ٹاؤن لینڈ

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
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ٹاؤن لینڈ (انگریزی: Townland; آئرش: baile fearainn; السٹر-اسکاٹس: toonlann[1]) آئرلینڈ میں استعمال ہونے والی زمین کی ایک چھوٹی جغرافیائی تقسیم ہے۔ [2][3][4][5]

حوالہ جات[ترمیم]

  1. "Rules o Richt Hannlin fur Uisin Ulstèr-Scotch as Pairt o Wark" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ Norlin Airlann Coort Sarvice۔ اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 4 مئی 2017۔
  2. Terry Barry۔ "Rural Settlement in Medieval Ireland"۔ A History of Settlement in Ireland۔ Routledge۔ صفحہ 114۔ She argued that Ireland's townland system, which pre-dated the Anglo-Norman conquest, worked against the creation of sizeable nucleated settlements.
  3. Billy Colfer۔ "Prehistoric and Early Christian Landscapes"۔ The Hook Peninsula۔ Cork University Press۔ صفحہ 29۔ The townland network provides the most pervasive landscape survival from the Gaelic era. Most townlands, many retaining their Gaelic names, are believed to pre-date the arrival of the Anglo-Normans.
  4. Brian Graham۔ "Ireland: Economy and Society"۔ A companion to Britain in the later Middle Ages۔ Wiley-Blackwell۔ صفحہ 149۔ The manor was the basic unit of settlement throughout the Anglo-Norman colony. Anngret Simms and others have argued that the constraint of the pre-existing Gaelic-Irish network of townlands (the basic subdivision of land in Ireland, a townland was originally the holding of an extended family) pre-empted the formation of large villages on the Anglo-Norman manors of Ireland.
  5. Howard Clarke؛ Jacinta Prunty؛ Mark Hennessy۔ Surveying Ireland's Past۔ Geography Publications۔ صفحہ 113۔ It is clear that the Gaelic townland system of territorial organisation exerted a powerful centripetal force on the evolving settlement pattern.