فہرست امریکی صدور

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
:چھلانگ بطرف رہنمائی، تلاش
وائٹ ہاؤس، صدر کی سرکاری رہائش گاہ اور انتظامیہ کا مرکز

امریکہ کے آئین کے تحت ریاست ہائے متحدہ امریکہ کا صدر ریاست اور حکومت کا سربراہ ہوتا ہے۔

فہرست صدور[ترمیم]

پارٹیز (جماعتیں)

      آزاد       فیڈرلسٹ       ڈیموکریٹک ریپبلکن       ڈیموکریٹک       وگ       ریپبلکن

No.
[n 1]
صدر قلمدان سنبھالا قلمدان چھوڑا پارٹی مدت
[n 1]
نائب صدر منصب[1]
1 Gilbert Stuart, George Washington (Lansdowne portrait, 1796).jpg جارج واشنگٹن
(1732–1799)
[2][3][4]
اپریل 30, 1789 مارچ 4, 1797 آراد 1 (1789)   جان ایڈمز "کوئی نہیں"
کانٹینینٹل فوج کے کمانڈر ان چیف (1775–1783)
2 (1792) صدر
2 Adamstrumbull.jpg جان ایڈمز
(1735–1826)
[5][6][7]
مارچ 4, 1797 مارچ 4, 1801 فیڈرلسٹ 3 (1796) ٹامس جیفرسن نائب صدر
3 Thomas Jefferson by Rembrandt Peale, 1800.jpg ٹامس جیفرسن
(1743–1826)
[8][9][10]
مارچ 4, 1801 مارچ 4, 1809 ڈیموکریٹک-
ریپبلکن
4 (1800) آرون بر نائب صدر
5 (1804) جارج کلنٹن صدر
4 James Madison.jpg جیمز میڈیسن
(1751–1836)
[11][12][13]
مارچ 4, 1809 مارچ 4, 1817 ڈیموکریٹک-
ریپبلکن
6 (1808) جارج کلنٹن[n 2]
مارچ 4, 1809 – اپریل 20, 1812
وزیر خارجہ
خالی[n 3]
<smallاپریل 20, 1812 – مارچ 4, 1813
7 (1812) ایلبرج گیری[n 2]
مارچ 4, 1813 – نومبر 23, 1814
صدر
خالی[n 3]
نومبر 23, 1814 – مارچ 4, 1817
5 James Monroe White House portrait 1819.gif جیمز مونرو
(1758–1831)
[14][15][16]
مارچ 4, 1817 مارچ 4, 1825 ڈیموکریٹک-
ریپبلکن
8 (1816) ڈینیل ڈی تھومکنس وزیر خارجہ
9 (1820) صدر
6 John Quincy Adams by GPA Healy, 1858.jpg جان کوئنسی ایڈمز
(1767–1848)
[17][18][19]
مارچ 4, 1825 مارچ 4, 1829 ڈیموکریٹک-
ریپبلکن
10 (1824) جان سی کالہون وزیر خارجہ
7 Andrew jackson head.jpg اینڈریو جیکسن
(1767–1845)
[20][21][22]
مارچ 4, 1829 مارچ 4, 1837 ڈیموکریٹک 11 (1828) جان سی کالہون[n 4]
مارچ 4, 1829 – دسمبر 28, 1832
"کوئی نہیں"
سینیٹر (1823–1825)
خالی[n 3]
دسمبر 28, 1832 – مارچ 4, 1833
12 (1832) مارٹن وان بورن صدر
8 Mvanburen.jpeg مارٹن وان بورن
(1782–1862)
[23][24][25]
مارچ 4, 1837 مارچ 4, 1841 ڈیموکریٹک 13 (1836) رچرڈ مینٹور جانسن نائب صدر
9 William Henry Harrison by James Reid Lambdin, 1835.jpg ولیم ہنری ہیریسن
(1773–1841)
[26][27][28]
مارچ 4, 1841 اپریل 4, 1841
[n 2]
وگ 14 (1840) جان ٹائلر "کوئی نہیں"
کولمبیا کے وزیر (1828–1829)
10
[n 5]
WHOportTyler.jpg جان ٹائلر
(1790–1862)
[29][30][31]
اپریل 4, 1841 مارچ 4, 1845 وگ
اپریل 4, 1841 – ستمبر 13, 1841
خالی[n 3] نائب صدر
آراد[n 6]
ستمبر 13, 1841 – مارچ 4, 1845
11 James Knox Polk by GPA Healy, 1858.jpg جیمز کے پوک
(1795–1849)
[32][33][34]
مارچ 4, 1845 مارچ 4, 1849 ڈیموکریٹک 15 (1844) جارج ایم ڈلاس "کوئی نہیں"
گورنر ٹینیسی (1839–1841)
12 Zachary Taylor by Joseph Henry Bush, c1848.jpg زچاری ٹیلر
(1784–1850)
[35][36][37]
مارچ 4, 1849 جولائی 9, 1850
[n 2]
وگ 16 (1848) میلارڈ فلمور "کوئی نہیں"[38]
13 Millard Fillmore by George PA Healy, 1857.jpg میلارڈ فلمور
(1800–1874)
[39][40][41]
جولائی 9, 1850 مارچ 4, 1853 وگ خالی[n 3] نائب صدر
14 Franklin Pierce by GPA Healy, 1858.jpg فرینکلن پیئرس
(1804–1869)
[42][43][44]
مارچ 4, 1853 مارچ 4, 1857 ڈیموکریٹک 17 (1852) ولیم آر کنگ[n 2]
مارچ 4, 1853 – اپریل 18, 1853
"کوئی نہیں"
سینیٹر (1837–1842)
خالی[n 3]
اپریل 18, 1853 – مارچ 4, 1857
15 JamesBuchanan crop.jpg جیمز بکانن
(1791–1868)
[45][46][47]
مارچ 4, 1857 مارچ 4, 1861 ڈیموکریٹک 18 (1856) جان سی بریکنریج "کوئی نہیں"
امریکہ برطانیہ کے سفیر (1853–1856)
16 Lincoln by George H Story c1915.jpg ابراہام لنکن
(1809–1865)
[48][49][50]
مارچ 4, 1861 اپریل 15, 1865
[n 7]
ریپبلکن 19 (1860) ہینبل ہیملن "کوئی نہیں"
ایوان نمائندگان کے رکن (1847–1849)
ریپبلکن
نیشنل یونین[n 8]
20 (1864) انڈریو جانسن صدر
17 Andrew Johnson.jpg انڈریو جانسن
(1808–1875)
[51][52][53]
اپریل 15, 1865 مارچ 4, 1869 ڈیموکریٹک
نیشنل یونین;[n 8]
آراد[n 9]
خالی
[n 3]
نائب صدر
18 Ulysses S. Grant.jpg اولیسس ایس گرانٹ
(1822–1885)
[54][55][56]
مارچ 4, 1869 مارچ 4, 1877 ریپبلکن 21 (1868) سکایلر کولفیکس فوج کے کمانڈنگ جنرل
22 (1872) ہینری ولسن[n 2]
مارچ 4, 1873 – نومبر 22, 1875
صدر
خالی[n 3]
نومبر 22, 1875 – مارچ 4, 1877
19 Rhayes.jpeg ردرفورڈ بی ہیز
(1822–1893)
[57][58][59]
مارچ 4, 1877 مارچ 4, 1881 ریپبلکن 23 (1876) ولیم اے وہیلر گورنر اوہائیو
20 James Garfield portrait.jpg جیمز گارفیلڈ
(1831–1881)
[60][61][62]
مارچ 4, 1881 ستمبر 19, 1881
[n 7]
ریپبلکن 24 (1880) چیسٹر اے آرتھر ایوان نمائندگان کے رکن
21 Chester A Arthur by Daniel Huntington crop.jpeg چیسٹر اے آرتھر
(1829–1886)
[63][64][65]
ستمبر 19, 1881 مارچ 4, 1885 ریپبلکن خالی[n 3] نائب صدر
22 Grover Cleveland portrait2.jpg گروور کلیولینڈ
(1837–1908)
[66][67]
مارچ 4, 1885 مارچ 4, 1889 ڈیموکریٹک 25 (1884) تھامس اے ہینڈرکس[n 2]
مارچ 4, 1885 – نومبر 25, 1885
گورنر نیو یارک
خالی[n 3]
نومبر 25, 1885 – مارچ 4, 1889
23 Benjamin Harrison by Eastman Johnson (1895).jpg بنجمن ہیریسن
(1833–1901)
[68][69][70]
مارچ 4, 1889 مارچ 4, 1893 ریپبلکن 26 (1888) لیوی پی مورٹن "کوئی نہیں"
سینیٹر (1881–1887)
24 Grover Cleveland portrait2.jpg گروور کلیولینڈ
(1837–1908)
[66][67]
مارچ 4, 1893 مارچ 4, 1897 ڈیموکریٹک 27 (1892) ادلائی سٹیونسن اول "کوئی نہیں"
صدر (1885–1889)
25 Official White House portrait of William McKinley.jpg ولیم میک کنلے
(1843–1901)
[71][72][73]
مارچ 4, 1897 ستمبر 14, 1901
[n 7]
ریپبلکن 28 (1896) گیرٹ ہوبارٹ[n 2]
مارچ 4, 1897 – نومبر 21, 1899
گورنر
خالی[n 3]
نومبر 21, 1899 – مارچ 4, 1901
29 (1900) تھیوڈور روزویلٹ صدر
26 TRSargent.jpg تھیوڈور روزویلٹ
(1858–1919)
[74][75][76]
ستمبر 14, 1901 مارچ 4, 1909 ریپبلکن خالی[n 3] نائب صدر
30 (1904) چارلس ڈبلیو فیئر بینکس صدر
27 TaftOfficial Portrait.jpg ولیم ہاورڈ ٹافٹ
(1857–1930)
[77][78][79]
مارچ 4, 1909 مارچ 4, 1913 ریپبلکن 31 (1908) جیمز ایس شیرمین[n 2]
مارچ 4, 1909 – اکتوبر 30, 1912
وزیر جنگ
خالی[n 3]
اکتوبر 30, 1912 – مارچ 4, 1913
28 Ww28.jpg ووڈرو ولسن
(1856–1924)
[80][81][82]
مارچ 4, 1913 مارچ 4, 1921 ڈیموکریٹک 32 (1912) تھامس آر مارشل گورنر نیو جرسی
33 (1916)
29 Wh29.gif وارن جی ہارڈنگ
(1865–1923)
[83][84][85]
مارچ 4, 1921 اگست 2, 1923
[n 2]
ریپبلکن 34 (1920) کیلون کولج سینیٹر
30 Calvin Coolidge.jpg کیلون کولج
(1872–1933)
[86][87][88]
اگست 2, 1923 مارچ 4, 1929 ریپبلکن خالی[n 3] نائب صدر
35 (1924) چارلس جی ڈاس صدر
31 Herbert Clark Hoover by Greene, 1956.jpg ہربرٹ ہوور
(1874–1964)
[89][90][91]
مارچ 4, 1929 مارچ 4, 1933 ریپبلکن 36 (1928) چارلس کرٹس وزیر خزانہ
32 Franklin Roosevelt - Presidential portrait.jpg فرینکلن ڈی روزویلٹ
(1882–1945)
[92][93][94]
مارچ 4, 1933 (1933-03-04) اپریل 12, 1945 (1945-04-12)
[n 2]
ڈیموکریٹک 37 (1932)
[n 10]
جان نینس گارنر گورنر نیویارک
38 (1936) صدر
39 (1940) ہنری اے والیس
40 (1944) ہیری ٹرومین
33 HarryTruman.jpg ہیری ٹرومین
(1884–1972)
[95][96][97]
اپریل 12, 1945 جنوری 20, 1953 ڈیموکریٹک خالی[n 3] نائب صدر
41 (1948) آلبن ڈبلو برکلے صدر
34 Dwight D. Eisenhower, official Presidential portrait.jpg ڈیوائٹ ڈی آئزن ہاور
(1890–1969)
[98][99][100]
جنوری 20, 1953 جنوری 20, 1961
[n 11]
ریپبلکن 42 (1952) رچرڈ نکسن "کوئی نہیں"
سپریم الائیڈ کمانڈر یورپ (1949–1952)
43 (1956) صدر
35 John F Kennedy Official Portrait.jpg جان ایف کینیڈی
(1917–1963)
[101][102][103]
جنوری 20, 1961 نومبر 22, 1963
[n 7]
ڈیموکریٹک 44 (1960) لنڈن بی جانسن سینیٹر
36 37 Lyndon Johnson 3x4.jpg لنڈن بی جانسن
(1908–1973)
[104][105]
نومبر 22, 1963 جنوری 20, 1969 ڈیموکریٹک خالی[n 3] نائب صدر
45 (1964) ہیوبرٹ ہمفری
جنوری 20, 1965 – جنوری 20, 1969
صدر
37 Richard Nixon - Presidential portrait.jpg رچرڈ نکسن
(1913–1994)
[106][107][108]
جنوری 20, 1969 اگست 9, 1974
[n 4]
ریپبلکن 46 (1968) سپیرو ایگنیو[n 4]
جنوری 20, 1969 – اکتوبر 10, 1973
"کوئی نہیں"
نائب صدر (1953–1961)
47 (1972)
خالی[n 3]
اکتوبر 10, 1973 – دسمبر 6, 1973
صدر
جیرالڈ فورڈ
دسمبر 6, 1973 – اگست 9, 1974
38 Gerald Ford.jpg جیرالڈ فورڈ
(1913–2006)
[109][110][111]
اگعت 9, 1974 جنوری 20, 1977 ریپبلکن خالی[n 3]
اگست 9, 1974 – دسمبر 19, 1974
نائب صدر
نیلسن راکفیلر
دسمبر 19, 1974 – جنوری 20, 1977
39 Jimmy Carter.jpg جمی کارٹر
(1924– )
[112][113][114]
جنوری 20, 1977 جنوری 20, 1981 ڈیموکریٹک 48 (1976) والٹر مونڈیال "کوئی نہیں"
گورنر جارجیا (1971–1975)
40 Official Portrait of President Reagan 1981.jpg رونالڈ ریگن
(1911–2004)
[115][116][117]
جنوری 20, 1981 جنوری 20, 1989 ریپبلکن 49 (1980) جارج ایچ ڈبلیو بش "کوئی نہیں"
گورنر کیلی فورنیا (1967–1975)
50 (1984) صدر
41 George H. W. Bush, President of the United States, 1989 official portrait.jpg جارج ایچ ڈبلیو بش
(1924– )
[118][119][120]
جنوری 20, 1989 جنوری 20, 1993 ریپبلکن 51 (1988) ڈین کوئیل نائب صدر
42 Bill Clinton.jpg بل کلنٹن
(1946– )
[121][122][123]
جنوری 20, 1993 جنوری 20, 2001 ڈیموکریٹک 52 (1992) ایل گور گورنر آرکنساس
53 (1996) صدر
43 George-W-Bush.jpeg جارج ڈبلیو بش
(1946– )
[124][125][126]
جنوری 20, 2001 جنوری 20, 2009 ریپبلکن 54 (2000) ڈک چینی گورنر ٹیکساس
55 (2004) صدر
44 Official portrait of Barack Obama.jpg بارک اوبامہ
(1961– )
[127][128][129]
جنوری 20, 2009 موجودہ ڈیموکریٹک 56 (2008) جو بائیڈن سینیٹر
57 (2012) صدر

بقید حیات سابق صدور[ترمیم]

اکتوبر ۲۰۱۲ کے مطابق

صدر عہدے کی مدت تاریخ پیدائش
جمی کارٹر 1977–1981 1 اکتوبر 1924 (1924-10-01) ‏(90)
جارج ایچ ڈبلیو بش 1989–1993 12 جون 1924 (1924-06-12) ‏(90)
بل کلنٹن 1993–2001 19 اگست 1946 (1946-08-19) ‏(68)
جارج ڈبلیو بش 2001–2009 6 جولائی 1946 (1946-07-06) ‏(68)

حوالہ جات[ترمیم]

  1. ^ منصب بوقت رائے شماری بطور صدر، اگر کوئی نہیں، مطلب آخری منصب
  2. ^ The قصر سفید (March 12, 2007). "Biography of George Washington". Whitehouse.gov. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/georgewashington/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  3. ^ "George Washington – no Political Party – 1st President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/washington. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  4. ^ "George Washington (February 22, 1732 – December 14, 1799)". American Presidents: Life Portraits. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/gwashington.asp. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  5. ^ "Biography of John Adams". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnadams/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  6. ^ "John Adams – Federalist Party – 2nd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/adams. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  7. ^ "John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=2. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  8. ^ "Biography of Thomas Jefferson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/thomasjefferson/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  9. ^ "Thomas Jefferson – Democratic-Republican Party – 3rd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/jefferson. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  10. ^ "Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=3. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  11. ^ "Biography of James Madison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamesmadison/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  12. ^ "James Madison – Democratic-Republican Party – 4th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/madison. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  13. ^ "James Madison (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=4. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  14. ^ "Biography of James Madison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamesmonroe/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  15. ^ "James Monroe – Democratic-Republican Party – 5th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/monroe. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  16. ^ "James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=5. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  17. ^ "Biography of John Quincy Adams". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnquincyadams/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  18. ^ "John Quincy Adams – Federalist, Democratic-Republican, National Republican, WHIG Party – 6th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/johnqadams. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  19. ^ "John Quincy Adams (July 11, 1767 – February 23, 1848)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=6. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  20. ^ "Biography of Andrew Jackson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/andrewjackson/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  21. ^ "Andrew Jackson – Democratic-Republican Party – 7th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/jackson. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  22. ^ "Andrew Jackson (March 15, 1767 – June 8, 1845)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=7. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  23. ^ "Biography of Martin Van Buren". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/martinvanburen/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  24. ^ "Martin Van Buren – Democratic-Republican, Democratic, and Free Soil Party – 8th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/vanburen. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  25. ^ "Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=8. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  26. ^ "Biography of William Henry Harrison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/williamhenryharrison/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  27. ^ "William Henry Harrison – WHIG Party – 9th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/williamhenryharrison. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  28. ^ "William Henry Harrison (February 9, 1773 – April 4, 1841)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=9. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  29. ^ "Biography of John Tyler". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johntyler/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  30. ^ "John Tyler – آراد – 10th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/tyler. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  31. ^ "John Tyler (March 29, 1790 – January 18, 1862)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=10. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  32. ^ "Biography of James Polk". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamespolk/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  33. ^ "James Polk – Democratic Party – 11th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/polk. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  34. ^ "James K. Polk (November 2, 1795 – June 15, 1849)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=11. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  35. ^ "Biography of Zachary Tyler". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/zacharytaylor/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  36. ^ "Zachary Taylor – WHIG Party – 12th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/taylor. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  38. ^ Taylor was a soldier who had never held any public or senior military office.
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  40. ^ "Millard Filmore – WHIG Party – 13th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/fillmore. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  42. ^ "Biography of Franklin Pierce". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/franklinpierce/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  43. ^ "Franklin Pierce – Democratic Party – 14th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/pierce. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  45. ^ "Biography of James Buchanan". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamesbuchanan/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  48. ^ "Biography of Abraham Lincoln". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/abrahamlincoln/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  51. ^ "Biography of Andrew Johnson". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/andrewjohnson/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  54. ^ "Biography of Ulysses S. Grant". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/ulyssessgrant/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  57. ^ "Biography of Rutherford B. Hayes". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/rutherfordbhayes/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  58. ^ "Rutherford B. Hayes – Republican Party – 19th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/hayes. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  60. ^ "Biography of James Garfield". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jamesgarfield/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  61. ^ "James Garfield – Republican Party – 20th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/garfield. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  63. ^ "Biography of Chester Arthur". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/chesterarthur/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  64. ^ "Chester A. Arthur – Republican Party – 21st President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/arthur. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  65. ^ "Chester A. Arthur (October 5, 1829 – November 18, 1886)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=21. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  66. ^ 66.0 66.1 "Grover Cleveland – Democratic Party – 22nd and 24th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/cleveland. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  68. ^ "Biography of Benjamin Harrison". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/benjaminharrison/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  69. ^ "William Henry Harrison – Whig Party – 23rd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/benjaminharrison. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  71. ^ "Biography of William McKinley". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/williammckinley/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  72. ^ "William McKinley – Republican Party – 25th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/mckinley. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  74. ^ "Biography of Theodore Roosevelt". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/theodoreroosevelt/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  77. ^ "Biography of William Howard Taft". Whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/williamhowardtaft/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  78. ^ "William Howard Taft – Republican Party – 27th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/taft. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  80. ^ "Biography of Woodrow Wilson". Whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/woodrowwilson/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  83. ^ "Biography of Warren G. Harding". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/warrenharding/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  84. ^ "Warren Harding – Republican Party – 29th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/wilson. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  86. ^ "Biography of Calvin Coolidge". Whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/calvincoolidge/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  87. ^ "Calvin Coolidge – Republican Party – 30th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/wilson. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  89. ^ "Biography of Herbert Hoover". Whitehouse.gov. March 13, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/herberthoover/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  92. ^ "Biography of Franklin D. Roosevelt". Whitehouse.gov. March 20, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/franklindroosevelt/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  93. ^ "Franklin D. Roosevelt – Democratic Party – 32nd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/fdr. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  94. ^ "Franklin D. Roosevelt (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=31. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  95. ^ "Biography of Harry S Truman". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/harrystruman/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  96. ^ "Harry S Truman – Democratic Party – 33rd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/fdr. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  97. ^ "Harry S Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=32. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  98. ^ "Biography of Dwight D. Eisenhower". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/dwightdeisenhower/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  99. ^ "Dwight D. Eisenhower – Democratic Party – 34th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/eisenhower. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  100. ^ "Dwight D. Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=33. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  101. ^ "Biography of John F. Kennedy". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/johnfkennedy/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  102. ^ "John F. Kennedy – Democratic Party – 35th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/kennedy. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  103. ^ "John F. Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=34. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  104. ^ "Lyndon B. Johnson – Democratic Party – 36th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/kennedy. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  105. ^ "Lyndon B. Johnson (August 27, 1908 – January 22, 1973)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=35. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  106. ^ "Richard M. Nixon". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/richardnixon/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
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  109. ^ "Biography of Gerald R. Ford". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/geraldford/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  110. ^ "Gerald Ford – Republican Party – 38th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/ford. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  111. ^ "Gerald R. Ford (July 14, 1913 – December 26, 2006)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=37. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  112. ^ "Biography of Jimmy Carter". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/jimmycarter. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  113. ^ "Jimmy Carter – Democratic Party – 39th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/ford. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  114. ^ "Jimmy Carter (October 1, 1924 – )". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=38. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  115. ^ "Biography of Ronald Reagan". Whitehouse.gov. June 25, 2008. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/ronaldreagan/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  116. ^ "Ronald Reagan – Republican Party – 40th President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/ford. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  117. ^ "Ronald Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004)". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=39. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  118. ^ "Biography of George Herbert Walker Bush". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/georgehwbush/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  119. ^ "George H. W. Bush – Republican Party – 41st President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/georgebush. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  120. ^ "George Bush (June 12, 1924 – )". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=40. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  121. ^ "Biography of William J. Clinton". Whitehouse.gov. March 12, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/williamjclinton/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  122. ^ "Bill Clinton – Democratic Party – 42nd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/billclinton. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  123. ^ "Bill Clinton (August 19, 1946 – )". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=41. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  124. ^ "Biography of President George W. Bush". Whitehouse.gov. February 25, 2007. http://www.whitehouse.gov/about/presidents/georgewbush/. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  125. ^ "George W. Bush – Republican Party – 43rd President – American Presidents". History. http://www.history.com/presidents/georgewbush. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  126. ^ "George W. Bush (July 6, 1946 – )". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=42. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 
  127. ^ "President Barack Obama". Whitehouse.gov. January 20, 2009. http://www.whitehouse.gov/administration/president_obama/. Retrieved January 20, 2009. 
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  129. ^ "Barack Obama (August 4, 1961 – )". American Presidents: Life Portrait. C-SPAN. http://americanpresidents.org/presidents/president.asp?PresidentNumber=43. Retrieved January 12, 2009. 


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