میں شریک
متحرک1971–1977[11]
1979[12]present[13]
Since 20 جون 1987 as NLA[14]
رہنماہان
کاروائیوں کے علاقےایران and عراق[18]
قوتBrigade (at peak)[19]
اتحادی
مخالفین
لڑائیاں اور جنگیںOperation Eternal Light

مجاہدین خلق ایران ایرانی نظام کی ایک مخالف تنظیم ہے جس کی بنیاد 1965ء میں چند جدت پسند ایرانیوں کے ہاتھوں پڑی، شاہ ایران کا تختہ الٹنے میں اس تنظیم نے اہم کردار ادا کیا، 80 کی دہائی کے شروع میں اس تنظیم نے اسلامی جمہوریہ ایران کے خلاف جنگ شروع کی تاکہ ایک ڈیموکریٹک اسلامی مملکت کا قیام عمل میں لایا جاسکے، ان کے عسکری کیمپ شمالی عراق میں ہیں، اس تنظیم کے حالیہ سربراہ مسعود رجوی ہیں۔

حوالہ جات[ترمیم]

حواشی
  1. Since 1993, they are “Co–equal Leader”[1] however Massoud Rajavi has disappeared in 2003 and leadership of the group has practically passed to his wife Maryam Rajavi.[2]
حوالہ جات
  1. Steven O'Hern (2012). Iran's Revolutionary Guard: The Threat That Grows While America Sleeps. Potomac Books, Inc. صفحہ 208. ISBN 1-59797-701-2. 
  2. Stephen Sloan؛ Sean K. Anderson (2009). Historical Dictionary of Terrorism. Historical Dictionaries of War, Revolution, and Civil Unrest (ایڈیشن 3). Scarecrow Press. صفحہ 454. ISBN 0-8108-6311-1. 
  3. "Annual Congress elects Zohreh Akhyani as new Secretary General". NCR Iran. 2011-09-08. 26 دسمبر 2018 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 05 جنوری 2013. 
  4. ^ ا ب Houchang E. Chehabi (1990). Iranian Politics and Religious Modernism: The Liberation Movement of Iran Under the Shah and Khomeini. I.B.Tauris. صفحہ 211. ISBN 1-85043-198-1. 
  5. ^ ا ب Aaron Schwartz (اپریل 2014). "National Security and the Protection of Constitutional Liberties: How the Foreign Terrorist Organization List Satisfies Procedural Due Process". The Penn State Journal of Law & International Affair 3 (1): 293–323. doi:ڈی او ئي. آئی ایس ایس این 2168-7951. http://elibrary.law.psu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1073&context=jlia. 
  6. Eileen Barker (2016). Revisionism and Diversification in New Religious Movements. Routledge. صفحہ 174. ISBN 1-317-06361-9. Looking at the original official ideology of the group, one notices some sort of ideological opportunism within their 'mix and match' set of beliefs. 
  7. ^ ا ب Mehrzad Boroujerdi (1996). Iranian Intellectuals and the West: The Tormented Triumph of Nativism. Syracuse University Press. صفحہ 117. ISBN 978-0-8156-0433-4. ۔۔۔the ideological worldview of Mojahedin rested upon two of the main characteristics of Iranian social thought at the time: nationalism and populism. 
  8. Bashiriyeh، Hossein. The State and Revolution in Iran (RLE Iran D). Taylor & Francis. صفحہ 74. ISBN 978-1-136-82089-2. Thus the Mojahedin's opposition to Western influence and its call for economic freedom from the West led it to reject the system of capitalism and to present a radical interpretation of Islam. This was also true of the radical Islamic nationalist movement as a whole. 
  9. Fred Reinhard Dallmayr (199). Border Crossings: Toward a Comparative Political Theory. Lexington Books. صفحہ 136. ISBN 978-0-7391-0043-1. To provide an Islamic justification for their populist program, Mojahedin often utilized the euphemism coined by Shariati. 
  10. Stephanie Cronin (2013). Reformers and Revolutionaries in Modern Iran: New Perspectives on the Iranian Left. Routledge. صفحہ 191. ISBN 1-134-32890-7. 
  11. Abrahamian، Ervand (1989). Radical Islam: The Iranian Mojahedin. I.B. Tauris. صفحات 171–172. ISBN 1-85043-077-2. 
  12. Mary Ann Tétreault؛ Ronnie D. Lipschutz (2009). Global Politics as if People Mattere. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. صفحہ 97. ISBN 0-7425-6658-7. US. military leaders in Iraq signed a cease-fire agreement with the MKO in اپریل 2003 that allowed it to keep all its weapons, including hundreds of tanks and thousands of light arms, as long as it did not attack US. forces 
  13. John H. Lorentz (2010). "Chronology". The A to Z of Iran. The A to Z Guide Series. 209. Scarecrow Press. صفحات جون 1978. ISBN 1-4617-3191-7. 
  14. Seyyed Hossein Mousavian (2008). "Iran-Germany Relations". Iran-Europe Relations: Challenges and Opportunities. Routledge. ISBN 1-134-06219-2. 
  15. ^ ا ب Tom Lansford (2015). "Iran". Political Handbook of the World 2015. CQ Press. ISBN 1-4833-7155-7. 
  16. "Honoring a Great Hero for Iran's Freedom, World Peace and Security: Hon. Edolphus Towns of New York in the House of Represetitives, 27 مارچ 2003". United States of America Congressional Record. Government Printing Office. 2003. صفحہ 7794. 
  17. ^ ا ب Mujahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK or MKO); National Liberation Army of Iran (NLA); People's Mojahedin of Iran (PMOI); National Council of Resistance (NCR); National Council of Resistance of Iran (NCRI); Muslim Iranian Student's Society، Global Security، اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 5 نومبر 2016  Check date values in: |access-date= (معاونت)
  18. Yaghoub Nemati Voroujeni (Summer 2012)، "Mujahadeen-e-Khalq (MEK) Organization in the Imposed War"، Negin-e-Iran (الفارسية میں)، 41 (11): 75–96 
  19. Mark Edmond Clark (2016)، "An Analysis of the Role of the Iranian Diaspora in the Financial Support System of the Mujahedin-e-Khalq"، بہ David Gold، Terrornomics، Routledge، صفحہ 65، ISBN 1-317-04590-4 
  20. *سیمور ہرش (5 اپریل 2012). "Our Men in Iran?". دی نیو یارکر. 26 دسمبر 2018 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 18 اگست 2016. 
  21. *Goulka, Jeremiah; Hansell, Lydia; Wilke, Elizabeth; Larson, Judith (2009). "The Mujahedin-e Khalq in Iraq: a policy conundrum" (PDF). RAND Corporation. ISBN 978-0-8330-4701-4. 
  22. Arie Perliger, William L. Eubank (2006)، "Terrorism in Iran and Afghanistan: The Seeds of the Global Jihad"، Middle Eastern Terrorism، Infobase Publishing، صفحات 41–42، ISBN 978-1-4381-0719-6 
  23. ^ ا ب United States. Dept. of State. International Information Administration. Documentary Studies Section, United States Information Agency, United States Information Agency. Special Materials Section, United States. International Communication Agency (1980). Problems of Communism. 29. Documentary Studies Section, International Information Administration. صفحہ 15. There is evidence that as earlt as 1969 it received arms and training from the PLO, especially Yasir Arafat's Fatah group. Some of the earliest Mojahedin supporters took part in black ستمبر in 1970 in Jordan. 
  24. ^ ا ب Mark Edmond Clark (2016)، "An Analysis of the Role of the Iranian Diaspora in the Financial Support System of the Mujahedin-e-Khalq"، بہ David Gold، Terrornomics، Routledge، صفحات 67–68، ISBN 1-317-04590-4 
  25. ^ ا ب Anoushiravan Ehteshami, Mahjoob Zweiri (2012)، Iran's Foreign Policy: From Khatami to Ahmadinejad، Sussex Academic Press، صفحہ 135، ISBN 0-86372-415-9 

کتابیات[ترمیم]

  • Abrahamian، Ervand (1982). Iran Between Two Revolutions. Princeton University Press. 
  • Abrahamian، Ervand (1989). Radical Islam: The Iranian Mojahedin. IB Tauris. 
  • Abrahamian، Ervand (Oct 1, 1992). The Iranian Mojahedin. Yale University Press. 26 دسمبر 2018 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 13 جون 2017. 
  • Keddie، Nikkie (1981). Roots of Revolution. 
  • Moin، Baqer (2001). Khomeini. Thomas Dunne. 
  • Stevenson، Struan (2015). Self-Sacrifice – Life with the Iranian Mojahedin. Birlinn, Edinburgh, ISBN 978 1 78027 288 7. 

بیرونی روابط[ترمیم]

سرکاری[ترمیم]

= دیگر[ترمیم]

سانچہ:Iranian exiled parties