نوبل انعام یافتہ لامذہب شخصیات کی فہرست

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
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مندرجہ ذیل فہرست میں نوبل انعام یافتہ لامذہب شخصیات کی فہرست دی گئی ہے۔ مالالہ یوسف زاءی

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  1. Gordon Stein (ویکی نویس.)۔ The Encyclopedia of unbelief۔ Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books۔ صفحہ 594۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-87975-307-8۔ Svante Arrhenius (I859-I927)، recipient of the Nobel Prize in chemistry (I903)، was a declared atheist.۔۔
  2. Boyer, Paul D.، "A Path to Atheism"، Freethought Today، Freedom From Religion Foundation (2)، اخذ شدہ بتاریخ مارچ 16, 2010۔
  3. Francis Perrin۔ "Joliot, Frédéric"۔ Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography۔ Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons۔ صفحہ 151۔ Raised in a completely nonreligious family, Joliot never attended any church and was a thoroughgoing atheist all his life.
  4. Francis Perrin۔ "Joliot-Curie, Irène"۔ Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography۔ Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons۔ صفحہ 157۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 16 اکتوبر 2015۔ It was to her grandfather, a convinced freethinker, that Irène owed her atheism, later politically expressed as anticlericalism. |archiveurl= اور |archive-url= ایک سے زائد مرتبہ درج ہے (معاونت); |archivedate= اور |archive-date= ایک سے زائد مرتبہ درج ہے (معاونت)
  5. "50 Renowned Academics Speaking About God"۔ JPararajasingham۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 14 مئی 2012۔
  6. "Herbert Hauptman"۔ The Telegraph۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 15 اکتوبر 2015۔ Outside the field of scientific research, he was known for his outspoken atheism: belief in God, he once declared, is not only incompatible with good science, but is "damaging to the wellbeing of the human race."
  7. Cardellini، Liberato (اکتوبر 2007). "Looking for Connections: An Interview with Roald Hoffmann" (pdf). Journal of Chemical Education 84 (10): 1631–1635. doi:10.1021/ed084p1631. http://www.roaldhoffmann.com/sites/all/files/documents/24/cardellini.pdf۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 15 اکتوبر 2015. ""atheist who is moved by religion."". 
  8. Harold W. Kroto۔ "Harold Kroto – Autobiography"۔ Nobelprize.org, The Official Web Site of the Nobel Prize۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ مارچ 24, 2012۔ I am a devout atheist – nothing else makes any sense to me and I must admit to being bewildered by those, who in the face of what appears so obvious, still believe in a mystical creator. |archiveurl= اور |archive-url= ایک سے زائد مرتبہ درج ہے (معاونت); |archivedate= اور |archive-date= ایک سے زائد مرتبہ درج ہے (معاونت)
  9. Ehsan Masood۔ "Islam's reformers"۔ Prospect۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 15 اکتوبر 2015۔ It is a scene I won’t forget in a hurry: Jean-Marie Lehn, French winner of the Nobel prize in chemistry, defending his atheism at a packed public conference at the new Alexandria Library in Egypt
  10. "Peter Mitchell – Biographical"۔ The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1978۔ Nobelprize.org۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 15 اکتوبر 2015۔
  11. "Today, I consider myself, in Thomas Huxley's terms, an agnostic. I don’t know whether there is a God or creator, or whatever we may call a higher intelligence or being. I don’t know whether there is an ultimate reason for our being or whether there is anything beyond material phenomena. I may doubt these things as a scientist, as we cannot prove them scientifically, but at the same time we also cannot falsify (disprove) them. For the same reasons, I cannot deny God with certainty, which would make me an atheist. This is a conclusion reached by many scientists." George Olah, A Life of Magic Chemistry
  12. edited by Jürgen Kocka۔ Work in a Modern Society the German Experience in European-American Perspective.۔ New York: Berghahn Books, Inc.۔ صفحہ 45۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-1-84545-797-6۔
  13. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث ج چ ح G. R. Pafumi۔ Is Our Vision of God Obsolete?: Often What We Believe Is Not What We Observe۔ 2010: Xlibris Corporation۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-1-4500-0396-4۔
  14. ^ ا ب Linus Pauling؛ Daisaku Ikeda؛ Richard L. Gage۔ In quest of peace and the century of life : a dialogue between Linus Pauling and Daisaku Keda۔ Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers۔ صفحات 21–22۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-86720-278-6۔
  15. "Max Perutz Interview 2"۔ The Vega Science Trust.۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 19 جون 2013۔
  16. "Perutz rubbishes Popper and Kuhn"۔ TSL EDUCATION LTD.۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 19 جون 2013۔ Dr Perutz, said: "It is one thing for scientists to oppose creationism which is demonstrably false but quite another to make pronouncements which offend people's religious faith -- that is a form of tactlessness which merely brings science into disrepute. My view of religion and ethics is simple: even if we do not believe in God, we should try to live as though we did."
  17. István Hargittai؛ Magdolna Hargittai۔ Candid science II: conversations with famous biomedical scientists۔ London: Imperial College Press۔ صفحات 73–83۔ آئی ایس بی این 1-86094-288-1۔
  18. Michael Smith۔ "Michael Smith – Biographical"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 15 اکتوبر 2015۔ My only prizes from the Sunday School were "for attendance"، so I presume my atheism, which developed when I left home to attend university, although latent, was discernible.
  19. Randy L. Wysong۔ The creation-evolution controversy.۔ Midlanding, Michigan: Inquiry Press۔ صفحہ 75۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-918112-02-6۔
  20. Lanny Ebenstein۔ Milton Friedman a biography۔ New York: Palgrave Macmillan۔ صفحہ 9۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-230-60345-5۔
  21. Elzinga، Kenneth G.; Givens، Matthew R. (Spring 2009). "Christianity and Hayek". Faith & Economics (53): 53–68. 
  22. Sylvia Nasar۔ A Beautiful Mind۔ Faber & Faber۔ صفحہ 64۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-571-26607-4۔
  23. Judith S. Palfrey۔ Child health in America : making a difference through advocacy۔ Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University۔ صفحہ 123۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-8018-8453-5۔
  24. Anthony Cronin۔ Samuel Beckett : the last modernist۔ New York: Da Capo Press۔ صفحہ 90۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-306-80898-2۔ They were both agnostics, though both set a high associative value on the language in which the traditional religions of their forebears had been expressed, and in conversation and writing were not averse to ironic reference to certain metaphysical concepts.
  25. Paulson، Arthur C. (1930). "Bjørnson and the Norwegian-Americans, 1880–81". Studies and Records (Norwegian-American Historical Association) 5: 84–109. http://www.naha.stolaf.edu/pubs/nas/volume05new/vol5_06.htm۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 15 اکتوبر 2015. 
  26. ^ ا ب پ ت Dan Barker۔ The good atheist : living a purpose-filled life without God۔ Berkeley, CA: Ulysses Press۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-1-56975-846-5۔
  27. John Robert Maze۔ Albert Camus : plague and terror, priest and atheist۔ Bern: Peter Lang۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-3-0343-0006-3۔
  28. Collins، Joseph (Fall 2015). "Anatole France". VQR 91 (4). http://www.vqronline.org/articles/1925/spring/collins-anatole-france/۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 15 اکتوبر 2015. 
  29. Ramesh Chopra۔ Academic Dictionary Of Philosophy۔ Gyan Books۔ صفحہ 142۔ آئی ایس بی این 9788182052246۔ His agnosticism is best seen in his 'Moods, Songs, and Doggerels'۔
  30. Nancy Topping Bazin (ویکی نویس.)۔ Conversationwith Nadine Gordimer۔ London: University Press of Mississippi۔ صفحہ 151۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-87805-445-9۔
  31. Gao Xingjian۔ "Nobel Lecture – Literature 2000"۔ Nobelprize.org, The Official Web Site of the Nobel Prize۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ مارچ 24, 2012۔ … I would like to say that despite my being an atheist I have always shown reverence for the unknowable.
  32. Adam Feinstein۔ Pablo neruda.۔ Bloomsbury Publishing USA۔ صفحات 36, 38, 97۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-1-59691-781-1۔
  33. John Patrick Diggins۔ Eugene O'Neill's America desire under democracy۔ Chicago: University of Chicago Press۔ صفحہ 130۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-226-14882-3۔ O'Neill, an agnostic and an anarchist, maintained little hope in religion or politics and saw institutions not serving to preserve liberty but standing in the way of the birth of true freedom.
  34. Jean-Paul Sartre۔ Existentialism and human emotions۔ New York: Philosophical Library۔ صفحہ 15۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-8065-0902-0۔
  35. "Wole Soyinka"۔ Academy of Archievement۔ Washington D.C.۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 20 دسمبر 2013۔
  36. Wole Soyinka۔ Climate of Fear: The Quest for Dignity in a Dehumanized World۔ Random House LLC۔ صفحہ 119۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-307-43082-3۔ I already had certain agnostic tendencies—which would later develop into outright atheistic convictions— so it was not that I believed in any kind of divine protection.
  37. Susan F. Beegel؛ Susan Shillinglaw؛ Wesley N. Tiffney, Jr.۔ Steinbeck and the Environment Interdisciplinary Approaches.۔ Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press۔ صفحہ 159۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-8173-5487-9۔
  38. Jackson J. Benson۔ The true adventures of John Steinbeck, writer: a biography۔ Viking Press۔ صفحہ 248۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-670-16685-5۔ Ricketts did not convert his friend to a religious point of view — Steinbeck remained an agnostic and, essentially, a materialist — but Ricketts's religious acceptance did tend to work on his friend, …
  39. Fernanda Eberstadt۔ "José Saramago, Nobel Prize-Winning Portuguese Writer, Dies at 87"۔ نیو یارک ٹائمز۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 15 اکتوبر 2015۔
  40. Martin Ceadel۔ Living the great illusion : Sir Norman Angell, 1872–1967۔ Oxford: Oxford University Press۔ صفحہ 22۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-19-957116-1۔
  41. Tom Behan۔ Dario Fo : revolutionary theatre۔ London: Pluto۔ صفحہ 103۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-7453-1362-7۔
  42. "Gorbachev a closet Christian?"۔ Chicago Tribune۔ مورخہ 11 مئی 2008 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔
  43. Gorelik, Gennady؛ Antonina W. Bouis۔ The World of Andrei Sakharov: A Russian Physicist's Path to Freedom۔ Oxford University Press۔ صفحہ 356۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-19-515620-1۔ Apparently Sakharov did not need to delve any deeper into it for a long time, remaining a totally nonmilitant atheist with an open heart.
  44. Gorelik, Gennadiĭ Efimovich؛ Antonina W. Bouis۔ The World of Andrei Sakharov: A Russian Physicist's Path to Freedom۔ Oxford University Press۔ صفحہ 158۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-19-515620-1۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 27 مئی 2012۔ Sakharov was not invited to this seminar. Like most of the physicists of his generation, he was an atheist.
  45. Todd K. Shackelford, Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford (ویکی نویس.)۔ The Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Perspectives on Violence, Homicide, and War۔ Oxford University Press۔ صفحہ 465۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-19-973840-3۔ The Soviet dissident most responsible for defeating communism, Andrei Sakharov, was an atheist.
  46. Elie Wiesel Wiesel۔ And the sea is never full memoirs 1969-۔ New York: Alfred Knopf۔ صفحہ 318۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-307-76409-6۔
  47. "Prominent Russians: Zhores Alferov"۔ RT.com۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 21 اپریل 2012۔ In public life the scientist is a strong supporter of communism, an atheist strongly objecting to advancement of religious education in Russia, and proponent of science and knowledge as the means to see a better future.
  48. "Zhores I. Alferov"۔ NNDB.com۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 21 اپریل 2012۔
  49. "Nuclear power is uniquely unforgiving: as Swedish Nobel physicist Hannes Alfvén said, "No acts of God can be permitted."" Amory Lovins, Inside NOVA – Nuclear After Japan: Amory Lovins، pbs.org۔
  50. Helge Kragh۔ Matter and Spirit in the Universe: Scientific and Religious Preludes to Modern Cosmology۔ OECD Publishing۔ صفحہ 252۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-1-86094-469-7۔ Alfven dismissed in his address religion as a "myth," and passionately criticized the big-bang theory for being dogmatic and violating basic standards of science, to be no less mythical than religion.
  51. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث ج چ ح خ د ڈ ذ ر​ ڑ​ ز ژ س ش ص نقص حوالہ: ٹیگ <ref>‎ درست نہیں ہے؛ Kimball نامی حوالہ کے لیے کوئی مواد درج نہیں کیا گیا۔ (مزید معلومات کے لیے معاونت صفحہ دیکھیے)۔
  52. Philip W. Anderson۔ More and different notes from a thoughtful curmudgeon۔ Singapore: World Scientific۔ صفحہ 177۔ آئی ایس بی این 9789814350143۔ We atheists can ۔ ۔ ۔ argue that, with the modern revolution in attitudes toward homosexuals, we have become the only group that may not reveal itself in normal social discourse.
  53. Dennis Brian۔ The Voice of Genius: Conversations with Nobel Scientists and Other Luminaries۔ Basic Books۔ صفحہ 117۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-465-01139-1۔
  54. Mary Jo Nye۔ "Blackett, Patrick Maynard Stuart"۔ بہ Charles Coulston Gillispie۔ Complete dictionary of scientific biography۔ Detroit, Mich.: Charles Scribner's Sons۔ صفحہ 293۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-684-31559-1۔ The grandson of a vicar on his father’s side, Blackett respected religious observances that were established social customs, but described himself as agnostic or atheist.
  55. "50 Renowned Academics Speaking About God"۔ JPararajasingham۔ مورخہ 6 جنوری 2019 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 12 مئی 2012۔
  56. John Simmons۔ "Niels Bohr and the atom 1885–1962"۔ The scientific 100 : a ranking of the most influential scientists, past and present۔ New York, N.Y.: Kensington Pub. Corp.۔ صفحہ 16۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-8065-2139-8۔ His mother was warm and intelligent, and his father, as Bohr himself later recalled, recognized "that something was expected of me." The family was not at all devout, and Bohr became an atheist.۔۔
  57. Richard Peterson۔ "The Copenhagen spirit of science and birth of the nuclear atom"۔ بہ Melville Y. Stewart۔ Science and religion in dialogue۔ Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell۔ صفحہ 416۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-1-4443-1736-7۔ ۔۔۔ after a youth of confirming faith Bohr himself was a non-believer.
  58. David Favrholdt۔ "Niels Bohr and realism"۔ بہ Jan Faye؛ Henry J. Folse۔ Niels Bohr and Contemporary Philosophy۔ Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands۔ صفحہ 88۔ آئی ایس بی این 9789401581066۔ Planck was religious and had a firm belief in God; Bohr was not, but his objection to Planck's view had no anti-religious motive.
  59. "Percy Williams Bridgman"۔ NNDB.com۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 24 اپریل 2012۔ He was raised in the Congregational Church, but faith in God clashed with his well-known analytical nature and he told his family as a young man that he could not in good conscience become a church member.
  60. Maila L. Walter۔ Science and Cultural Crisis: An Intellectual Biography of Percy Williams Bridgman (1882–1961)۔ Stanford University Press۔ صفحات 14–15۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-8047-1796-0۔ Raymond Bridgman was extremely disappointed with his son's rejection of his religious views. Near the end of his life, however, he offered a conciliatory interpretation that allowed him to accept Percy's commitment to honesty and integrity as a moral equivalent to religion. |access-date= requires |url= (معاونت)
  61. Ray Monk۔ Robert Oppenheimer: A Life Inside the Center۔ Random House LLC۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-385-50413-3۔ In many ways they were opposites; Kemble, the theorist, was a devout Christian, while Bridgman, the experimentalist, was a strident atheist.
  62. Andrew Brown۔ The neutron and the bomb : a biography of Sir James Chadwick۔ Oxford: Oxford University Press۔ صفحہ 362۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-19-853992-6۔ He was a lifelong atheist and felt no need to develop religious faith as he approached the end.۔۔
  63. Vishveshwara، C. V. (اپریل 2000). "Leaves from an unwritten diary: S. Chandrasekhar, Reminiscences and Reflections". Current Science 78 (8): 1025–1033. http://www.iisc.ernet.in/currsci/apr252000/generalia.pdf۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 16 اکتوبر 2015. "In his later years, Chandra had openly admitted to being an atheist which also meant that he subscribed to no religion in the customary sense of the word.". 
  64. Werner Heisenberg۔ Physics and beyond : encounters and conversations۔ New York: Harper & Row۔ آئی ایس بی این 0-06-131622-9۔ ۔۔۔ Dirac said: "I cannot understand why we idle discussing religion. If we are honest — and as scientists honesty is our precise duty — we cannot help but admit that any religion is a pack of false statements, deprived of any real foundation. The very idea of God is a product of human imagination.[…] I do not recognize any religious myth, at least because they contradict one another.[…]" Pauli jokingly said: "Well, I'd say that also our friend Dirac has got a religion and the first commandment of this religion is: God does not exist and Paul Dirac is his prophet."
  65. Helen Dukas؛ Banesh Hoffmann (ویکی نویس.)۔ Albert Einstein, the human side : new glimpses from his archives۔ Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press۔ صفحہ 43۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-691-02368-7۔ It was, of course, a lie what you read about my religious convictions, a lie which is being systematically repeated. I do not believe in a personal God and I have never denied this but have expressed it clearly. If something is in me which can be called religious then it is the unbounded admiration for the structure of the world so far as our science can reveal it.
  66. ^ ا ب پ Alice Calaprice (ویکی نویس.)۔ The expanded quotable Einstein۔ Princeton, NJ: مطبع جامعہ پرنسٹن۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-691-07021-6۔
  67. Nancy K. Frankenberry۔ The faith of scientists in their own words۔ Princeton: مطبع جامعہ پرنسٹن۔ صفحہ 153۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-691-13487-1۔
  68. Richard P. Feynman۔ Ralph Leighton, ویکی نویس.۔ "What Do You Care What Other People Think?": Further Adventures of a Curious Character۔ W. W. Norton & Company۔ صفحہ 25۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-393-07981-4۔ The elders began getting nervous, because I was an avowed atheist by that time
  69. "Val Fitch"۔ NNDB.com۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 18 جولائی 2012۔
  70. David Nachmansohn۔ German-Jewish pioneers in science, 1900–1933.۔ Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer۔ صفحہ 62۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-387-90402-3۔ As he said, science was his God and nature his religion. He did not insist that his daughters attend religious instruction classes (Religionsunterricht) in school. But he was very proud of his Jewish heritage.۔
  71. Brigham Narins۔ Notable Scientists from 1900 to the Present: D-H۔ Gale Group۔ صفحہ 797۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-7876-1753-0۔ Although Gabor's family became Lutherans in 1918, religion appeared to play a minor role in his life. He maintained his church affiliation through his adult years but characterized himself as a "benevolent agnostic"۔
  72. "The family adopted the Lutheran faith in 1918, and although Gabor nominally remained true to it, religion appears to have had little influence in his life. He later acknowledged the role played by an antireligious humanist education in the development of his ideas and stated his position as being that of a “benevolent agnostic.”" "Gabor, Dennis." Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 2008. Encyclopedia.com. (30 جنوری 2012)۔ [1]
  73. Herman Wouk۔ The language God talks on science and religion۔ New York, NY: Little, Brown and Co.۔ صفحہ 17۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-316-09675-1۔
  74. Vitaly Ginzburg۔ "Vitaly L. Ginzburg – Autobiography"۔ Nobelprize.org, The Official Web Site of the نوبل انعام۔ مورخہ 6 جنوری 2019 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ مارچ 24, 2012۔ I am an atheist, that is, I think nothing exists except and beyond nature. Within the limits of my, undoubtedly insufficient knowledge of the history of philosophy, I do not see in fact any difference between atheism and the pantheism of Spinoza.
  75. نقص حوالہ: ٹیگ <ref>‎ درست نہیں ہے؛ JPararajasingham نامی حوالہ کے لیے کوئی مواد درج نہیں کیا گیا۔ (مزید معلومات کے لیے معاونت صفحہ دیکھیے)۔
  76. Ian Sample۔ "The god of small things"۔ London: The Guardian۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 21 مارچ 2013۔ The name has stuck, but makes Higgs wince and raises the hackles of other theorists. "I wish he hadn't done it," he says. "I have to explain to people it was a joke. I'm an atheist, but I have an uneasy feeling that playing around with names like that could be unnecessarily offensive to people who are religious."
  77. "Gerardus `t Hooft – Science Video Interview"۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 25 اپریل 2012۔ When asked by the interviewer about his view of the universe and the design or non-design of the universe, Hooft replied, "Well absolutely amazing fact that it seems that the entire universe is now in grasp of theoretical physics. It still highly premature to make theories that includes how the big bang originated as and things like that. Although, people are tying that every day. ۔۔۔As far as I'm concerned, everything seems to behave completely rationally. The laws of physics is all we need to understand how the universe got into being. And then eventually we end up with this religious question as to why is the universe is the way it is and how can it be it is a place for humans to live in, that is a miracle. I don't have really any answers here, but as a physicist I've learn to appreciate the fact that everything seems to have totally rational explanations and as far as I'm concerned, I expect the entire universe now also to be something you can explain in completely rational terms. That what I expect now, just because of past experience."
  78. "Gerardus `t Hooft – Science Video Interview"۔ مورخہ 9 جنوری 2019 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 25 اپریل 2012۔ When asked by the interviewer about his belief in an afterlife, Hooft replied, "Well, such beliefs I think I related to religions of the past and I don't think that notions such as 'afterlife' has any.۔۔scientific basis. Not in terms of modern science. So I can only say no."
  79. Herbert Kroemer۔ "Herbert Kroemer – Science Video Interview"۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ Interviewer: "You have no belief in a afterlife?" Kroemer: "That's correct." Interviewer: "۔۔۔You don't see the evidence of a designer?" Kroemer: "No, I don't." Interviewer: "Could you say more about it?" Kroemer: "I think it's just wishful thinking."
  80. Henry F. Schaefer۔ Science and Christianity : conflict or coherence?۔ Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia۔ صفحہ 9۔ آئی ایس بی این 0-9742975-0-X۔ I present here two examples of notable atheists. The first is Lev Landau, the most brilliant Soviet physicist of the twentieth century.
  81. Dan Falk۔ "What About God?"۔ Universe on a T-Shirt: The Quest for the Theory of Everything۔ Arcade Publishing۔ صفحہ 195۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-1-55970-733-6۔ "Physics isn't a religion. If it were, we'd have a much easier time raising money." - Leon Lederman
  82. Babu Gogineni۔ "It's the Atheist Particle, actually"۔ Postnoon News۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 10 جولائی 2012۔ Leon Lederman is himself an atheist and he regrets the term, and Peter Higgs who is an atheist too, has expressed his displeasure, but the damage has been done!
  83. John D. Barrow۔ The book of nothing : vacuums, voids, and the latest ideas about the origins of the universe۔ New York: Vintage Books۔ صفحہ 136۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-375-72609-5۔
  84. Q&A: Russian Nobel Laureate on Fun, God and the 'Ideal Physicist'
  85. Bernard Valeur, Jean-Claude Brochon۔ New Trends in Fluorescence Spectroscopy: Applications to Chemical and Life Sciences۔ Springer۔ صفحہ 17۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-3-540-67779-6۔ Jean and Francis Perrin held similar political and philosophical ideas. Both were socialists and atheists. |access-date= requires |url= (معاونت)
  86. Walter Moore۔ A life of Erwin Schrödinger۔ Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press۔ صفحہ 86۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-521-46934-0۔ Schopenhauer often called himself an atheist, as did Schrodinger, and if Buddhism and Vedanta can be truly described as atheistic religions, both the philosopher and his scientific disciple were indeed atheists. They both rejected the idea of a "personal God" …
  87. Andrea Diem-Lane۔ Spooky Physics: Einstein vs. Bohr۔ MSAC Philosophy Group۔ صفحہ 68۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-1-56543-080-8۔ In terms of religion, Schrodinger fits in the atheist camp. He even lost a marriage proposal to his love, Felicie Krauss, not only due to his social status but his lack of religious affiliation. He was known as a freethinker who did not believe in god.
  88. The International Academy of Humanism at the website of the Council for Secular Humanism. Retrieved 18 اکتوبر 2007. Some of this information is also at the International Humanist and Ethical Union website
  89. Istva ́n Hargittai, Magdolna Hargittai۔ Candid Science VI: More Conversations with Famous Scientists۔ Imperial College Press۔ صفحہ 749۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-1-86094-885-5۔ Jack Steinberger: "I'm now a bit anti-Jewish since my last visit to the synagogue, but my atheism does not necessarily reject religion."
  90. Ginzburg, V. L.۔ About Science, Myself and Others۔ CRC Press۔ صفحہ 253۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-7503-0992-9۔ Nowadays, when we are facing manifestations of religious and. more often, pseudoreligious feelings, it is appropriate to mention that Igor Evgenevich was a convinced and unreserved atheist.
  91. Feinberg, E. L. and Leonidov, A. V.۔ Physicists: Epoch and Personalities۔ World Scientific۔ صفحہ 86۔ آئی ایس بی این 9789812834164۔
  92. Ana Elena Azpurua۔ "In Search of the God Particle"۔ Newsweek۔ صفحہ 3۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ مارچ 25, 2008۔ I don't believe in God, but I don't make a religion out of not believing in God. I don't organize my life around that.
  93. Jesse Hong Xiong۔ "Seven"۔ The Outline of Parapsychology۔ Rowman & Littlefield۔ صفحہ 322۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-7618-4945-2۔ When a reporter asked him: “Do you believe there is a Creator who creates all in the universe?" Professor Chen Ning Yang (1922- )، a Chinese Nobel Prize winner in physics in 1957, answered: “I think it is hard for me to directly say 'yes' or 'no'۔ I can only say that when we more and more understand the wonderful structures in the nature, no matter whether we directly or indirectly ask the question, there does exist the question you ask: is there someone or God who takes charge of all? I think it is a question that will never be finally answered. (The reporter asked: 'Is it because what man knows is too limited?') On one hand, yes; on the other hand, we can have a feeling that the universe will not be created so wonderful without an ultimate goal.” Professor Yang held agnosticism here.
  94. Carl F Craver۔ "Axelrod, Julius"۔ Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography۔ Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons۔ صفحہ 122۔ Although he became an atheist early in life and resented the strict upbringing of his parents’ religion, he identified with Jewish culture and joined several international fights against anti-Semitism.
  95. Robert W. Baloh۔ "Robert Bárány and the controversy surrounding his discovery of the caloric reaction"۔ Neurology.org۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 14 مئی 2012۔ Although anti-Semitism was again on the rise in Austria, it is unlikely that anti-Semitism was a factor in the hostility toward Bárány because he was an agnostic who did not believe in Zionism. |archiveurl= اور |archive-url= ایک سے زائد مرتبہ درج ہے (معاونت); |archivedate= اور |archive-date= ایک سے زائد مرتبہ درج ہے (معاونت)
  96. "J. Michael Bishop"۔ NNDB.com۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 18 جولائی 2012۔
  97. Francis Crick۔ What mad pursuit : a personal view of scientific discovery۔ New York: Basic Books۔ صفحہ 10۔ آئی ایس بی این 0-465-09138-5۔
  98. Francis Crick۔ "How I Got Inclined Towards Atheism"۔ Atheist Centre 1940–1990 Golden Jubilee International Conference Souvenir۔ Vijayawada, India: Positive Atheism۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 15 اکتوبر 2015۔
  99. Steyn، Mark (اکتوبر 2004). "The Twentieth-Century Darwin". The Atlantic Monthly. http://www.theatlantic.com/doc/200410/steyn. 
  100. Siegel، Ralph M.; Callaway، Edward M. (2004). "Francis Crick's Legacy for Neuroscience: Between the α and the Ω". PLoS Biology 2 (12): e419. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020419. "Francis Crick was an evangelical atheist.". 
  101. Roger Highfield۔ "Do our genes reveal the hand of God?"۔ The Telegraph۔ مورخہ 6 جنوری 2019 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 15 اکتوبر 2015۔ Crick, 86, said: "The god hypothesis is rather discredited."
  102. "Max Delbrück"۔ NNDB.com۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 14 مئی 2012۔
  103. Walter Shropshire۔ Max Delbrück and the New Perception of Biology, 1906–1981: A Centenary Celebration, University of Salamanca, اکتوبر 9–10, 2006۔ AuthorHouse۔ صفحہ 155۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-1-4343-1435-2۔ As far as I know, he never identified himself as a member of any formal church or religious faith, but neither did he reject religion. He had a deeply felt respect for all faiths, believing that regardless of the details, they all fill basically the same human aspirations.
  104. Michael Ruse۔ "Life Evolving: Molecules, Mind, and Meaning by Christian de Duve (Introductory essay)"۔ The International Society for Science and Religion library project۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 15 اکتوبر 2015۔
  105. Trevor Illtyd Williams۔ Howard Florey, Penicillin and After۔ Oxford University Press۔ صفحہ 363۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-19-858173-4۔ As an agnostic, the chapel services meant nothing to Florey but, unlike some contemporary scientists, he was not aggressive in his disbelief.
  106. Paolo Mazzarello, Henry A. Buchtel, Aldo Badiani۔ The hidden structure: a scientific biography of Camillo Golgi۔ Oxford University Press۔ صفحہ 34۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-19-852444-1۔ It was probably during this period that Golgi became agnostic (or even frankly atheistic)، remaining for the rest of his life completely alien to the religious experience.
  107. "Frederick Hopkins"۔ NNDB.com۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 18 جولائی 2012۔
  108. "Obituary: Andrew Huxley"۔ The Economist۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 14 مئی 2013۔ He did not even mind the master's duty of officiating in chapel, since he was, he explained, not atheist but agnostic (a word usefully invented by his grandfather)، and was “very conscious that there is no scientific explanation for the fact that we are conscious.”
  109. Peter Medawar۔ The strange case of the spotted mice and other classic essays on science۔ Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press۔ صفحات 207–211۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-19-286193-1۔
  110. Richard Lubbock۔ "Peaks, Dust, & Dappled Spots"۔ Books in Canada: The Canadian Review of Books۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 15 اکتوبر 2015۔ In his final chapter de Duve turns to the meaning of life, and considers the ideas of two contrasting Frenchmen: a priest, Teilhard de Chardin, and an existentialist and atheist, Jacques Monod.
  111. Horowitz، Norman H. (اگست 1998). "T. H. Morgan at Caltech: A Reminiscence". Genetics 149: 1629–1632. http://www.genetics.org/content/149/4/1629.short۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 15 اکتوبر 2015. "Morgan's passion for experimentation was symptomatic of his general scepticism and his distaste for speculation. He believed only what could be proven. He was said to be an atheist, and I have always believed that he was. Everything I knew about him—his scepticism, his honesty—was consistent with disbelief in the supernatural.". 
  112. Pontecorvo، G. (نومبر 1968). "Hermann Joseph Muller. 1890–1967". Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society 14: 348–389. doi:10.1098/rsbm.1968.0015. "Muller, who through Unitarianism had become an enthusiastic pantheist, was converted both to atheism and to socialism.". 
  113. Alfred I. Tauber؛ Leon Chernyak۔ Metchnikoff and the Origins of Immunology : From Metaphor to Theory: From Metaphor to Theory۔ Oxford University Press۔ صفحہ 5۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-19-534510-0۔ ۔۔۔ his personal religious commitment was to atheism, although he received strict Christian religious training at home. Metchnikoff's atheism smacked of religious fervor in the embrace of rationalism and science.
  114. Costantino Ceoldo۔ "Homage to Rita Levi Montalcini"۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 20 جولائی 2013۔ Born and raised in a Sephardic Jewish family in which culture and love of learning were categorical imperatives, she abandoned religion and embraced atheism.
  115. Paul Nurse۔ "Sir Paul Nurse – Biographical"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 15 اکتوبر 2015۔ I gradually slipped away from religion over several years and became an atheist or to be more philosophically correct, a sceptical agnostic.
  116. Windholz، George (ستمبر 1986). "Pavlov's Religious Orientation". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 25 (3): 320. doi:10.2307/1386296. "Pavlov's follower E.M. Kreps asked him whether he was religious. Kreps writes that Pavlov smiled and replied: "Listen, good fellow, in regard to [claims of] my religiosity, my belief in God, my church attendance, there is no truth in it; it is sheer fantasy. I was a seminarian, and like the majority of seminarians, I became an unbeliever, an atheist in my school years."". 
  117. Reville، William (اپریل 20, 2006). "A bright journey to atheism, or a road that ignores all the signs?". The Irish Times. http://www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/science/2006/0420/1142365537016.html۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 15 اکتوبر 2015. 
  118. "John E. Sulston"۔ NNDB۔ Soylent Communications۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 21 اپریل 2014۔
  119. "Adofo Pérez Esquivel"۔ Nobel Prize Committee۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ |archiveurl= اور |archive-url= ایک سے زائد مرتبہ درج ہے (معاونت); |archivedate= اور |archive-date= ایک سے زائد مرتبہ درج ہے (معاونت)
  120. "Albert Szent-Györgyi"۔ NNDB.com۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 18 جولائی 2012۔
  121. Deirdre Barrett۔ Supernormal Stimuli: How Primal Urges Overran Their Evolutionary Purpose۔ W. W. Norton & Company۔ صفحات 21–22۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-393-06848-1۔ Tinbergen had never been a religious man. Wartime atrocities, however, had highlighted the absence of a deity for him while both sides invoked one aligned with themselves, and this turned him into a militant atheist. |access-date= requires |url= (معاونت)
  122. Roger Highfield۔ "Do our genes reveal the hand of God?"۔ The Telegraph۔ مورخہ 26 دسمبر 2018 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 15 اکتوبر 2015۔

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