نگورنو کاراباخ تنازع

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
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نگورنو کاراباخ تنازع
بسلسلہ سوویت کے بعد کے تنازعات
Artsakh Occupation Map.png
Current military situation in Nagorno-Karabakh
تاریخFebruary 1988–present
مقامNagorno-Karabakh line of contact and Armenia–Azerbaijan border
نتیجہ

Decisive Armenian military victory in 1994[12]

سرحدی
تبدیلیاں
جمہوریہ نگورنو کاراباخ کی آزادی اور آرمینیا کے ساتھ اتحاد[20]
محارب
Flag of Artsakh.svg جمہوریہ نگورنو کاراباخ (Nagorno-Karabakh)[ا]
Flag of Armenia.svg آرمینیا[ب]
Foreign fighters
Arms suppliers
Diplomatic support
Flag of Azerbaijan.svg آذربائیجان[پ]
Flag of the Soviet Union.svg سوویت اتحاد (1988–91)[ت]
Foreign fighters
Arms suppliers
Diplomatic support
شریک یونٹیں
Army Artsakh.jpg Artsakh Defence Army
Armmil zinanshan.jpg Armed Forces of Armenia
Coat of arms of the Azerbaijani Armed Forces.png Azerbaijani Armed Forces
طاقت

2018: 65,000 (active servicemen)[21][ٹ]

1993–94: 30,000–40,000[24][25]

2019: 66,950 (active servicemen)[26]

1993–94: 42,000–56,000[25][24][27]
ہلاکتیں اور نقصانات
214 فوجی, 16 شہری ہلاک (2008ء–2016ء) 1,008 فوجی اور 90+ شہری ہلاک, 1,205 فوجی اور140 شہری زخمی, 30+ فوجی اور 12 پکڑے گئے شہری (1994ء–2016ء)[28]
28,000–38,000 ہلاک (1988ء–1994ء)[33]
3,000 ہلاک (مئی 1994ء – اگست 2009ء)[34]
545–551+ ہلاک(2010ء–2020ء)

نگورنو کاراباخ تنازع (انگریزی: Nagorno-Karabakh conflict) آرمینیا اور آذربائیجان کے درمیان واقع ایک علاقے کا جھگڑا ہے۔ اس علاقے کو آذربائیجان کا حصہ تسلیم کیا جاتا ہے لیکن اس کا انتظام آرمینیائی نسل کے لوگوں کے پاس ہے۔دونوں ممالک کے درمیان اس علاقے کو حاصل کرنے کے لیے 80 اور 90 کی دہائی میں خونریز جنگیں ہو چکی ہیں۔اس علاقے کے ساتھ ارد گرد کے سات اضلاع پر خود ساختہ جمہوریہ نگورنو کاراباخ کی حکومت ہے۔ اس تنازعے میں پاکستان اور ترکی کی حکومتیں کھل کر آذربائیجان کی سفارتی مدد کر رہی ہیں۔

مزید دیکھیے[ترمیم]

حوالہ جات[ترمیم]

  1. Shogren، Elizabeth (21 September 1990). "Armenians Wage Hunger Strike in Regional Dispute: Soviet Union: Five threaten to starve themselves to death unless Moscow ends military rule in Azerbaijan enclave.". Los Angeles Times. 
  2. Cornell، Svante E. (1999). "The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict" (PDF). Report no. 46, Department of East European Studies. Uppsala University. صفحہ 26. Sporadic clashes became frequent by the first months of 1991, with an ever-increasing organization of paramilitary forces on the Armenian side, whereas Azerbaijan still relied on the support of Moscow. [...] In response to this development, a joint Soviet and Azerbaijani military and police operation directed from Moscow was initiated in these areas during the Spring and Summer of 1991. 
  3. Papazian، Taline (2008). "State at War, State in War: The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict and State-Making in Armenia, 1991–1995". The Journal of Power Institutions in Post-Soviet Societies (8): 25. doi:10.4000/pipss.1623. https://journals.openedition.org/pipss/1623. "...units of the 4th army stationed in Azerbaijan and Azeri OMONs were used in “Operation Ring”, to empty a number of Armenian villages in Nagorno-Karabakh in April 1991.". 
  4. Murphy، David E. (1992). "Operation 'Ring': The Black Berets in Azerbaijan". The Journal of Soviet Military Studies 5 (1): 93. doi:10.1080/13518049208430053. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/13518049208430053. "...Operation 'Ring' as a combined Soviet-Azerbaijan operation to weaken Armenian resistance in the Nagorno-Karabakh enclave.". 
  5. Rudolph، Joseph Russell، ویکی نویس (2003). Encyclopedia of Modern Ethnic Conflicts. Greenwood Press. صفحہ 208. ISBN 9780313313813. When the Soviet Union broke up in 1991 [...] the Karabakh conflict escalated further, from guerrilla warfare to full-scale conventional combat. 
  6. Tharoor، Ishaan (April 5, 2016). "The crisis over Nagorno-Karabakh, explained". دی واشنگٹن پوسٹ. 24 جولا‎ئی 2020 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. 
  7. "The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict: A Visual Explainer". International Crisis Group. 29 جون 2020 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. 
  8. "Armenia-Azerbaijan arms race undercuts peace prospects". Emerald Expert Briefings. Oxford Analytica. August 11, 2017. doi:10.1108/OXAN-DB223736. As low-intensity fighting continues... 
  9. Anishchuk، Alexei (December 10, 2010). "Armenia says to recognise Karabakh in case of war". روئٹرز. 24 اگست 2020 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. Low-intensity skirmishes since 1994... 
  10. Broers، Laurence (2005). "The limits of leadership: Elites and societies in the Nagorny Karabakh peace process". Accord (London: Conciliation Resources): 8. doi:ڈی او ئي. آئی ایس ایس این 1365-0742. http://www.c-r.org/downloads/17_Nagorny_Karabakh.pdf۔ اخذ کردہ بتاریخ 17 February 2017. "Overlaying what is fundamentally a territorial dispute are the consequences of the 1991–94 war: a decisive Armenian military victory resulting in Armenian control of Nagorny Karabakh and the further occupation of seven districts surrounding it.". 
  11. Mirovalev، Mansur (April 19, 2016). "Here's why a 'frozen' conflict between Armenia and Azerbaijan has gotten hot". Los Angeles Times. The 1994 cease-fire [...] ended in political stalemate. 
  12. The Caucasus and Central Asia: Transitioning to Emerging Markets (PDF). بین الاقوامی مالیاتی فنڈ. April 2014. صفحہ 72. ISBN 9781484305140. doi:10.5089/9781484305140.087. Armenia and Azerbaijan have been in a cold war since the cessation of large-scale conflict over Nagorno-Karabakh during 1988–94... 
  13. Broers، Laurence (12 September 2012). "Armenia and Azerbaijan: what can societies do when political judgement errs?". opendemocracy.net. openDemocracy. 24 اگست 2020 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. ...as cold war between Armenia and Azerbaijan deepens. 
  14. Tchilingirian، Hratch (1999). "Nagorno Karabagh: Transition and the elite". Central Asian Survey 18 (4): 450. doi:10.1080/713656168. "As characterized by Karabagh's defence minister, the current post-war situation in the region is 'a cold war between Azerbaijan and Karabagh'.". 
  15. Bodner، Matthew (November 21, 2016). "Russia Emerges as Winner in Arms Race Between Armenia and Azerbaijan". The Moscow Times. 05 اگست 2020 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. 
  16. Mutschler، Max; Bales، Marius (February 2020). Global Militarisation Index 2019. Bonn International Center for Conversion. p. 2. doi:ڈی او ئي. آئی ایس ایس این 2521-7844. https://www.bicc.de/uploads/tx_bicctools/BICC_GMI_2019_EN.pdf. "The unresolved secessionist conflict between Armenia (position 3) and Azerbaijan (position 10) over the Nagorno-Karabakh region continues to keep militarisation in the South Caucasus at a very high level.". 
  17. de Waal، Thomas (3 April 2016). "Nagorno-Karabakh's cocktail of conflict explodes again". بی بی سی نیوز. 28 مارچ 2019 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. The so-called Line of Contact between the two sides became the most militarised zone in the wider Europe, bristling with tanks and heavy artillery. 
  18. Trenin، Dmitri V. (2011). Post-Imperium: A Eurasian Story. Brookings Institution Press. صفحہ 67. ISBN 9780870033452. Armenia is de facto united with Nagorno-Karabakh, an unrecognized state, in a single entity. 
    • Mulcaire، Jack (9 April 2015). "Face Off: The Coming War between Armenia and Azerbaijan". The National Interest. 03 جنوری 2017 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 14 دسمبر 2016. The mostly Armenian population of the disputed region now lives under the control of the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic, a micronation that is supported by Armenia and is effectively part of that country. 
    • Cornell، Svante (2011). Azerbaijan Since Independence. New York: M.E. Sharpe. صفحہ 135. ISBN 978-0-7656-3004-9. Following the war, the territories that fell under Armenian control, in particular Mountainous Karabakh itself, were slowly integrated into Armenia. Officially, Karabakh and Armenia remain separate political entities, but for most practical matters the two entities are unified." 
  19. Abrahamyan، Eduard (8 January 2018). "Russian Loan Allows Armenia to Upgrade Military Capabilities". CACI Analyst. Central Asia-Caucasus Institute. 05 اگست 2020 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. While often portrayed as separate forces, Armenia’s Armed Forces and the “Artsakh Defense Army,” totaling up to 65,000 active personnel, are in practice one force with a single Command-and-Control (C2) system. 
  20. International Institute for Strategic Studies (15 February 2019). The Military Balance 2019. لندن: روٹلیج. صفحہ 184. ISBN 9781857439885. 
  21. Blandy، C. W. (May 2008). Azerbaijan: Is War Over Nagornyy Karabakh a Realistic Option? (PDF). Advanced Research and Assessment Group, Defence Academy of the United Kingdom. صفحہ 14. ISBN 978-1-905962-49-5. 15 اپریل 2016 میں اصل (PDF) سے آرکائیو شدہ. 
  22. ^ ا ب
  23. ^ ا ب
  24. International Institute for Strategic Studies (15 February 2019). The Military Balance 2019. لندن: روٹلیج. صفحہ 185. ISBN 9781857439885. 
  25. "SIPRI Yearbook 1995". sipri.org. Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. صفحہ 28. 26 اگست 2020 میں اصل (PDF) سے آرکائیو شدہ.  Table of conflict locations with at least one major armed conflict in 1994
  26. "Caspian Defense Studies Institute: More than 2000 injured or dead in Karabakh war". Meydan TV. 06 اگست 2016 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 18 مئی 2016. 
  27. de Waal 2003، صفحہ 285.
  28. Winds of Change in Nagorno Karabakh آرکائیو شدہ 2011-12-06 بذریعہ وے بیک مشین. Euronews. 28 November 2009.
  29. Uppsala Conflict Data Program, Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh – civilians, viewed 2013-05-03
  30. "Azerbaijani Soldier Shot Dead by Armenian Forces". Naharnet. 16 اکتوبر 2014 میں اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ. اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 22 اکتوبر 2014. 
  31. See [29][30][31][32]
  32. "Armenia and Azerbaijan: Preventing War" (PDF). Europe Briefing N°60. International Crisis Group. 8 February 2011. صفحہ 3. 20 مئی 2016 میں اصل (PDF) سے آرکائیو شدہ. There are no exact casualty figures since 1994, but most observers agree that as many as 3,000 people, mostly soldiers, have died. Crisis Group phone interview, Jasur Sumerinli, military expert, August 2009.