نوبل انعام یافتہ یہودی شخصیات کی فہرست

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
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اب تک نوبل انعام یافتہ شخصیات میں سے 170 یہودی شخصیات اس انعام کو وصول کر چکے ہیں جو مجموعی طور پر نوبل انعام یافتگان کا 20 فیصد بنتے ہیں جبکہ دنیا میں یہودی پیروکاروں کی آبادی مجموعی طور پر محض 0.2% ہے۔(یا پانچ سو میں سے ایک یہودی ہے)مجموعی طور پر یہودی شخصیات نے معاشیات کے شعبے میں اکتالیس فی صد ادویات میں 28 فی صد طبیعیات میں 26 فی صد، 19 فیصد کیمیاء میں 13 فی صد ادب میں جبکہ 9 فیصد امن کے شعبے میں لیے ہیں۔ سب سے پہلا یہودی شخص ایڈولف وون بئیر تھا جس نے 1905ء میں کیمیاء میں نوبل انعام وصول کیا۔

ادب[ترمیم]

سال انعام یافتہ ملک وجہ
1910ء Adolf Friedrich Erdmann von Menzel 042.jpg پال ہیسی[1][2] جرمنی "as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories"[3]
1927ء Bergson-Nobel-photo.jpg ہنری برگساں[2] فرانس "in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented"[4]
1958ء بریس پاسترناک[2]> Soviet Union "for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition"[5]
1966ء Agnon.jpg سیمویل یوسف اگنون[2] Israel "for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people"[6]
Nelly Sachs 1966.jpg نیلی سکہس[2] Sweden "for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel's destiny with touching strength"[6]
1976ء SaulBellow.jpg سال بیلو[2] امریکا "for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work"[7]
1978ء Isaac Bashevis Singer (upright).jpg آئزک بشوس سنگر[2] امریکا "for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life"[8]
1981ء Elias Canetti 2.jpg الیاس کینٹی[2] برطانیہ "for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power"[9]
1987ء Joseph Brodsky 1988.jpg جوزف برودسکی[2] امریکا "for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity"[10]
1991ء Nadine Gordimer 01.JPG ناڈینگورڈیمر[2] South Africa "who through her magnificent epic writing has – in the words of Alfred Nobel – been of very great benefit to humanity"[11]
2002ء Imre Kertész (1929-) Hungarian writer II. by Csaba Segesvári.JPG امری کرٹرز[2][12][13] Hungary "for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history"[14]
2004ء Elfriede jelinek 2004 small.jpg الفرڈ جیلنک[15] Austria "for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society's clichés and their subjugating power"[16]
2005ء Harold-pinter-atp.jpg ہیرلڈ پنٹر[2][17] برطانیہ "who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression's closed rooms"[18]
2014ء Patrick Modiano 6 dec 2014 - 22.jpg پیتریک مودیانو[19][20] France "for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation"[21]

کیمیاء[ترمیم]

سال انعام یافتہ ملک وجہ
1905ء Adolf von Baeyer (1905).jpg ایڈولف وان بایر[22][23][24][25] جرمنی "[for] the advancement of organic chemistry and the chemical industry, through his work on نیل (رنگ) and hydroaromatic compounds"[26]
1906ء Henri Moissan.jpg آنری موئساں[22][23][24][25][27] France "[for his] investigation and isolation of the element فلورین, and for [the] electric furnace called after him"[28]
1910ء Voit 168 Otto Wallach.jpg اوتو والاخ[22][23][24][25] جرمنی "[for] his services to organic chemistry and the chemical industry by his pioneer work in the field of alicyclic compounds"[29]
1915ء Richard Willstätter.jpg رچرڈ ولسٹیٹر[22][23][24][25] جرمنی "for his researches on plant pigments, especially chlorophyll"[30]
1918ء Fritz Haber.png فرٹز ہیبر[22][23][24][25][31] جرمنی "for the synthesis of ammonia from its elements"[32]
1943ء George de Hevesy.jpg جارج دی ہیوسی[22][23][24][25] Hungary "for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers in the study of chemical processes"[33]
1961ء Melvin Calvin ملون کیلون[22][23][24][25] امریکا "for his research on the carbon dioxide assimilation in plants "[34]
1962ء Max Perutz.jpg میکس پیروٹز[22][23][24][25][35] برطانیہ "for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"[36]
1972ء Christian B. Anfinsen کرسچن بی اینفنسن[22][25][37] امریکا "for his work on ribonuclease, especially concerning the connection between the امینو ایسڈ sequence and the biologically active conformation"[38]
ولیم ہورڈ سٹین[22][23][25] امریکا "for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the active centre of the ribonuclease molecule"[38]
1977ء 75px الیا پرگوگین[22][23][25][39] Belgium "for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics, particularly the theory of dissipative structures"[40]
1979ء 75px ہربرٹ سی براون[22][23][25][41] امریکا "for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into important reagents in organic synthesis"[42]
1980ء Paul Berg in 1980.jpg پاول برگ[22][23][25][43] امریکا "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"[44]
Walter Gilbert والٹر گلبرٹ[22][23][25] امریکا "for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"[44]
1981ء Roald Hoffmann.jpg روالڈ ہوف مین[22][23][25] امریکا "for their theories, developed independently, concerning the course of chemical reactions"[45]
1982ء Aaron Klug 1979.jpg ارون کلگ[22][23][25] برطانیہ "for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy and his structural elucidation of biologically important nucleic acid-protein complexes"[46]
1985ء Jerome Karle جیروم کارلی[22][23][25][47][48][49] امریکا "for their outstanding achievements in developing direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"[50]
Herbert Hauptman ہربرٹ اے ہاوپٹمین[22][23][25][51][52][53][54] امریکا
1989ء Sidney Altman crop.jpg سڈنی آلٹ مین[22][23][25] Canada
امریکا
"for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"[55]
1992ء Prof. Dr. Rudolph A. Marcus.jpg روڈلف اے مارکس[22][23][25] امریکا "for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"[56]
1994ء George Andrew Olah جارج انڈریو اولاح[1][22][25] Hungary "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"[57]
1996ء Harold Kroto 1c389 8471.sweden.jpg ہیری کروٹو[25][58] England "for the discovery of fullerenes"[59]
1998ء Walter Kohn والٹر کوہن[22][25][51][60][61] امریکا "for his development of the density-functional theory"[62]
2000ء Heeger, Alan J. (1936).jpg الان جے ہیگر[22][23][25][63] امریکا "for the discovery and development of conductive polymers"[64]
2004ء Nobel2004chemistrylaurets-Ciehanover.jpg ارون چیکونور[25][65][66] اسرائیل "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"[67]
Nobel2004chemistrylaurets-Hershko.jpg اورامہ[25][65] Israel
Nobel2004chemistrylaurets-Rose.jpg ارون روس[25][68][69] امریکا
2006ء Roger.Kornberg.JPG راجر ڈی کورنبرگ[65][70][71] امریکا "for his studies of the molecular basis of eukaryotic transcription"[72][73]
2008ء Martin Chalfie-press conference Dec 07th, 2008-4.jpg مارٹن کالفی[74] امریکا "for the discovery and development of the green fluorescent protein, GFP".[75]
2009ء AdaYonath.jpg ادا یوناتھ[65] Israel "for studies of the structure and function of the رائبوسوم"[76]
2011ء ڈان سیکٹ مین[77] Israel "for the discovery of quasicrystals"[78]
2012ء Lefkowitz3.jpg رابرٹ لیفکووٹز[79] امریکا "for studies of G-protein-coupled receptors"[80]
2013ء AW TW PS.jpg اریا وارشل[81][82] Israel "for the development of multiscale models for complex chemical systems"[83]
Michael Levitt.jpg مائیکل لیوٹ[81][82] امریکا، Britain, Israel [84][85]
Martin Karplus Nobel Prize 22 2013.jpg مارٹن کارپلس[81][82] امریکا، Austria [86]

طب و فعلیات[ترمیم]

سال وصول کنندہ ملک وجہ
1908ء Ilya Mechnikov nobel.jpg الئی مٹینیکو[24][25][87] روس "in recognition of their work on مناعی نظام"[88]
Paul Ehrlich 1915.jpg پاول اہرلچ[24][25][87] جرمنی
1914ء Robert Barany.jpg رابرٹ برانی[24][25][87] Austria-Hungary "for his work on the physiology and pathology of the vestibular apparatus"[89]
1922ء Otto Fritz Meyerhof.jpg اوٹو فرٹز مئیر ہوف[24][25][87] جرمنی "for his discovery of the fixed relationship between the consumption of oxygen and the تحول of lactic acid in the muscle"[90]
1930ء 75px کارل لینڈ سٹینر[24][25][87] Austria "for his discovery of human بلڈ گروپ"[91]
1931ء Otto Warburg.jpg اوٹو ہنرچ وار برگ[24][25] جرمنی "for his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme"[92]
1936ء Otto Loewi nobel.jpg اوٹو لوئی[24][25][87] Austria "for their discoveries relating to عصبی ناقل"[93]
1944ء Joseph Erlanger nobel.jpg جوزف ارلینگر[24][25][87][94] امریکا "for their discoveries relating to the highly differentiated functions of single محوارs"[95]
Herbert Spencer Gasser nobel.jpg ہر برٹ سپنسر گیسر[24][25]
1945ء Ernst Boris Chain 1945.jpg ارنسٹ بوری چین[24][25][87] برطانیہ "for the discovery of پنسلین and its curative effect in various انفیکشنs"[96]
1946ء 75px ہرمن جوزف میولر[24][25][87] امریکا "for the discovery of the production of mutations by means of ایکس شعاع irradiation"[97]
1947ء Gerty Theresa Cori.jpg گرٹی کوری[25][87] امریکا "for their discovery of the course of the catalytic conversion of glycogen"[98]
1950ء Thadeus Reichstein ETH-Bib Portr 10137.jpg Tadeusz Reichstein[24][25][87] Switzerland / Poland "for their discoveries relating to the ہارمونs of the ایڈرینال کورٹکس, their structure and biological effects"[99]
1952ء Selman Waksman NYWTS.jpg عیل مین والکمین[24][25][87] امریکا "for his discovery of streptomycin, the first ضد حیوی effective against سل"[100]
1953ء Hans Adolf Krebs.jpg ہنس ایڈلف کرب[24][25][51][87] برطانیہ "for his discovery of the citric acid cycle"[101]
Portrait of Fritz Albert Lipmann (1899-1986), Biochemist (2551001689).jpg فرٹز البرٹ لیپ مین[87] امریکا "for his discovery of co-enzyme A and its importance for intermediary metabolism"[101]
1958ء Joshua Lederberg.jpg جیشوا لیڈربرگ[24][25][87] امریکا "for his discoveries concerning genetic recombination and the organization of the وراثہ of بیکٹیریا"[102]
1959ء Arthur Kornberg.jpg آرتھر کورن برگ[24][25][47][87] امریکا "for their discovery of the mechanisms in the biological synthesis of رائبو مرکزائی تیزاب and ڈی این اے"[103]
1964ء Konrad Bloch.JPG کونارڈ ایمل بلوک[24][25][87][104] امریکا "for their discoveries concerning the mechanism and regulation of the کولیسٹرال and fatty acid تحول"[105]
1965ء François Jacob nobel.jpg فرانکیوس جیکب[24][25][87] France "for their discoveries concerning genetic control of enzyme and virus synthesis"[106]
André Lwoff nobel.jpg انڈری مائیکل لوف[24][25][87]
1967ء George Wald nobel.jpg جارج والڈ[24][25][87] امریکا "for their discoveries concerning the primary physiological and chemical visual processes in the eye"[107]
1968ء MNirenberg.jpg مارشل وارن نارنبرگ[24][25][87] امریکا "for their interpretation of the وراثی رموز and its function in protein synthesis"[108]
1969ء Salvador E. Luria ca.1969.jpg سیلواڈور لوریا[24][25][87] امریکا، Italy "for their discoveries concerning the replication mechanism and the genetic structure of وائرسes"[109]
1970ء Axelrod01.jpg جیولیوس ایکزل روڈ[25][87] امریکا "for their discoveries concerning the humoral عصبی ناقل and the mechanism for their storage, release and inactivation"[110]
برنارڈ کٹز[24][25][87] برطانیہ
1972ء Professor Gerald M. Edelman.jpg گیرالڈ ایڈر مین[25][87] امریکا "for their discoveries concerning the chemical structure of ضد"[111]
1975ء DavidBaltimore2008.JPG ڈیوڈ بلٹی مور[25][87] امریکا "for their discoveries concerning the interaction between tumor viruses and the genetic material of the cell"[112]
ہوورڈ مارٹن ٹیمن[25][87] امریکا
1976ء Baruch Samuel Blumberg by Tom Trower (NASA).jpg باروچ سیمیول بلوم برگ[25][87] امریکا "for their discoveries concerning new mechanisms for the origin and dissemination of انفیکشنs"[113]
1977ء Schally portrait.jpg انڈریو شیلی[25][87][114][115] امریکا "for their discoveries concerning the peptide hormone production of the brain"[116]
Rosalyn Yalow.jpg روزالن سوسمین یالو[25][43][87] امریکا "for the development of radioimmunoassays of peptide hormones"[116]
1978ء ڈینئیل نیتھن[25][87] امریکا "for the discovery of اقتطاعی خامرےs and their application to problems of سالماتی وراثیات"[117]
1980ء باروخ بن الصراف[25][87] امریکا "for their discoveries concerning genetically determined کبیر توافق نسیجی مختلط that regulate مناعی نظام"[118]
1984ء Milstein lnp.jpg سیسر میلسٹین[25][43][87] Argentina
"for theories concerning the specificity in development and control of the مناعی نظام and the discovery of the principle for production of monoclonal antibodies"[119]
1985ء Mike Brown 2003.jpg مائیکل سٹاورٹ براون[25][87] امریکا "for their discoveries concerning the regulation of کولیسٹرال تحول"[120]
Joe Goldstein.JPG جوزف گولڈ سٹین[25][87] امریکا
1986ء Stanley Cohen-Biochemist.jpg Stanley Cohen[25][43][87] امریکا "for their discoveries of growth factors"[121]
Rita Levi Montalcini.jpg ریٹالیوی -مونٹلسینی[25][87][122] Italy
1988ء Nci-vol-8236-300 Gertrude Elion.jpg گرٹروڈ بی. الیون[25][87] امریکا "for their discoveries of important principles for drug treatment"[123]
1989ء Varmus, Harold Elliot (1939).jpg ہیرالڈ ای. ورمس[25][43][87] امریکا "for their discovery of the cellular origin of retroviral اوّلی وراثہ الورمs"[124]
1994ء الفرڈ جی گلمین[25][87] امریکا "for their discovery of G-proteins and the role of these proteins in signal transduction in cells"[125]
Rodbell, Martin (1925-1998).jpg مارٹن روڈبل[25][87]
1997ء Prusiner 1.JPG سٹینلی بی پروسینر[25][87] امریکا "for his discovery of پری اونs – a new biological principle of infection"[126]
1998ء Drfurchgott.jpg رابرٹ فرشگوٹ[25][51][87] امریکا "for their discoveries concerning nitric oxide as a signalling molecule in the cardiovascular system"[127]
2000ء Paul Greengard.jpg پاول گرین گارڈ[25][87] امریکا "for their discoveries concerning signal transduction in the عصبی نظام"[128]
Eric Richard Kandel.jpg ارک کینڈل[25][87] امریکا
2002ء سڈنی برینر[25][87] برطانیہ "for their discoveries concerning 'genetic regulation of organ development and استماتت'"[129]
ایچ رابرٹ ہروٹز[25][87] امریکا
2004ء Richard Axel.jpg رچرڈ اکزل[25][87][94][130] امریکا "for their discoveries of odorant receptors and the organization of the olfactory system"[131]
2006ء Andrew Fire, Stanford University.jpg انڈریو فائر[87] امریکا "for his discovery of ارنا تداخل – gene silencing by double-stranded RNA"[132]
2011ء رالف ایم. سٹین مین[77][87][133][134][135] Canada for "his discovery of the شجری خلیہ and its role in adaptive immunity"[136]
Nobel Prize 2011-Press Conference KI-DSC 7512.jpg بروس بیوٹلر[77][87][137] امریکا "for their discoveries concerning the activation of innate immunity"
2013ء جیمز روتھ مین[81][138][139] امریکا for "their discoveries of machinery regulating vesicle traffic, a major transport system in our cells"[140]
Randy Schekman 8 February 2012.jpg رینڈی شیک مین[81][138][139] امریکا

طبیعیات[ترمیم]

سال وجہ ملک وجہ
1907ء Albert Abraham Michelson2.jpg البرٹ اے مچلسن[23][24][141] امریکا "for his optical precision instruments and the spectroscopic and metrological investigations carried out with their aid"[142]
1908ء G lippmann.jpg گبریل لیپمین[23][24][141] France "for his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference"[143]
1921ء Einstein1921 by F Schmutzer 4.jpg البرٹ آئنسٹائن[23][24][141][144] جرمنی "for his services to Theoretical Physics, and especially for his discovery of the law of the ضیا برقی اثر"[145]
1922ء Niels Bohr.jpg نیلز بوہر[23][24][141] Denmark "for his services in the investigation of the structure of atoms and of the radiation emanating from them"[146]
1925ء James Franck.jpg جیمز فرانک[23][141] جرمنی "for their discovery of the laws governing the impact of an برقیہ upon an atom"[147]
Gustav Hertz.jpg Gustav Hertz[23][24] جرمنی
1943ء Otto Stern.jpg اوٹو سٹرن[23][141] امریکا "for his contribution to the development of the molecular ray method and his discovery of the مقناطیسی حرکات of the proton"[148]
1944ء Isidor Isaac Rabi.jpg ازیڈور ائیزک ربی[23][24][141] امریکا "for his resonance method for recording the magnetic properties of atomic nuclei"[149]
1945ء Wolfgang Pauli young.jpg Wolfgang Pauli[141][150] Austria "for the discovery of the Exclusion Principle, also called the Pauli principle"[151]
1952ء Felix Bloch, Stanford University.jpg فلکس بلوک[23][24][141] امریکا "for their development of new methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements and discoveries in connection therewith"[152]
1954ء Max Born.jpg میکس بورن[23][24][141] برطانیہ "for his fundamental research in قدری میکانیات, especially for his statistical interpretation of the wavefunction"[153]
1958ء Ilya Frank.jpg الوا فرانک[141] Soviet Union "for the discovery and the interpretation of the Cherenkov effect"[154]
1959ء Segre.jpg Emilio Gino Segrè[23][24][141] Italy "for their discovery of the antiproton"[155]
1960ء Donald Glaser.jpg ڈونالڈ اے گلیسر[23][24][141] امریکا "for the invention of the bubble chamber"[156]
1961ء Robert Hofstadter.jpg رابرٹ ہوفسٹڈلر[23][24][141] امریکا "for his pioneering studies of electron scattering in atomic nuclei and for his thereby achieved discoveries concerning the structure of the nucleons"[157]
1962ء Landau.jpg لیو لینڈاؤ[23][24][141][158] Soviet Union "for his pioneering theories for کثیف مادہ طبیعیات, especially liquid helium"[159][160]
1963ء Wigner.jpg یوجین پاول وگنر[141][161] امریکا "for his contributions to the theory of the atomic nucleus and the elementary particles, particularly through the discovery and application of fundamental symmetry principles"[162]
1965ء Richard Feynman.png رچرڈ فلپ فے مین[23][24][141][163] امریکا "for their fundamental work in quantum electrodynamics, with deep-ploughing consequences for the physics of elementary particles"[164]
Schwinger.jpg جولیان سکونگر[23][24][141] امریکا
1967ء Hans Bethe.jpg ہنس بیتھ[141] امریکا "for his contributions to the theory of nuclear reactions, especially his discoveries concerning the energy production in ستارہs"[165]
1969ء Murray Gell-Mann.jpg ماری گیل مین[23][24][141][166] امریکا "for his contributions and discoveries concerning the classification of elementary particles and their interactions"[167]
1971ء 75px ڈینس گبور[23][141] برطانیہ "for his invention and development of the holographic method"[168]
1972ء Nobel Laureate Leon Cooper in 2007.jpg لیون کوپر[141][141][169][170] امریکا "for his jointly developed theory of فوق ایصالیت, usually called the BCS-theory"[171]
1973ء Brian Josephson, March 2004.jpg برائن ڈیوڈ جوزف سن[23] برطانیہ "for his theoretical predictions of the properties of a supercurrent through a tunnel barrier, in particular those phenomena which are generally known as the Josephson effect"[172]
1975ء Mottelson,Ben 1963 Kopenhagen.jpg بن روئے مٹل سن[23][141] Denmark "for the discovery of the connection between collective motion and particle motion in atomic nuclei and the development of the theory of the structure of the atomic nucleus based on this connection"[173]
1976ء Burton Richter - charm quark.jpg برٹن رچر[23][141] امریکا "for his pioneering work in the discovery of a heavy elementary particle of a new kind"[174]
1978ء Arno Penzias.jpg ارنو الن پنزاس[23][141] امریکا "for his discovery of کائناتی ریزموجی پس منظر تابکاری"[175]
1979ء Sheldon Glashow at Harvard.jpg شیلڈن لی گلاشو[23][141] امریکا "for their contributions to the theory of the برقی نحیف تفاعل between elementary particles, including, inter alia, the prediction of the weak neutral current"[176]
Steven-weinberg.jpg سٹیون وینبرگ[23][141] امریکا
1987ء Karl Alexander Mueller.jpg کارل ایلکزینڈر میولر[141] Switzerland "for their important breakthrough in the discovery of superconductivity in ceramic materials"[177]
1988ء Leon M. Lederman.jpg لیون ایم لیڈر مین[23][43][141] امریکا "for the نیوٹرینو beam method and the demonstration of the doublet structure of the نحیفہs through the discovery of the muon neutrino"[178]
ملون سکوارٹز[23][141] امریکا
Jack-Steinberger-2008.JPG جیک سٹین برگر[23][141] امریکا
1990ء جیروم آئیزک فرائڈ مین[141] امریکا "for his pioneering investigations concerning deep inelastic scattering of electrons on protons and bound neutrons, which have been of essential importance for the development of the quark model in particle physics"[179]
1992ء CHARPAK Georges-24x50-2005 cropped.JPG جیرج چارپک[141] France / Poland "for his invention and development of particle detectors, in particular the multiwire proportional chamber"[180]
1995ء Martin Perl - tau.jpg مارٹن لیوس پیرل[141] امریکا "for the discovery of the tau lepton" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to نحیفہ physics"[181]
Frederick Reines.jpg فریڈرک رینز[141] امریکا "for the detection of the نیوٹرینو" and "for pioneering experimental contributions to نحیفہ physics"[181]
1996ء David M Lee Dec 2008.jpg David Morris Lee[1][141] امریکا "for their discovery of superfluidity in helium-3"[182]
Douglas Osheroff.jpg ڈوگلاس اوشروف[1] امریکا
1997ء Claude Cohen-Tannoudji.JPG کلاؤڈ کوہن-ٹناڈجی[141] France "for development of methods to cool and trap atoms with laser light"[183]
2000ء Zhores Alferov.jpg زورس ایونوچ الفرو[1][141] Russia "for developing نیم موصل heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics"[184]
2003ء AA Abrikosov ANL1.jpg الیکزی الیکزیوچ ابریکوسو[141] Russia
امریکا
"for pioneering contributions to the theory of فوق ایصالیت and superfluids"[185]
Виталий Лазаревич Гинзбург.jpg وائٹلی گنزبرگ[141] Russia
2004ء David Gross cropped.JPG ڈیوڈ جے گروس[65][141][186] امریکا "for the discovery of asymptotic freedom in the theory of the قوی تفاعل"[187]
ہگ ڈیوڈ پیولٹزر[141] امریکا
2005ء Roy Glauber Dec 10 2005.jpg روئے جے گلوبر[141] امریکا "for his contribution to the quantum theory of optical coherence"[188]
2011ء Adam Riess Agr cover.jpg ایڈم ریس[77][141][189][190][191] امریکا "for providing evidence that the expansion of the universe is accelerating"[192]
Nobel Prize 2011-Press Conference KVA-DSC 7744.jpg ساول پرلموتر[77][141][193][194] امریکا
2012ء Serge Haroche - Théâtre de la Commune d'Aubervilliers - 4 mai 2009.jpg سرگ ہروچ[195] France "for ground-breaking experimental methods that enable measuring and manipulation of individual quantum systems"[196]
2013ء Francois Englert.jpg فرانکیوس انگلرٹ[81][197][198][199] Belgium "for the theoretical discovery of a mechanism that contributes to our understanding of the origin of mass of subatomic particles, and which recently was confirmed through the discovery of the predicted fundamental particle, by the ATLAS and CMS experiments at CERN's Large Hadron Collider"[200]

امن[ترمیم]

سال وصول کنندہ ملک وجہ
1911ء TMCasser.jpg ٹوبیاس مائیکل کارل اسر[201] The Netherlands "Initiator of the Conferences on International Private Law at the Hague; Cabinet Minister; Lawyer"[202]
Alfred Herrmann Fried Foto.jpg الفرڈ ہرمن فرائڈ[203] Austria "Journalist; Founder of Die Friedenswarte"[202]
1968ء René Cassin nobel.jpg رینے کاسن France "President of the European Court for Human Rights"[204]
1973ء Henry Kissinger.jpg Henry A. Kissinger[205] امریکا "For the 1973 Paris agreement intended to bring about a cease-fire in the Vietnam War and a withdrawal of the American forces"[206][207]
1978ء Menachem Begin 2.jpg مناخم بیگن[208] اسرائیل "for the Camp David Agreement, which brought about a negotiated peace between Egypt and Israel"[209]
1986ء Elie Wiesel.jpg ایلائ وائسل[210] امریکا "Chairman of "The President's Commission on the Holocaust""[211]
1994ء Yitzhak Rabin (1986) cropped.jpg اسحاق رابین Israel "to honour a political act which called for great courage on both sides, and which has opened up opportunities for a new development towards fraternity in the Middle East."[212]
Shimon Peres World Economic Forum 2007.jpg شمعون پیریز Israel
1995ء Josef Rotblat ID badge.png جازف راٹبلاٹ برطانیہ
Poland
"for his efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms"[213]

معاشیات[ترمیم]

سال وصول کنندہ ملک وجہ
1970ء Paul Samuelson.jpg پاؤل سیمیولسن[214][215] امریکا "for the scientific work through which he has developed static and dynamic economic theory and actively contributed to raising the level of analysis in economic science"[216]
1971ء سائمن کزٹس[214][217] امریکا "for his empirically founded interpretation of economic growth which has led to new and deepened insight into the economic and social structure and process of development"[218]
1972ء Kenneth Arrow, Stanford University.jpg کینتھ ارو[214][219] امریکا "for his pioneering contributions to general economic equilibrium theory and welfare theory"[220]
1973ء واسلےلیونٹیف[214] Russia
جرمنی
امریکا
"for the development of the input-output method and for its application to important economic problems"[221]
1975ء Leonid Kantorovich 1975.jpg لیونڈکانٹروچ[214] Soviet Union "for his contributions to the theory of optimum allocation of resources"[222]
1976ء Portrait of Milton Friedman.jpg ملٹن فریڈمان[214][219][223] امریکا "for his achievements in the fields of consumption analysis, monetary history and theory and for his demonstration of the complexity of stabilization policy"[224]
1978ء ہربرٹ اے۔ سائمن[214][225] امریکا "for his pioneering research into the decision-making process within economic organizations"[226]
1980ء لاؤرنس کلائین[214][225] امریکا "for the creation of econometric models and the application to the analysis of economic fluctuations and economic policies"[227]
1985ء Franco Modigliani.jpg فرانکو موڈگ لیامی[214][215] Italy
امریکا
"for his pioneering analyses of saving and of financial markets"[228]
1987ء Solow natmedal.jpg رابرٹ سولو[214] امریکا "for his contributions to the theory of economic growth""[229]
1990ء ہیری مارکوٹز[214][225] امریکا "for their pioneering work in the theory of financial economics""[230]
مرٹن ملر[214][225] امریکا
1992ء GaryBecker-May24-2008.jpg گارے بکر[214][225] امریکا "for having extended the domain of microeconomic analysis to a wide range of human behaviour and interaction, including nonmarket behaviour""[231]
1993ء Robert William Fogel.jpg رابرٹ فوگل[214][225] امریکا "for having renewed research in economic history by applying economic theory and quantitative methods in order to explain economic and institutional change"[232]
1994ء جون ہارسانئے[214][225][233] Hungary "for their pioneering analysis of equilibria in the theory of non-cooperative games"[234]
1997ء Myron Scholes 2008 in Lindau.png میرون سکولز[214][225][235] Canada "for a new method to determine the value of derivatives"[236][237]
2001ء Joseph E. Stiglitz - cropped.jpg جوزف اسٹگلیز[214][225] امریکا "for their analyses of markets with asymmetric information"[238]
George Akerlof.jpg جارج اکرلوف[239] امریکا
2002ء Daniel KAHNEMAN.jpg ڈینئیل کہنیمن[214][225] Israel
امریکا
"for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science, especially concerning human judgment and decision-making under uncertainty"[240]
2005ء Robert Aumann 2010.jpg رابرٹ اومن[214][241] Israel
امریکا
"for having enhanced our understanding of conflict and cooperation through نظریہ بازی analysis"[242]
2007ء Leonid Hurwicz.jpg لیونڈ ہروکز[214][243][244][245][246] امریکا
Poland
"For having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory"[247]
05N3441 emaskin.jpg ارک ماسکن[214][246][248] امریکا
Myerson roger b print.jpg روگر مائرسن[214][246] امریکا
2008ء Paul Krugman-press conference Dec 07th, 2008-8.jpg پاول کرگمین[214][249] امریکا "for his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity"[250]
2010ء Peter Diamond cropped.jpg پیٹر ڈائمنڈ[251][252] امریکا "for his analysis of markets with search frictions"[253]
2012ء Alvin E. Roth 3 2012.jpg الون اے روتھ[254] امریکا "for the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design" [255]

بولیورڈ (ایک تختی ) انعام یافتہ[ترمیم]

اسرائلی کے ایک گلی میں نصب تختی ہے جسمیں تمام یہودی نوبل انعام یافتگان کے نام کندہ ہیں اس کا مقصد ان تمام حضرات کو خراج تحسین پیش کرنا ہے۔[54]

اسی متعلق[ترمیم]

حوالہ جات[ترمیم]

  1. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ Mordecai Schreiber؛ Alvin I. Schiff؛ Leon Klenicki, ویکی نویس (2003)، "Jewish Nobel Prize Winners"، The Shengold Jewish Encyclopedia، Schreiber Publishing، صفحہ 198، آئی ایس بی این 1-887563-77-6 
  2. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث ج چ ح خ د ڈ "Jewish Laureates of Nobel Prize in Literature". Israel Science and Technology Directory. Retrieved October 16, 2012.
  3. "Nobel Prize in Literature 1910"۔ نوبل فاونڈیشن۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-17۔ 
  4. "Nobel Prize in Literature 1927"۔ نوبل فاونڈیشن۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-17۔ 
  5. "Nobel Prize in Literature 1958"۔ نوبل فاونڈیشن۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-17۔ 
  6. ^ ا ب "Nobel Prize in Literature 1966"۔ نوبل فاونڈیشن۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-17۔ 
  7. "Nobel Prize in Literature 1976"۔ نوبل فاونڈیشن۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-17۔ 
  8. "Nobel Prize in Literature 1978"۔ نوبل فاونڈیشن۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-17۔ 
  9. "Nobel Prize in Literature 1981"۔ نوبل فاونڈیشن۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-17۔ 
  10. "Nobel Prize in Literature 1987"۔ نوبل فاونڈیشن۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-17۔ 
  11. "Nobel Prize in Literature 1991"۔ نوبل فاونڈیشن۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-17۔ 
  12. Segel, Harold B. (2008). The Columbia Literary History of Eastern Europe Since 1945. Columbia University Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-231-13306-7"... the few Hungarian writers who have attempted to deal with Hungary's role in the ware and the fate of the Hungarian Jewish population have been mostly Hungarian Jews. Certainly the best known, due to his receipt of the coveted Nobel Prize in Literature in 2002, is Imre Kertész (b. 1929)".
  13. Rubin Suleiman, Susan; Forgács, Éva (eds) (2003). Contemporary Jewish Writing in Hungary: An Anthology. University of Nebraska Press. p. xlvi.
  14. "Nobel Prize in Literature 2002"۔ نوبل فاونڈیشن۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-17۔ 
  15. Keepers of the Motherland: German texts by Jewish women writers۔ University of Nebraska Press۔ 2007۔ صفحات 251–252۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-0-8032-2917-4۔ "Jewish women's writing likewise employs satirical and grotesque elements when depicting non-Jews... Some do so pointedly, such as Ilse Aichinger, Elfriede Gerstl, and Elifriede Jelinek... Jelinek resumed the techniques of the Jewish interwar satirists... Jelinek stresses her affinity to Karl Krauss and the Jewish Cabaret of the interwar era... She claims her own Jewish identity as the daughter of a Holocaust victim, her father, thereby suggesting that there is a continuity of Vienna's Jewish tradition (Berka 1993, 137f.; Gilman 1995, 3)." 
  16. "Nobel Prize in Literature 2004"۔ نوبل فاونڈیشن۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-17۔ 
  17. Billington, Michael (2007). Harold Pinter. London: Faber and Faber. p. 2. ISBN 0-571-23476-3.
  18. "Nobel Prize in Literature 2005"۔ نوبل فاونڈیشن۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-17۔ 
  19. "Nobel Prize Winner Patrick Modiano – Who?"۔ Jewish Quarterly۔ 
  20. Patrick Modiano’s ‘Suspended Sentences’. نیو یارک ٹائمز website.
  21. "Nobel Prize in Literature 2014"۔ نوبل فاونڈیشن۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2014-10-09۔ 
  22. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث ج چ ح خ د ڈ ذ ر​ ڑ​ ز ژ س ش ص ض ط ظ "Jewish Laureates of Nobel Prize in Chemistry". Israel Science and Technology Directory. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  23. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث ج چ ح خ د ڈ ذ ر​ ڑ​ ز ژ س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ک گ ل​ م​ ن و ہ ھ ی ے اا اب ات اث اج اح اخ اد اذ ار Wentzel Van Huyssteen (2003). Encyclopedia of Science and Religion, Volume 2. MacMillan Reference USA. p. 493.
  24. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث ج چ ح خ د ڈ ذ ر​ ڑ​ ز ژ س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ک گ ل​ م​ ن و ہ ھ ی ے اا اب ات اث اج اح اخ اد اذ Feuer, Lewis Samuel (1995). Varieties of Scientific Experience: Emotive Aims in Scientific Hypotheses (citing Encylopaedia Judaica). Transaction Publishers. p. 402. ISBN 978-1-56000-223-9
  25. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث ج چ ح خ د ڈ ذ ر​ ڑ​ ز ژ س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ک گ ل​ م​ ن و ہ ھ ی ے اا اب ات اث اج اح اخ اد اذ ار از اس اش اص اض اط اظ اع اغ اف اق اك ال ام ان اہ او ای ب​ا ب​ب ب​پ ب​ت ب​ٹ ب​ث ب​ج ب​چ ب​ح ب​خ ب​د J. Rogers Hollingsworth (2007), "High Cognitive Complexity and the Making of Major Scientific Discoveries", in Arnaud Sales, Marcel Fournier (eds.). Knowledge, Communication and CreativitySage Studies in International Sociology, SAGE, 2007, p. 136. ISBN 9780761943075
  26. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1905"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-06۔ 
  27. Who's who in Jewish history: after the period of the Old Testament۔ Routledge۔ 1995۔ صفحہ 264۔ آئی ایس بی این 0-415-12583-9۔ "Moissan, whose mother was Jewish, [...]" 
  28. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1906"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-06۔ 
  29. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1910"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-06۔ 
  30. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1915"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-06۔ 
  31. Leroy, Francis (2003). A Century of Nobel Prizes Recipients: Chemistry, Rhysics, and Medicine. CRC Press. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-8247-0876-4
  32. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1918"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-06۔ 
  33. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1943"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-06۔ 
  34. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1961"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-06۔ 
  35. Max Perutz and the secret of life۔ New York: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press۔ 2008۔ صفحہ 2۔ آئی ایس بی این 0-7011-7695-4۔ 
  36. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1962"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-06۔ 
  37. "The Christian B. Anfinsen Papers Biographical Information"۔ Profiles in Science۔ National Library of Medicine۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2011-10-19۔ 
  38. ^ ا ب "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1972"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2011-10-19۔ 
    • Radu Balescu. "Ilya Prigogine: His Life, His Work", in Stuart Alan Rice (2007). Special volume in memory of Ilya Prigogine, John Wiley and Sons. p. 2. "In the history of science, there are few examples of such a flashing and immense ascent as that of Ilya Prigogine (Fig. 1). The little Russian Jewish immigrant arrived in Brussels at the age of 12..."
    • Magnus Ramage, Karen Shipp (2009). Systems Thinkers. Springer. p. 277. "Prigogine was born in January 1917 in Moscow... His family 'had a difficult relationship with the new regime' (Prigogine 1977), being both Jewish and merchants...
    • Jean Maruani, Roland Lefebvre, Erkki Brändas (eds.) (2003). Advanced Topics in Theoretical Chemical Physics, Springer, p. xv. "Ilya Prigogine was born on January 25, 1917, in Moscow, Russia, the second boy in a middle-class, Jewish family."
  39. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1977"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-06۔ 
  40. Herbert C. Brown, "Herbert C. Brown", in Tore Frängsmyr, Sture Forsén (1993). Chemistry, 1971–1980. World Scientific. p. 337. "My parents... came to London in 1908 as part of the vast Jewish immigration in the early part of this century."
  41. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1979"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-06۔ 
  42. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث Hargittai, István (2003). The Road to Stockholm: Nobel Prizes, Science, and Scientists. اوکسفرڈ یونیورسٹی پریس. p. 113. ISBN 978-0-19-860785-4
  43. ^ ا ب "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1980"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-06۔ 
  44. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1981"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-06۔ 
  45. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1982"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-06۔ 
  46. ^ ا ب Hargittai, István (2003). The Road to Stockholm: Nobel Prizes, Science, and Scientists. اوکسفرڈ یونیورسٹی پریس. p. 112. ISBN 978-0-19-860785-4
  47. "Jerome Karle", Profiles, Humanities and the Arts, City College of New York website. Retrieved September 10, 2011. "Jerome Karle is an American Jewish physical chemist who shared the 1985 Nobel Prize in Chemistry with a fellow CCNY classmate, Herbert Hauptman"
  48. Seymour "Sy" Brody. "Jerome Karle: Nobel Prize", American Jewish Recipients of the Nobel Prize, Florida Atlantic University Libraries website. Retrieved September 10, 2011.
  49. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1985"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-06۔ 
  50. ^ ا ب پ ت Hargittai, István (2003). The Road to Stockholm: Nobel Prizes, Science, and Scientists. اوکسفرڈ یونیورسٹی پریس. p. 111. ISBN 978-0-19-860785-4
  51. Bernard S. Schlessinger, June H. Schlessinger (1996). The who's who of Nobel Prize winners, 1901–1995. Oryx Press. p. 101.
  52. Samuel Kurinksy. "Jewish Nobel Prize Winners Part I: Chemistry", Hebrew History Federation.
  53. ^ ا ب "Nobel Prize Laureates Boulevard", Structures, Hauptman-Woodward Medical Research Institute, Spring 2011, p. 4. "Dr. Hauptman interestingly is one of 160 Jewish Nobel Laureates... In honor of this distinction, there is a boulevard dedicated to Jewish Nobel Prize Laureates in a town called Kiryat Hatanei Pras Nobel (Nobel Prize Laureates' Town) outside of Tel Aviv, Israel. On this boulevard, a monument and plaque have been dedicated in Dr. Hauptman's honor."
  54. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1989"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-06۔ 
  55. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1992"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-19۔ 
  56. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2011-10-19۔ 
  57. "Sir Harold Kroto – Autobiography"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2012-10-14۔ 
  58. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1996"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  59. "Walter Kohn Autobiography"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2011-10-19۔ "They are dominated by my vivid recollections of 1 1/2 years as a Jewish boy under the Austrian Nazi regime... On another level, I want to mention that I have a strong Jewish identity and – over the years – have been involved in several Jewish projects, such as the establishment of a strong program of Judaic Studies at the University of California in San Diego." 
  60. Leroy, Francis (2003). A Century of Nobel Prizes Recipients: Chemistry, Rhysics, and Medicine. CRC Press. p. 108. ISBN 978-0-8247-0876-4
  61. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1998"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-06۔ 
  62. Fant, Kenne (2006). Alfred Nobel: A Biography. Arcade Publishing. p. 478. "Heeger was born in Sioux City, Iowa to a Jewish family."
  63. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2000"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2011-10-19۔ 
  64. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ Boaz Arad. "Best Jewish brains head to China. Beijing conference on science and technology to host Israeli, Jewish American Nobel laureates". Yedioth Ahronoth. January 11, 2010. "Three Nobel Prize laureates – Ada Yonath, Aaron Ciechanover, and Avram Hershko – are scheduled to take part in a conference in Beijing this month to present Israel's top achievements in the field of Chemistry. The three will be joined by two Jewish American laureates, Professor Roger Kornberg, a biochemist, and David Gross, who won a physics Nobel."
  65. Aaron Ciechanover. "The 2008 Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting: Aaron Ciechanover, Chemistry 2004." Journal of Visualized Experiments (J Vis Exp). 2009 Jul 1;(29). pii: 1559. doi: 10.3791/1559. "The life and work of Aaron Ciechanover are deeply rooted and influenced by Judaism and Israel and it is therefore that with only brief intermission, Ciechanover spent his scientific career in Israel as he is—through his presence and work—able to contribute and shape presence and future of the State of Israel."
  66. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2004"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-06۔ 
  67. István Hargittai, Magdolna Hargittai (2006). Candid Science VI. Imperial College Press. "Both Irwin Rose's parents came from secular Jewish families, on his maternal side, the Greenwalds originated from Hungary and on his paternal side, the Roses originated from the Odessa region of Russia."
  68. Seymour "Sy" Brody. "Irwin Rose: Chemistry Recipient-2004", American Jewish Recipients of the Nobel Prize, Florida Atlantic University Libraries website. Retrieved October 16, 2011.
  69. Joe Eskenazi. "Winning Nobel Prizes seems to run in one family’s chemistry—and biology".The Jewish Journal of Greater Los Angeles. October 12, 2006. "Arthur Kornberg – who still has his own lab at Stanford Medical School at age 88 – grew up in an Orthodox Brooklyn household, where Yiddish was the first language. His future wife, Sylvy Levy, also grew up Orthodox, but the couple raised their children in a fairly secular environment. Still, the family had a strong Jewish and pro-Israel identity, and Roger Kornberg is a consistent donor to the San Francisco-based Jewish Community Federation. Roger married an Israeli scientist, Yahli Lorch, a Stanford professor of structural biology, and they live almost half the year in their Jerusalem flat, where he leads his research team remotely via the Internet. "
  70. Nadan Feldman. "U.S. Nobel laureate: Israel must invest more in higher education". Haaretz. January 13, 2012. "...explains Kornberg, when asked about the values his father instilled in him, and the atmosphere in which he grew up, in a Jewish family in the 1950s."
  71. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2006"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-06۔ 
  72. Seymour "Sy" Brody's
  73. Autobiography on Nobelprize.org
  74. Website of the Nobel Prize committee.
  75. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2009"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2009-10-07۔ 
  76. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ
    • Janice Arnold (2011-10-12). "Nobel laureate is pride of Sherbrooke Jews". Canadian Jewish News. "Shechtman was one of five Jews, including a former Montrealer, the late Ralph Steinman, to receive the prestigious prize for their scientific endeavours... Steinman and Bruce Beutler... won for their groundbreaking work in discoveries on the immune system. Saul Perlmutter and Adam Riess, both American Jews... won the prize in physics."
    • Looks, Elka (2011-10-05). "Jews make strong showing among 2011 Nobel Prize winners". ہاآرتس. "Israeli scientist Daniel Shechtman has made headlines at home for winning the 2011 Nobel Prize in chemistry, but he is not the only Jewish recipient... Ralph Steinman and Bruce Beutler were awarded the Nobel Prize for medicine for their discoveries on the immune system... Saul Perlmutter and Adam G. Riess, both American Jews, are two of the three Nobel Prize in physics winners... So far, five of the seven Nobel Prize winners this year are Jewish..."
  77. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2011"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2011-10-05۔ 
  78. "NY Jewish doctor wins Nobel Prize in Chemistry", The Jerusalem Post (Jewish Telegraphic Agency), October 10, 2012.
  79. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2012"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2012-10-09۔ 
  80. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث A remarkable week for Jewish Nobel Prize winnersThe Jewish Chronicle, October 10, 2013. "No less than six Jewish scientists were awarded Nobel Prizes this week... Belgian-born Francois Englert won the accolade in physics... Also this week, two American Jews were awarded the Nobel Prize in medicine [...] James Rothman and Randy Schekman... Meanwhile, three Jewish-American scientists, Arieh Warshel, Michael Levitt and Martin Karplus, shared the Nobel Prize in chemistry... Karplus [...] fled the Nazi occupation of Austria as a child in 1938.
  81. ^ ا ب پ "Three Jewish American scientists, two of which have Israeli citizenship, won the 2013 Nobel Prize for chemistry", The Jerusalem Post (Jewish Telegraphic Agency), October 19, 2013.
  82. "The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 2013"۔ Nobelprize.org۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2013-10-09۔ 
  83. "Michael Levitt is a US, British and Israeli citizen", The Jerusalem Post, October 9, 2013.
  84. "Fellow winner Michael Levitt, a South Africa-born professor, also holds Israeli citizenship.", The Times of Israel, October 9, 2013.
  85. "Martin Karplus, a US and Austrian citizen", The Jerusalem Post, October 9, 2013.
  86. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث ج چ ح خ د ڈ ذ ر​ ڑ​ ز ژ س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ک گ ل​ م​ ن و ہ ھ ی ے اا اب ات اث اج اح اخ اد اذ ار از اس اش اص "Jewish Laureates of Nobel Prize in Biomedical Sciences". Israel Science and Technology Directory. Retrieved October 16, 2012.
  87. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1908"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  88. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1914"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  89. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1922"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  90. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1930"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  91. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1931"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  92. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1936"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  93. ^ ا ب Fred Skolnik, Michael Berenbaum (eds.) 2007. Encyclopaedia Judaica, Volume 13. Macmillan Reference USA / Keter Publishing House. p. 733. "Jewish scientists have participated in this problem from the early days of Joseph Erlanger's research on nerve conduction to Richard Axel's dissection of the pathways relevant to olfactory function."
  94. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1944"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  95. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1945"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  96. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1946"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  97. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1947"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  98. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1950"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  99. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1952"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  100. ^ ا ب "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1953"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  101. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1958"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  102. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1959"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
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  104. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1964"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  105. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1965"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  106. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1967"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  107. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1968"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  108. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1969"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  109. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1970"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  110. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1972"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  111. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1975"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  112. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1976"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  113. Mark Avrum Ehrlich. Encyclopedia of the Jewish Diaspora: Origins, Experiences, and Culture, Volume 1, ABC-CLIO, 2009, p. 1037.
  114. Frank Heynick. Jews and Medicine: An Epic Saga, KTAV Publishing House, 2002, p. 574.
  115. ^ ا ب "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1977"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  116. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1978"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  117. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1980"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  118. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1984"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  119. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1985"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  120. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1986"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  121. Hargittai, István (2003). The Road to Stockholm: Nobel Prizes, Science, and Scientists. اوکسفرڈ یونیورسٹی پریس. p. 110. ISBN 978-0-19-860785-4
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  123. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1989"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  124. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1994"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  125. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1997"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  126. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1998"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  127. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2000"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
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  129. Peter Badge, Nikolaus Turner (2007). Nobel Faces: A Gallery of Nobel Prize Winners Wiley-VCH. p. 126. ISBN 978-3-527-40678-4. "Axel was born to Polish Jewish refugees in New York in 1946"
  130. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2004"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  131. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2006"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-07-28۔ 
  132. Canadian scientist wins Nobel prize days after death
  133. Bar-Mitzvah of Steinman's brother Mark Charles (Canadian Jewish Review)
  134. Seymour David Steinman
  135. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ 
  136. Dr. Ernest Beutler, 1928–2008
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  138. ^ ا ب "Prix Nobel de médecine 2013 : un duo de chercheurs américains juifs récompensé", Le Monde Juif, October 7, 2013.
  139. "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 2011"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ 
  140. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث ج چ ح خ د ڈ ذ ر​ ڑ​ ز ژ س ش ص ض ط ظ ع غ ف ق ک گ ل​ م​ ن و ہ ھ ی ے اا اب ات اث اج اح اخ اد اذ "Jewish Laureates of Nobel Prize in Physics". Israel Science and Technology Directory. Retrieved October 16, 2012.
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  142. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1908"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  143. Leroy, Francis (2003). A Century of Nobel Prizes Recipients: Chemistry, Rhysics, and Medicine. CRC Press. p. 134. ISBN 978-0-8247-0876-4
  144. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1921"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  145. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1922"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  146. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1925"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  147. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1943"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  148. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1944"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  149. Pauli had three Jewish grandparents. When discussing his plans to leave Switzerland in 1940, he wrote "Actually I suppose I am under German law 75 per cent Jewish." "Wolfgang Pauli – Failed naturalisation and departure to the USA"۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2010-03-08۔ 
  150. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1945"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  151. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1952"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  152. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1954"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  153. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1958"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  154. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1959"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  155. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1960"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
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  158. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1962"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  159. Lev Landau: Topmost Soviet Jewish Scientist Wins Nobel Prize
  160. Marton, Kati (2006). The Great Escape: Nine Jews Who Fled Hitler and Changed the World. Simon & Schuster. p. 4. ISBN 978-1-4165-4245-2
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  162. James Gleick. Genius: The Life and Science of Richard Feynman. Random House. 1995. p. 85. "Feynman, as a New York Jew distinctly uninterested in either the faith or sociology of Judaism..."
  163. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1965"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  164. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1967"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  165. Leroy, Francis (2003). A Century of Nobel Prizes Recipients: Chemistry, Rhysics, and Medicine. CRC Press. p. 183. ISBN 978-0-8247-0876-4
  166. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1969"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  167. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1971"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
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  169. Kurtz, Seymour (1985). Jewish America. McGraw-Hill. p. 244.
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  171. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1973"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  172. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1975"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  173. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1976"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  174. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1978"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  175. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1979"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  176. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1987"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2011-10-18۔ 
  177. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1988"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  178. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1990"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  179. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1992"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  180. ^ ا ب "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1995"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  181. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1996"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  182. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 1997"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  183. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2000"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  184. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2003"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  185. "David J. Gross: Autobiography"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2011-10-16۔ 
  186. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2004"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  187. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2005"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-09۔ 
  188. Wedding: Nancy Schondorf And Adam Riess
  189. Wedding: Drs. Gail Michele Riess and Leonard Bruce Saltz
  190. Obituary: Michael Riess
  191. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2011"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ 
  192. Samuel Davidson, led Yiddish revival
  193. The Jewish Public Forum at CLAL
  194. " French-Jewish physicist wins Nobel Prize along with American colleague", ہاآرتس (Jewish Telegraphic Agency), October 9, 2012.
  195. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2012"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2012-10-09۔ 
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  197. "Tel Aviv University professor shares Nobel Prize in physics", The Times of Israel, October 8, 2013. "Professor Englert is a Belgian Jew"
  198. Ziri, Daniel. "Tel Aviv U. affiliated prof. who is a Holocaust survivor wins Nobel for physics", The Jerusalem Post (Reuters), October 8, 2013. "The 80-year-old Englert – a Belgian Jew and Holocaust survivor..."
  199. "The Nobel Prize in Physics 2013"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ 
  200. Abrams, Irwin (2001). The Nobel Peace Prize and the Laureates: An Illustrated Biographical History, 1901–2001. Science History Publications. p. 78. ISBN 978-0-88135-388-4
  201. ^ ا ب "The Nobel Peace Prize 1911"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-11-12۔ 
  202. Abrams, Irwin (2001). The Nobel Peace Prize and the Laureates: An Illustrated Biographical History, 1901–2001. Science History Publications. p. 76. ISBN 978-0-88135-388-4
  203. "The Nobel Peace Prize 1968"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-11-12۔ 
  204. Abrams, Irwin (2001). The Nobel Peace Prize and the Laureates: An Illustrated Biographical History, 1901–2001. Science History Publications. p. 220. ISBN 978-0-88135-388-4
  205. "The Nobel Peace Prize 1973"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-11-12۔ 
  206. "The Nobel Peace Prize, 1901–2000"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ 2001-03-15۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-11-28۔ 
  207. Abrams, Irwin (2001). The Nobel Peace Prize and the Laureates: An Illustrated Biographical History, 1901–2001. Science History Publications. p. 239. ISBN 978-0-88135-388-4
  208. "The Nobel Peace Prize 1978"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-11-12۔ 
  209. Abrams, Irwin (2001). The Nobel Peace Prize and the Laureates: An Illustrated Biographical History, 1901–2001. Science History Publications. p. 266. ISBN 978-0-88135-388-4
  210. "The Nobel Peace Prize 1986"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-11-12۔ 
  211. "Press Release- The Nobel Peace Prize 1994"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-20۔ 
  212. "The Nobel Peace Prize 1995"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-20۔ 
  213. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث ج چ ح خ د ڈ ذ ر​ ڑ​ ز ژ س ش ص ض ط ظ "Jewish Laureates of Nobel Prize in Economics". Israel Science and Technology Directory. Retrieved October 16, 2012.
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  215. "The Nobel Prize in Economics 1970"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-20۔ 
  216. Stephen Harlan Norwood, Eunice G. Pollack (2008). "American Jews in Economics". Encyclopedia of American Jewish History, Volume 1. ISBN 978-1-85109-638-1. p. 720.
  217. "The Nobel Prize in Economics 1971"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-20۔ 
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  219. "The Nobel Prize in Economics 1972"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-20۔ 
  220. "The Nobel Prize in Economics 1973"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-20۔ 
  221. "The Nobel Prize in Economics 1975"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-20۔ 
  222. Vane, Howard R (2007). The Nobel Memorial Laureates in Economics: An Introduction to their Careers. Edward Elgar Publishing, p. 82. ISBN 978-1-84720-092-1
  223. "The Nobel Prize in Economics 1976"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-20۔ 
  224. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث ج چ ح خ Stephen Harlan Norwood, Eunice G. Pollack (2008). "American Jews in Economics". Encyclopedia of American Jewish History, Volume 1. ISBN 978-1-85109-638-1. p. 721.
  225. "The Nobel Prize in Economics 1978"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-20۔ 
  226. "The Nobel Prize in Economics 1980"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-20۔ 
  227. "The Nobel Prize in Economics 1985"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-20۔ 
  228. "The Nobel Prize in Economics 1987"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-20۔ 
  229. "The Nobel Prize in Economics 1990"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-20۔ 
  230. "The Nobel Prize in Economics 1992"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-20۔ 
  231. "The Nobel Prize in Economics 1993"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-20۔ 
  232. Vane, Howard R (2007). The Nobel Memorial Laureates in Economics: An Introduction to their Careers. Edward Elgar Publishing, p. 222. ISBN 978-1-84720-092-1
  233. "The Nobel Prize in Economics 1994"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-20۔ 
  234. Lesley Simpson. "Endowment fund named for winner of Nobel Prize". The Hamilton Spectator. September 16, 1998. p. A8.
  235. "The Nobel Prize in Economics 1997"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2011-10-28۔ 
  236. Stephen Harlan Norwood؛ Eunice G. Pollack (2008)۔ "Myron+Scholes"+jewish&hl=en&sa=X&ei=GUxhT_WXK4f40gH9zcnMBw&ved=0CDoQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q="Myron%20Scholes"%20jewish&f=false Encyclopedia of American Jewish History, Volume 1۔ ABC-CLIO۔ صفحہ 721۔ آئی ایس بی این 9781851096381۔ 
  237. "The Nobel Prize in Economics 2001"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-20۔ 
  238. Florida Atlantic University Libraries
  239. "The Nobel Prize in Economics 2002"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-20۔ 
  240. "Brief Bio – Robert J Aumann"۔ Robert Aumann۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2010-04-17۔ "Robert Aumann was born in Frankfurt am Main, جرمنی, in 1930, to a well-to-do orthodox Jewish family." 
  241. "The Nobel Prize in Economics 2005"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-20۔ 
  242. "Leonid Hurwicz: Nobel Prize in Economics Recipient-2007"۔ Florida Atlantic University Libraries۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2010-03-31۔ 
  243. "Leonid Hurwicz (1917–2008)"۔ Jewish Virtual Library۔ American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2010-03-31۔ 
  244. "A house resolution honoring Professor Leo Hurwicz on his 90th birthday"۔ Legislature of the State of Minnesota (image via University of Minnesota, umn.edu)۔ 9 April 2007۔ اصل سے جمع شدہ 2007-10-25 کو۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2007-10-16۔ 
  245. ^ ا ب پ Pervos, Stefanie (11/5/2007). "Nobel Prize winners have Jewish, Chicago connections". JUF News. "Three Jewish scholars, two with Chicago connections, were awarded the 2007 Nobel Prize in Economic Science in October. Leonid Hurwicz, a professor emeritus at the University of Minnesota and former researcher at the University of Chicago; Roger B. Myerson, a University of Chicago professor; and Eric S. Maskin of the Institute for Advanced Study at Princeton University, N.J., were honored for their joint work on mechanism design theory."
  246. "The Nobel Prize in Economics 2007"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2008-10-20۔ 
  247. Silverstein, Marilyn. "Nobel winner who's at home with Einstein", New Jersey Jewish News, November 8, 2007. "A native of New York, Maskin grew up in New Jersey, in a nonreligious Jewish home in the town of Alpine... But is he culturally Jewish? "Sure," he said. "It's a very rich culture, and I'm attracted to that side of it. I listen to klezmer — I'm actually a clarinetist myself. And there are certain Jewish foods I'm especially fond of — latkes, chopped liver, chicken soup with matza balls. I like to cook, and a lot of the things I cook have been handed down — a stuffed cabbage recipe I'm fond of, a meat pie recipe. I saw my grandmother do them."
  248. "A Willful Ignorance"۔ نیو یارک ٹائمز۔ 2003-10-28۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2010-04-17۔ "Sure enough, I was accused in various places not just of 'tolerance for anti-Semitism' (yes, I'm Jewish) [...]" 
  249. "The Nobel Prize in Economics 2008"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2009-10-20۔ 
  250. Home | MIT Hillel
  251. Going to the head of the class | Herald Community Newspapers | www.liherald.com
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  253. "US economists tied to Israeli academia win Nobel", JTA in The Jerusalem Post, October 15, 2012.
  254. "The Nobel Prize in Economics 2012"۔ Nobel Foundation۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 2012-10-15۔ 

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