چین میں مذہب

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چین میں مذہب (سی ایف پی ایس 2014)[1][2][حاشیہ 1]

  لادینیت / چینی لوک مذہب (بشمول مقامی پرستشی معبود اور آباؤ اجداد، کنفیوشس مت، تاؤ مت) (73.56%)
  بدھ مت (15.87%)
  دیگر مذاہب بشمول لوک نجات مت اور تاؤ مت[حاشیہ 2] (7.60%)
  مسیحیت (2.53%)

حکومت عوامی جمہوریہ چین نے مذہب کے معاملے میں ریاستی الحاد کا اعلان کر رکھا ہے۔ تاہم چینی تمدن تاریخی طور پر طویل عرصے سے دنیا میں مذہبی-فلسفہ روایات کے لئے ایک اہم میزبان رہا ہے اور کئی مذاہب یہیں سے پروان چڑھے ہیں۔ کنفیوشس مت اور تاؤ مت، بعد میں بدھ مت نے بھی اس میں شمولیت اختیار کی "تعلیمات ثلاثہ" پر مشتمل ہیں جنہوں نے چینی ثقافت کی تشکیل کی ہے۔ اس متغیر مذہبی نظام کے درمیان کوئی واضح حدود نہیں ہیں، جو خاص ہونے کا دعوی نہیں کرتا ہے، اور ہر ایک کے عناصر مقبول لوک مذہب کو فروغ دیتے ہیں۔ شہنشاہان چین نے بہشتی تولیت (Mandate of Heaven) کے حق کا دعوی کیا اور چینی مذہبی رسومات میں حصہ لیا۔ بیسویں صدی کے آغاز میں اصلاحات پسند افسران اور دانشوروں نے تمام مذاہب پر "غیر معمولی" ہونے کا الزام لگایا اور 1949ء کے بعد سے عوامی جمہوریہ چین میں چینی کمیونسٹ پارٹی کی حکومت ہے جو کہ ایک ملحد ادارہ ہے جس میں پارٹی کے ارکان کو دفتر میں کسی قسم کی مذہبی رسوم ادا کرنے سے روکتا ہے۔ انیسویں صدی کے اواخر سے الحادی اور مذہب مخالف مہمات کا ایک سلسلہ جاری ہے، پرانے عادات، خیالات، رواج اور ثقافت کے خلاف ثقافتی انقلاب جو کہ 1966ء سے 1967ء تک چلا نے مذہبی قوتوں کو تباہ کر دیا یا ان کو زیر زمین ہونے پر مجبور کر دیا۔[3][4] بعد میں آنے والے رہنماؤں نے مذہبی تنظیموں کو زیادہ خود مختاری دی۔ سرکاری طور پر حکومت پانچ مذاہب کو تسلیم کرتی ہے جو کہ بدھ مت، تاؤ مت، کاتھولک مسیحیت (چینی کاتھولک کلیسیا رومی کاتھولک کلیسیا سے آزاد ہے)، پروٹسٹنٹ مسیحیت اور اسلام ہیں۔ بیسویں صدی کے آغاز میں کنفیوشس مت اور چینی لوک مذہب کو چین کی ثقافتی وراثے کا حصے کے طور پر سرکاری طور پر تسلیم کرنے میں اضافہ ہوا ہے۔

لوک یا مقبول مذہب اور ان کے عقائد اور طریقوں کا وسیع پیمانے پر نظام کا آغاز شانگ دور اور ژؤ دور میں ہوا۔ مسیحیت اور اسلام جین میں ساتویں صدی میں آئے۔ چین کو اکثر انسان دوستی اور سیکولرازم کا ایک گھر سمجھا جاتا ہے جس کا آغاز کنفیوشس دور سے ہوا۔

مذاہب بلحاظ صوبہ[ترمیم]


مذہب بلحاظ صوبہ، چین کے بڑے شہر اور خود مختار علاقے، تازہ ترین دستیاب اعداد و شمار کے مطابق[حاشیہ 6]
صوبہ چینی
اجداد پرستی
[5]
بدھ مت[13] مسیحیت[13] اسلام[14]
فوجیان 31.31% 40.40% 3.97% 0.32%
ژجیانگ 23.02% 23.99% 3.89% <0.2%
گوانگشی 40.48% 10.23% 0.15% <0.2%
گوانگڈونگ 43.71% 5.18% 0.68% <0.2%
یوننان 32.22% 13.06% 0.68% 1.52%
گوئیژو 31.18% 1.86% 0.49% 0.48%
جیانگسو 16.67% 14.17% 2.67% <0.2%
جیانگشی 24.05% 7.96% 0.66% <0.2%
شانڈونگ 25.28% 2.90% 1.54% 0.55%
چونگ چنگ 26.63% 0.85% 0.28% <0.2%
ہونان 20.19% 2.44% 0.49% <0.2%
شنسی 15.61% 3.65% 1.55% <0.2%
ہینان 7.94% 5.52% 4.95% 1.05%
جیلن 7.73% 8.23% 3.26% <0.2%
انہوئی 4.64% 7.83% 4.32% 0.58%
گانسو 3.51% 6.85% 0.28% 6.64%
ہیلونگجیانگ 7.73% 4.39% 3.63% 0.35%
شانسی 7.58% 6.35% 1.66% 0.4%
لیاؤننگ 7.73% 5.31% 1.99% 0.64%
سیچوان 10.6% 2.06% 0.30% <0.2%
ہوبئی 6.5% 2.09% 1.71% <0.2%
ہیبئی 5.52% 1.59% 1.13% 0.82%
ہائنان 0.48%[5] <0.2%
بیجنگ 11.2%[16] 0.78%[5] 1.76%
شنگھائی 10.30% 1.88% 0.36%
تیانجن 0.43% <0.2%
تبت ~78%[17] 0.39%
سنکیانگ 1.0%[5] 57.99%
نینگشیا 1.17%[5] 33.99%
چنگھائی 0.76%[5] 17.51%
اندرونی منگولیا 2.36% 12.1%[18] 2.0%[5] 0.91%
چین 16%[19] 15%[2] 2.5%[2] 2%[15]:13

مزید دیکھیے[ترمیم]

دیگر

حواشی[ترمیم]

  1. CFPS 2014 surveyed a sample of 13,857 families and 31,665 individuals.[2]:27, note 4 As noted by Katharina Wenzel-Teuber of China Zentrum, German institute for research on religion in China, compared to CFPS 2012, CFPS 2014 asked the Chinese about personal belief in certain conceptions of divinity (i.e. "Buddha"، "Tao"، "God of the Christians/Jesus"، "Heavenly Lord of the Catholics") rather than membership in a religious group.[2]:27 It also included regions, such as those in the west of China, that were excluded in CFPS 2012,[2]:27, note 3 and unregistered Christians.[2]:28 For these reasons, she concludes that CFPS 2014 results are more accurate than 2012 ones.
  2. CFPS 2017 found that 5.94% of the population declared that they belonged to "other" religious categories besides the five state-sanctioned religions. An additional 0.85% of the population responded that they were "Taoists"۔ Note that the title of "Taoist"، in common Chinese usage, is generally attributed only to the Taoist clergy۔ CFPS 2014 found that a further 0.81% declared that they belonged to the popular salvationist sects, while CFPS 2012 found 2.2%، and CGSS 2006–2010 surveys found an average 3% of the population declaring that they belonged to such religions, while government estimates give higher figures (see the "statistics" section of the present article)۔
  3. CFPS 2014 surveyed predominantly people of ہان چینی۔ This may have resulted in an underestimation of Muslims. CGSS 2006–2010 surveys found an average 2-3% of the population of China declaring to be Muslim.
  4. Chinese ancestral or lineage religion is the worship of kin's ancestor-gods in the system of lineage churches and ancestral shrines. It is worthwhile to note that this does not include other forms of Chinese religion, such as the worship of national ancestral gods or the gods of nature (which in northern China is more common than ancestor worship)، and Taoism and Confucianism.
  5. The map represents the geographic diffusion of the tradition of folk religious movements of salvation, Confucian churches and jiaohua ("transformative teachings") movements, based on historical data and contemporary fieldwork. Due to incomplete data and ambiguous identity of many of these traditions the map may not be completely accurate. Sources include a World Religion Map from Harvard University, based on data from the World Religion Database, showing highly unprecise ranges of Chinese folk (salvationist) religions' membership by province. Another source, the studies of China's Regional Religious System، find "very high activity of popular religion and secret societies and low Buddhist presence in northern regions, while very high Buddhist presence in the southeast"۔[6] Historical record and contemporary scholarly fieldwork testify certain central and northern provinces of China as hotbeds of folk religious sects and Confucian religious groups.
    • ہیبئی: Fieldwork by Thomas David Dubois[7] testifies the dominance of folk religious movements, specifically the Church of the Heaven and the Earth and the Church of the Highest Supreme، since their "energetic revival since the 1970s" (p. 13)، in the religious life of the counties of Hebei. Religious life in rural Hebei is also characterised by a type of organisation called the benevolent churches and the salvationist movement known as Zailiism has returned active since the 1990s.
    • ہینان: According to Heberer and Jakobi (2000)[8] Henan has been for centuries a hub of folk religious sects (p. 7) that constitute significant focuses of the religious life of the province. Sects present in the region include the Baguadao or Tianli ("Order of Heaven") sect, the Dadaohui, the Tianxianmiaodao، the Yiguandao، and many others. Henan also has a strong popular Confucian orientation (p. 5)۔
    • شمال مشرقی چین: According to official records by the then-government, the Universal Church of the Way and its Virtue or Morality Society had 8 million members in منچوریا، or northeast China in the 1930s, making up about 25% of the total population of the area (note that the state of Manchuria also included the eastern end of modern-day Inner Mongolia)۔[9] Folk religious movements of a Confucian nature, or Confucian churches, were in fact very successful in the northeast.
    • شانڈونگ: The province is traditionally a stronghold of Confucianism and is the area of origin of many folk religious sects and Confucian churches of the modern period, including the Universal Church of the Way and its Virtue, the Way of the Return to the One (皈依道 Guīyīdào)، the Way of Unity (一貫道 Yīguàndào)، and others. Alex Payette (2016) testifies the rapid growth of Confucian groups in the province in the 2010s.[10]
    According to the Chinese General Social Survey of 2012,[11] about 2.2% of the total population of China (around 30 million people) claims membership in the folk religious sects, which have likely maintained their historical dominance in central-northern and northeastern China.
  6. The statistics for Chinese ancestorism, that is the worship of ancestor-gods within the lineage system, are from the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey of 2010.[5] The statistics for Buddhism and Christianity are from the China Family Panel Studies survey of 2012.[13] The statistics for Islam are from a survey conducted in 2010.[14] It is worthwhile to note that the populations of Chinese ancestorism and Buddhism may overlap, even with the large remaining parts of the population whose belief is not documented in the table. The latter, the uncharted population, may practise other forms of Chinese religion, such as the worship of gods, Taoism, Confucianism and folk salvationisms, or may be atheist. Indeed, according to the CFPS 2012, only 6.3% of the Chinese were irreligious in the sense of "atheism"، while the rest practised the worship of gods and ancestors.[15]:13

حوالہ جات[ترمیم]

  1. For China Family Panel Studies 2017ء survey results see release #1 (archived) and release #2 (archived)۔ The tables also contain the results of CFPS 2012 (sample 20,035) and Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) results for 2006, 2008 and 2010 (samples ~10.000/11,000)۔ Also see, for comparison CFPS 2012 data in Yunfeng 云峰 Lu 卢۔ "卢云峰:当代中国宗教状况报告——基于CFPS(2012)调查数据" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ World Religious Cultures (1)۔ مورخہ 9 اگست 2014 کو اصل (پی‌ڈی‌ایف) سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ p. 13, reporting the results of the CGSS 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2011, and their average (fifth column of the first table)۔
  2. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث ج Katharina Wenzel-Teuber۔ "Statistics on Religions and Churches in the People's Republic of China – Update for the Year 2016" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ Religions & Christianity in Today's China (2)۔ صفحات 26–53۔ مورخہ 22 جولائی 2017 کو اصل (پی‌ڈی‌ایف) سے آرکائیو شدہ۔
  3. Sa'eda Buang؛ Phyllis Ghim-Lian Chew (9 مئی 2014)۔ Muslim Education in the 21st Century: Asian Perspectives (English زبان میں)۔ Routledge۔ صفحہ 75۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-1-317-81500-6۔ Subsequently, a new China was found on the basis of Communist ideology, i.e. atheism. Within the framework of this ideology, religion was treated as a 'contorted' world-view and people believed that religion would necessarily disappear at the end, along with the development of human society. A series of anti-religious campaigns was implemented by the Chinese Communist Party from the early 1950s to the late 1970s. As a result, in nearly 30 years between the beginning of the 1950s and the end of the 1970s, mosques (as well as churches and Chinese temples) were shut down and Imams involved in forced 're-education'.
  4. Linda Woodhead؛ Hiroko Kawanami؛ Christopher H. Partridge (ویکی نویس.)۔ Religions in the Modern World: Traditions and Transformations (اشاعت 2nd۔)۔ London: Routledge۔ آئی ایس بی این 0415458900۔ او سی ایل سی 237880815۔
  5. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ ث ج چ ح Data from the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey (CSLS) 2010 for Chinese ancestorists, and from the Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) 2009 for Christians. Reported in Xiuhua Wang۔ "Explaining Christianity in China: Why a Foreign Religion has Taken Root in Unfertile Ground" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ Baylor University۔ صفحہ 15۔ مورخہ 25 ستمبر 2015 کو اصل (پی‌ڈی‌ایف) سے آرکائیو شدہ۔
  6. Jiang Wu؛ Daoqin Tong۔ "Spatial Analysis and GIS Modeling of Regional Religious Systems in China" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ University of Arizona۔ مورخہ 27 اپریل 2017 کو اصل (پی‌ڈی‌ایف) سے آرکائیو شدہ۔
  7. Dubois (2005).
  8. Thomas Heberer؛ Sabine Jakobi۔ "Henan – The Model: From Hegemonism to Fragmentism. Portrait of the Political Culture of China's Most Populated Province" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ Duisburg Working Papers on East Asian Studies (32)۔
  9. Ownby (2008).
  10. Payette (2016).
  11. Yunfeng 云峰 Lu 卢۔ "卢云峰:当代中国宗教状况报告——基于CFPS(2012)调查数据" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ World Religious Cultures (1)۔ مورخہ 9 اگست 2014 کو اصل (پی‌ڈی‌ایف) سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ p. 13. The report compares the data of the China Family Panel Studies 2012 with those of the Renmin University's Chinese General Social Survey (CGSS) of the years 2006, 2008, 2010 and 2011.
  12. https://web.archive.org/web/20170427135809/http://previews.figshare.com/1117823/preview_1117823.jpg |archive-url= missing title (معاونت) (Map)۔ Taoism's incidence by province of China۔ مورخہ 27 اپریل 2017 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ The map illustrates local religion led by Taoist specialists, forms and institutions.
  13. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ Data from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) 2012. Reported in Rong Hua Gai؛ Jun Hui Gao (22 دسمبر 2016)۔ "Multiple-Perspective Analysis on the Geological Distribution of Christians in China"۔ PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences (1)۔ صفحات 809–817۔ ISSN 2454-5899۔ ڈی او آئی:10.20319/pijss.2016.s21.809817۔
  14. ^ ا ب پ Data from Zongde Yang۔ "Study on Current Muslim Population in China" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ Jinan Muslim (2)۔ مورخہ 27 اپریل 2017 کو اصل (پی‌ڈی‌ایف) سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ Reported in Junqing Min۔ "The Present Situation and Characteristics of Contemporary Islam in China" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ JISMOR (8)۔ مورخہ 24 جون 2017 کو اصل (پی‌ڈی‌ایف) سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ p. 29.
  15. ^ ا ب نقص حوالہ: ٹیگ <ref>‎ درست نہیں ہے؛ CFPS2012 نامی حوالہ کے لیے کوئی مواد درج نہیں کیا گیا۔ (مزید معلومات کے لیے معاونت صفحہ دیکھیے)۔
  16. Hongyi Lai۔ China's Governance Model: Flexibility and Durability of Pragmatic Authoritarianism۔ Routledge۔ آئی ایس بی این 978-1-317-85952-9۔ p. 167.
  17. "Internazional Religious Freedom Report 2012" (پی‌ڈی‌ایف)۔ US Government۔ p. 20, quoting: "Most ethnic Tibetans practice Tibetan Buddhism, although a sizeable minority practices Bon, an indigenous religion, and very small minorities practice Islam, Catholicism, or Protestantism. Some scholars estimate that there are as many as 400,000 Bon followers across the Tibetan Plateau. Scholars also estimate that there are up to 5,000 ethnic Tibetan Muslims and 700 ethnic Tibetan Catholics in the TAR"۔
  18. Jiayu Wu؛ Yong Fang (جنوری 2016)۔ "Study on the Protection of the Lama Temple Heritage in Inner Mongolia as a Cultural Landscape"۔ Journal of Asian Architecture and Building Engineering (1)۔ مورخہ 24 ستمبر 2017 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ۔ Note that the article, in an evident mistranslation from Chinese, reports 30 million Tibetan Buddhists in Inner Mongolia instead of 3 million.
  19. نقص حوالہ: ٹیگ <ref>‎ درست نہیں ہے؛ CSLS2010 نامی حوالہ کے لیے کوئی مواد درج نہیں کیا گیا۔ (مزید معلومات کے لیے معاونت صفحہ دیکھیے)۔

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