نپولینی جنگیں

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
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نپولینی جنگیں
Napoleonic Wars
AusterlitzWaterloo
Top: Battle of Austerlitz
Bottom: جنگ واٹرلو
تاریخ18 مئی 1803 – 20 نومبر 1815 (1803-05-18 – 1815-11-20)
(12 سال، 5 مہینا، 4 ہفتہ)
مقامیورپ، بحر اوقیانوس، بحیرہ روم، بحیرہ شمال، ریو دے لا پلاتا، فرانسیسی گیانا، ویسٹ انڈیز، بحر ہند، شمالی امریکا، قفقاز
نتیجہ Coalition victory
Congress of Vienna
محارب
فرانسیسی سلطنت اول
Flag of فرانسیسی جمہوریہ اول فرانسیسی جمہوریہ اول (1792–1804)
Flag of فرانسیسی سلطنت اول فرانسیسی سلطنت اول (1804–1815)

کمانڈر اور رہنما
طاقت
  • 750,000 British under arms in total
  • 250,000 British regulars and militia at peak strength[20]
  • 320,000 Prussian regulars and militia at peak strength[21]
  • 900,000 Russian regulars, cossacks and militia at peak strength[22]
  • Unknown numbers of Austrians, Spaniards, Portuguese, Swedish and other coalition members
  • 3,000,000 French under arms in total
  • 1,200,000 French regulars and militia at peak strength[23]
  • 680,000 French and allied regulars at peak strength[24]
ہلاکتیں اور نقصانات
  • Italians: 120,000 killed or missing[25]
  • Spanish: more than 300,000 military deaths[25] — more than 586,000 killed[26]
  • Portuguese: up to 250,000 dead or missing[27]
  • British: 32,232 killed in action[28]
  • British: 279,574 killed by wounds, disease, accidents and other causes[28]
  • Russian: 289,000 killed in action[29]
  • Prussian: 134,000 killed in action[29]
  • Austrian: 550,220 killed in action (1792–1815)[29][30]
  • 371,000 killed in action[31]
  • 800,000 killed by disease, wounds, accidents and other causes[32]
  • 600,000 civilians killed[32]
  • 65,000 French allies killed[32]
  1. 1805, 1809, 1813–1815
  2. 1804–1807, 1812–1815
  3. 1806–1807, 1813–1815
  4. 1804–1809, 1812–1815
  5. 1808–1815
  6. 1800–1807, 1809–1815
  7. 1807–1812
  8. ^ ا ب پ نقص حوالہ: ٹیگ <ref>‎ درست نہیں ہے؛ 07-12 نامی حوالہ کے لیے کوئی مواد درج نہیں کیا گیا۔ (مزید معلومات کے لیے معاونت صفحہ دیکھیے)۔
  9. 1806–1815
  10. 1809
  11. ^ ا ب پ 1813–1815
  12. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ 1815
  13. 1806–1807, 1813–1814
  14. 1808–1813
  15. 1803–1808
  16. 1807–1814
  17. 1809–1813
  18. 1806–1809
  19. 1804–1807, 1812–1813
  20. 1810–1812
  21. ^ ا ب until the eve of the Battle of Leipzig، 1813
  22. until 1813

نپولینی جنگیں (انگریزی: Napoleonic Wars) فرانسیسی سلطنت اور اس کے اتحادیوں کو نقصان پہچانے والے بڑے تنازعات کا ایک سلسلہ تھا جس کی کمان نپولین کے ہاتھ میں تھی جبکہ اس کے مخالف یورپ کے مختلف اتحادی جن میں متحدہ مملکت کا بنیادی کردار تھا۔

حوالہ جات[ترمیم]

  1. James R. Arnold: Napoleon Conquers Austria: The 1809 Campaign for Vienna، ABC-Clio, 2003 [1]
  2. The Austrian Imperial-Royal Army (Kaiserliche-Königliche Heer) 1805–1809: The Hungarian Royal Army [2]
  3. Todd Fisher: The Napoleonic Wars: The Empires Fight Back 1808–1812، Oshray Publishing, 2001 [3]
  4. John Sainsbury۔ Sketch of the Napoleon Museum۔ London۔ صفحہ 15۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔
  5. Reich 1905، صفحہ۔ 622
  6. "Denmark"۔ World Statesmen۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 18 جنوری 2015۔
  7. "Norway"۔ World Statesmen۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 18 جنوری 2015۔
  8. نقص حوالہ: ٹیگ <ref>‎ درست نہیں ہے؛ Keith Haynes 2012 نامی حوالہ کے لیے کوئی مواد درج نہیں کیا گیا۔ (مزید معلومات کے لیے معاونت صفحہ دیکھیے)۔
  9. Schäfer, Anton (2002)۔ Zeittafel der Rechtsgeschichte. Von den Anfängen über Rom bis 1919. Mit Schwerpunkt Österreich und zeitgenössischen Bezügen (in German) (3 ed.)۔ Edition Europa Verlag. ISBN 3-9500616-8-1. p. 137
  10. Edward et al.، pp. 522-524
  11. "De Grondwet van 1815"۔ Parlement & Politiek (Dutch زبان میں)۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 26 جون 2014۔
  12. "The Royal Navy"۔ Britannica Online۔ Encyclopædia Britannica۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 15 فروری 2016۔
  13. "The Rise of Prussia 1700–1830"۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔
  14. Martin Collier۔ Italian unification, 1820–71۔ Heinemann Advanced History (اشاعت First۔)۔ Oxford: Heinemann۔ صفحہ 2۔ آئی ایس بی این 0-435-32754-2۔ The Risorgimento is the name given to the process that ended with the political unification of Italy in 1871
  15. Lucy Riall۔ The Italian Risorgimento: state, society, and national unification (اشاعت First۔)۔ London: Routledge۔ صفحہ 1۔ آئی ایس بی این 0-203-41234-6۔ The functional importance of the Risorgimento to both Italian politics and Italian historiography has made this short period (1815–60) one of the most contested and controversial in modern Italian history
  16. Jakob Walter, and Marc Raeff. The diary of a Napoleonic foot soldier۔ Princeton, N.J.، 1996.
  17. Martyn Lyons p. 234–36
  18. Payne 1973، صفحات۔ 432–433.
  19. Esdaile 2008، صفحہ۔ [صفحہ درکار].
  20. Chandler & Beckett, p. 132
  21. Blücher, scourge of Napoleon، Leggiere
  22. Riehn 1991، صفحہ۔ 50.
  23. John France۔ Perilous Glory: The Rise of Western Military Power۔ Yale UP۔ صفحہ 351۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔
  24. Correspondance générale – Tome 12: La campagne de Russie, 1812 Par Fondation Napoléon – https://books.google.com/books/about/Correspondance_g%C3%A9n%C3%A9rale_Tome_12.html?id=toua1U8uORQC&redir_esc=y
  25. ^ ا ب White 2014, Napoleonic Wars cites Urlanis 1971
  26. Canales 2004.
  27. White 2014 cites Payne
  28. ^ ا ب White 2014 cites Dumas 1923 citing Hodge
  29. ^ ا ب پ White 2014 cites Danzer
  30. White 2014 cites Clodfelter
  31. White 2014 cites Bodart 1916
  32. ^ ا ب پ Philo 2010.
  1. Hanover was in a Personal Union with Great Britain
  2. ^ ا ب The term "Austrian Empire" came into use after Napoleon crowned himself Emperor of the French in 1804, whereby Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor took the title Emperor of Austria (Kaiser von Österreich) in response. The مقدس رومی سلطنت was dissolved in 1806, and consequently "Emperor of Austria" became Francis' primary title. For this reason, "Austrian Empire" is often used instead of "Holy Roman Empire" for brevity's sake when speaking of the Napoleonic Wars, even though the two entities are not synonymous.
  3. ^ ا ب پ Both Austria and Prussia briefly became allies of France and contributed forces to the French Invasion of Russia in 1812.
  4. ^ ا ب Russia became an ally of France following the Treaty of Tilsit in 1807. The alliance broke down in 1810, which led to the French invasion in 1812. During that time Russia waged war against Sweden (1808–1809) and the Ottoman Empire (1806–1812)، and nominally against Britain (1807–1812)۔
  5. ^ ا ب Nominally, Sweden declared war against Great Britain after its defeat by Russia in the Finnish War (1808–1809)۔
  6. ^ ا ب پ Spain was an ally of France until a stealthy French invasion in 1808, then fought France in the Peninsular War۔
  7. ^ ا ب The Ottoman Empire fought against Napoleon in the French Campaign in Egypt and Syria as part of the French Revolutionary Wars۔ During the Napoleonic era of 1803 to 1815, the Empire participated in two wars against the Allies: against Britain in the Anglo-Turkish War (1807–1809) and against Russia in the Russo-Turkish War (1806–1812)۔ Russia was allied with Napoleon 1807–1810.
  8. ^ ا ب Qajar dynasty fought against Russia from 1804 to 1813; the Russians were allied with Napoleon 1807–1812.
  9. Sicily remained in personal union with Naples until Naples became a French client-republic following the Battle of Campo Tenese in 1806.
  10. The Kingdom of Hungary participated in the war with separate Hungarian regiments[1][2] in the Imperial and Royal Army, and also by a traditional army ("insurrectio")۔[3] The Hungarian Diet voted to join in war and agreed to pay one third of the war expenses.
  11. ^ ا ب Napoleon established the Duchy of Warsaw، ruled by the Kingdom of Saxony in 1807. Polish Legions had already been serving in the French armies beforehand.
  12. The French Empire annexed the مملکت ہالینڈ in 1810. Dutch troops fought against Napoleon during the Hundred Days in 1815.
  13. The French Empire annexed the مملکت اتروریا in 1807.
  14. The مملکت ناپولی، briefly allied with Austria in 1814, allied with France again and fought against Austria during the Neapolitan War in 1815.
  15. Sixteen of France's allies among the German states (including Bavaria and Württemberg) established the Confederation of the Rhine in جولائی 1806 following the Battle of Austerlitz (دسمبر 1805)۔ Following the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt (اکتوبر 1806)، various other German states that had previously fought alongside the anti-French allies, including Saxony and Westphalia, also allied with France and joined the Confederation. Saxony changed sides again in 1813 during the Battle of Leipzig، causing most other member-states to quickly follow suit and declare war on France.
  16. These four states[کون سا ؟] were the leading nations of the Confederation, but the Confederation was made up of a total of 43 principalities, kingdoms, and duchies.
  17. Denmark-Norway remained neutral until the Battle of Copenhagen (1807)۔ Denmark was compelled to cede Norway to Sweden by the Treaty of Kiel in 1814. Following a brief Swedish campaign against Norway، Norway entered a سویڈن و ناروے اتحاد with Sweden.