↑CFPS 2014 surveyed a sample of 13,857 families and 31,665 individuals.:27, note 4 As noted by Katharina Wenzel-Teuber of China Zentrum, German institute for research on religion in China, compared to CFPS 2012, CFPS 2014 asked the Chinese about personal belief in certain conceptions of divinity (i.e. "Buddha"، "Tao"، "God of the Christians/Jesus"، "Heavenly Lord of the Catholics") rather than membership in a religious group.:27 It also included regions, such as those in the west of China, that were excluded in CFPS 2012,:27, note 3 and unregistered Christians.:28 For these reasons, she concludes that CFPS 2014 results are more accurate than 2012 ones.
↑CFPS 2017 found that 5.94% of the population declared that they belonged to "other" religious categories besides the five state-sanctioned religions. An additional 0.85% of the population responded that they were "Taoists"۔ Note that the title of "Taoist"، in common Chinese usage, is generally attributed only to the Taoist clergy۔ CFPS 2014 found that a further 0.81% declared that they belonged to the popular salvationist sects, while CFPS 2012 found 2.2%، and CGSS 2006–2010 surveys found an average 3% of the population declaring that they belonged to such religions, while government estimates give higher figures (see the "statistics" section of the present article)۔
↑CFPS 2014 surveyed predominantly people of ہان چینی۔ This may have resulted in an underestimation of Muslims. CGSS 2006–2010 surveys found an average 2-3% of the population of China declaring to be Muslim.
↑Chinese ancestral or lineage religion is the worship of kin's ancestor-gods in the system of lineage churches and ancestral shrines. It is worthwhile to note that this does not include other forms of Chinese religion, such as the worship of national ancestral gods or the gods of nature (which in northern China is more common than ancestor worship)، and Taoism and Confucianism.
↑The map represents the geographic diffusion of the tradition of folk religious movements of salvation, Confucian churches and jiaohua ("transformative teachings") movements, based on historical data and contemporary fieldwork. Due to incomplete data and ambiguous identity of many of these traditions the map may not be completely accurate. Sources include a World Religion Map from Harvard University, based on data from the World Religion Database, showing highly unprecise ranges of Chinese folk (salvationist) religions' membership by province. Another source, the studies of China's Regional Religious System، find "very high activity of popular religion and secret societies and low Buddhist presence in northern regions, while very high Buddhist presence in the southeast"۔
Historical record and contemporary scholarly fieldwork testify certain central and northern provinces of China as hotbeds of folk religious sects and Confucian religious groups.
ہیبئی: Fieldwork by Thomas David Dubois testifies the dominance of folk religious movements, specifically the Church of the Heaven and the Earth and the Church of the Highest Supreme، since their "energetic revival since the 1970s" (p. 13)، in the religious life of the counties of Hebei. Religious life in rural Hebei is also characterised by a type of organisation called the benevolent churches and the salvationist movement known as Zailiism has returned active since the 1990s.
ہینان: According to Heberer and Jakobi (2000) Henan has been for centuries a hub of folk religious sects (p. 7) that constitute significant focuses of the religious life of the province. Sects present in the region include the Baguadao or Tianli ("Order of Heaven") sect, the Dadaohui, the Tianxianmiaodao، the Yiguandao، and many others. Henan also has a strong popular Confucian orientation (p. 5)۔
شمال مشرقی چین: According to official records by the then-government, the Universal Church of the Way and its Virtue or Morality Society had 8 million members in منچوریا، or northeast China in the 1930s, making up about 25% of the total population of the area (note that the state of Manchuria also included the eastern end of modern-day Inner Mongolia)۔ Folk religious movements of a Confucian nature, or Confucian churches, were in fact very successful in the northeast.
شانڈونگ: The province is traditionally a stronghold of Confucianism and is the area of origin of many folk religious sects and Confucian churches of the modern period, including the Universal Church of the Way and its Virtue, the Way of the Return to the One (皈依道 Guīyīdào)، the Way of Unity (一貫道 Yīguàndào)، and others. Alex Payette (2016) testifies the rapid growth of Confucian groups in the province in the 2010s.
According to the Chinese General Social Survey of 2012, about 2.2% of the total population of China (around 30 million people) claims membership in the folk religious sects, which have likely maintained their historical dominance in central-northern and northeastern China.
↑The statistics for Chinese ancestorism, that is the worship of ancestor-gods within the lineage system, are from the Chinese Spiritual Life Survey of 2010. The statistics for Buddhism and Christianity are from the China Family Panel Studies survey of 2012. The statistics for Islam are from a survey conducted in 2010. It is worthwhile to note that the populations of Chinese ancestorism and Buddhism may overlap, even with the large remaining parts of the population whose belief is not documented in the table. The latter, the uncharted population, may practise other forms of Chinese religion, such as the worship of gods, Taoism, Confucianism and folk salvationisms, or may be atheist. Indeed, according to the CFPS 2012, only 6.3% of the Chinese were irreligious in the sense of "atheism"، while the rest practised the worship of gods and ancestors.:13
↑Buang، Sa'eda؛ Chew، Phyllis Ghim-Lian (9 May 2014). Muslim Education in the 21st Century: Asian Perspectives (بزبان انگریزی). Routledge. صفحہ 75. ISBN978-1-317-81500-6. Subsequently, a new China was found on the basis of Communist ideology, i.e. atheism. Within the framework of this ideology, religion was treated as a 'contorted' world-view and people believed that religion would necessarily disappear at the end, along with the development of human society. A series of anti-religious campaigns was implemented by the Chinese Communist Party from the early 1950s to the late 1970s. As a result, in nearly 30 years between the beginning of the 1950s and the end of the 1970s, mosques (as well as churches and Chinese temples) were shut down and Imams involved in forced 're-education'.
↑Woodhead، Linda؛ Kawanami، Hiroko؛ Partridge، Christopher H.، ویکی نویس (2009). Religions in the Modern World: Traditions and Transformations (ایڈیشن 2nd). London: Routledge. ISBN0415458900. OCLC237880815.
↑"Taoism in China" (Map). Taoism's incidence by province of China. مورخہ 27 اپریل 2017 کو اصل سے آرکائیو شدہ.Check date values in: |archive-date= (معاونت) The map illustrates local religion led by Taoist specialists, forms and institutions.
^ ابپتٹData from the China Family Panel Studies (CFPS) 2012. Reported in Gai، Rong Hua؛ Gao، Jun Hui (22 دسمبر 2016). "Multiple-Perspective Analysis on the Geological Distribution of Christians in China". PEOPLE: International Journal of Social Sciences. 2 (1). صفحات 809–817. ISSN2454-5899. doi:10.20319/pijss.2016.s21.809817.تحقق من التاريخ في: |date= (معاونت)
↑Lai، Hongyi (2016). China's Governance Model: Flexibility and Durability of Pragmatic Authoritarianism. Routledge. ISBN978-1-317-85952-9. p. 167.
↑"Internazional Religious Freedom Report 2012"(PDF). US Government. p. 20, quoting: "Most ethnic Tibetans practice Tibetan Buddhism, although a sizeable minority practices Bon, an indigenous religion, and very small minorities practice Islam, Catholicism, or Protestantism. Some scholars estimate that there are as many as 400,000 Bon followers across the Tibetan Plateau. Scholars also estimate that there are up to 5,000 ethnic Tibetan Muslims and 700 ethnic Tibetan Catholics in the TAR"۔
Adler، Joseph A. (2005)، "Chinese Religion: An Overview"، بہ Lindsay Jones، Encyclopedia of Religion (اشاعت 2nd۔)، Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA۔ Available at the author's website: Joseph Adler Department of Religious Studies, کینین کالج۔
Espesset، Grégoire (2008)، "Latter Han Mass Religious Movements and the Early Daoist Church"، بہ Lagerwey، John؛ Kalinowski، Marc، Early Chinese Religion: Part One: Shang Through Han (1250 BC-220 AD)، Early Chinese Religion، Leiden: Brill، صفحات 1117–1158، ISBN9004168354۔ Consulted HAL-SHS version، pages 1–56.
Fan، Lizhu؛ Chen، Na (2015a)، "Revival of Confucianism and Reconstruction of Chinese Identity"، The Presence and Future of Humanity in the Cosmos، Tokyo, 18–23 مارچ: ICU
Fan، Lizhu؛ Chen، Na (2015). "The Religiousness of "Confucianism" and the Revival of Confucian Religion in China Today". Cultural Diversity in China. De Gruyter Open (1): 27–43. ISSN2353-7795. doi:10.1515/cdc-2015-0005.
Feuchtwang، Stephan (2016)، "Chinese religions"، بہ Woodhead، Linda؛ Kawanami، Hiroko؛ Partridge، Christopher H.، Religions in the Modern World: Traditions and Transformations (اشاعت 3nd۔)، London: Routledge، صفحات 143–172، ISBN1-317-43960-0۔
Payette، Alex (2014)، "Shenzhen's Kongshengtang: Religious Confucianism and Local Moral Governance"، Panel RC43: Role of Religion in Political Life(PDF)، 23rd World Congress of Political Science, 19–24 جولائی، مورخہ 2017-10-23 کو اصل(PDF) سے آرکائیو شدہ، اخذ شدہ بتاریخ 2019-03-18