معاونت:بین الاقوامی اصواتی ابجدیہ برائے پرتگیزی و گالیشی

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بین الاقوامی اصواتی ابجدیہ برائے پرتگیزی و گالیشی (IPA for Portuguese and Galician)

IPA حرف صحیحs
Flag of گالیسیا (ہسپانیہ)
G
Flag of پرتگال
EP
Flag of برازیل
BP
Examples English approximation
b besta; fábula (BP) best
β β b bula (EP, G); placebo[1] between baby and bevy or best
v cavalo; livre (P); libre (G)[2] vest or between baby and bevy
ð d fada; padre; rapadura[1] this or dice
duradouro; seu dente this or dice
d dedo dice
cidade; digo[3] dice or engine
f fase; café face
ɡ ɡ gato; guerra get
ɣ goa; magarefe between go and ahold or get
ɣ trigo; amiga[1] between go and ahold
k cores; laca; quente; kelvin scan
l l l lua; calor[4] lot
ɫ livro; lipídio; males[5] limp; fault (RP) or world (GA)
ɫ w mal; principal[5][4] toll; tow or lot
Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ʎ̟" not found in list velho (P); vello (G)[6] roughly like million
m mesa; comer[4] almighty
n nata; ano[4] not
ŋ unha; inglesa; can; álbum (G)[4] sing
Error using {{IPAsym}}: IPA symbol "ɲ̟" not found in list manhã (P); mañá (G) roughly like canyon
p peito; topo spouse
r ʁ ʁ raro; carro; enrascado[7][8] guttural r (P) or trilled r (G)
ɾ lar; morte; por favor[7][8][9] ladder in American English
or guttural r
ɾ raro; caro; bravo; por acaso[8][9] ladder in American English
ʃ ʒ ʒ já; gente (P); xa; xente (G) rouge or shop
z z rasgado; portas brancas rouge or zebra
s z casa; existir; portas abertas zebra or sack
θ zona; azul zebra or thought
ʃ s dez; foz sheep; sketch or bath
s cimeira; braço (P); brazo (G) sack or thought
s saco; máximo; isso (P); iso (G) sack
ʃ escola; mastro; portas fechadas sheep or sketch
ʃ ʃ xarope; baixo shop
chave; achar shop or chop
tchau chop
t tipo; ponte[3] stand or cheese
t tempo; átomo stand
IPA Marginal consonants
Flag of گالیسیا (ہسپانیہ)
G
Flag of پرتگال
EP
Flag of برازیل
BP
Examples English approximation
h hot dog[10] house
ħ ghato; trigho (G)[11] roughly like hook
x kharxa[12] loch
IPA Vowels
Flag of گالیسیا (ہسپانیہ)
G
Flag of پرتگال
EP
Flag of برازیل
BP
Examples English approximation
a a a taça; lá; às; Camões; alface father
ɐ Laurêncio; Ajinomoto about or father
ɐ taça; manhã; carapaça aura; finger (RP) or father
cama; banho; câmera purse (RP) or father
ɛ ɛ meta, sé set
e incrível set or play
e e meto; sê; acepção[13] play
ɨ semáforo[14] emission or play
i pente; pequeno; se[14] emission; see or play
i meandro; e see or play
i si; dia; país see
ɔ ɔ formosa; formosos; avó ball (GA) ~ lot (RP)
o hospital ball or sole (GA)
o o avô; oliveira sole (GA) ~ sword (RP)
u sortudo loop or sole (GA)
u boneco; voo; vi-o; frio[15]
u rua; saúde loop
IPA Nasal vowels
Flag of گالیسیا (ہسپانیہ)
G
Flag of پرتگال
EP
Flag of برازیل
BP
Examples English approximation
ɐ̃ canto; ângulo; âmbar; lã[16] uhn-huh (nasal /ɐ/)
cento; sempre; essência[17] nasal /e/
ĩ cinto; sim; ímpar nasal /i/
õ conto; cônscio; bom; cômputo nasal /o/
ũ fungo; algum; cúmplice nasal /u/
 
IPA Semivowels[18][19]
Flag of گالیسیا (ہسپانیہ)
G
Flag of پرتگال
EP
Flag of برازیل
BP
Examples English approximation
j pais; saia; cães; corações you or boy
w quando; guarda; frequente; quão wine or cow
 
IPA Suprasegmentals
Flag of گالیسیا (ہسپانیہ)
G
Flag of پرتگال
EP
Flag of برازیل
BP
Examples English approximation
ˈ livre [ˈlivɾɨ] ~ [ˈlivɾi] lexical stress
ˌ contramão [ˌkõtɾɐˈmɐ̃w] secondary stress
. dia [ˈdi.ɐ] ~ [ˈdʒi.ɐ] syllable break

حوالہ جات[ترمیم]

  1. ^ ا ب پ In northern and central Portugal, /b/, /d/, and /ɡ/ are lenited to fricatives of the same place of articulation ([β], [ð], and [ɣ], respectively) in all places except after a pause, or a nasal vowel, in which contexts they are stops [b, d, ɡ], not dissimilar from English b, d, g )[[#{{{REF}}}|]](. Most often, it only happens in southern and insular Portugal and in Brazil in some unstressed syllables, generally in relaxed speech, but this is by no means universal.
  2. In Galician and some rural northern accents of European Portuguese, /v/ has merged with the [b ~ β] set.
  3. ^ ا ب In most varieties of Brazilian Portuguese, /d, t/ are palatalized and affricated to post-alveolar (generally alveolo-palatal, but not thus represented here) [, ] before high front vowels /i, ĩ/.
  4. ^ ا ب پ ت ٹ In Galician, nasal and lateral consonants only contrast before vowels. Before consonants, they assimilate to the consonant's place of articulation. In word-final position, only /ŋ/ and /l/ occur.
  5. ^ ا ب In most Brazilian dialects, and in standard Brazilian speech, /l/ is strongly velarized or pharyngealized before /i, ĩ/. In European Portuguese, syllable-final /l/ is usually velarized [ɫ] much like with 'sold' for many English speakers. For most Brazilians, it has been vocalized to [w] before consonants and at the end of words. In traditional Galician, syllable-final /l/ was also velarized; but nowadays it has been widely replaced by a clear l [l] in most dialects.
  6. In some Galician dialects /ʎ/ has merged with [j]. Minor yeísmo-like merger is also present in some dialects of Brazilian Portuguese, specially the caipira one.
  7. ^ ا ب The rhotic consonant represented as /ʁ/ has considerable variation across different variants, being pronounced as [x], [h], [χ], [ʁ], etc., in Brazil; as [ʁ], [ʀ], [r], etc., in Portugal; and as [r] in Galicia. See also Guttural R in Portuguese.
  8. ^ ا ب پ The rhotic consonants /ɾ/ ‹r› and /ʁ/ ‹rr› only contrast between vowels. Otherwise, they are in complementary distribution as ‹r›, with /ʁ/ occurring word-initially, after ‹l›, ‹n›, and ‹s› and in compounds; /ɾ/ is found elsewhere.
  9. ^ ا ب The realization of syllable-final ‹r› varies amongst dialects; it is generally pronounced as an alveolar tap [ɾ] in European Portuguese, Galician and some Brazilian dialects (e.g. Rio Grande do Sul state and São Paulo city), as a coronal approximant ([ɹ] or [ɻ]) in various other Brazilian dialects, and as a guttural R in all others (e.g. Rio de Janeiro city, the overwhelmingly majority from the Northeast). Additionally, in some Brazilian Portuguese dialects, word-final ‹r› may be weakened to complete elision in infinitives; e.g. ficar [fiˈka] (note word final ‹r› is pronounced —though as a tap [ɾ]— only if it is followed by a vowel sound in the same phrase or prosodic unit: ficar ao léu [fiˈkaɾ aw ˈlɛw]).
  10. Present in loanwords from English. In some Brazilian dialects, it is also the phonetic realization of /ʁ/.
  11. In some Galician dialects /ɡ/ is spirantized to [ħ] or [h] in a phonological process known as gheada.
  12. In Galician, /x/ may be used in loanwords, foreign names and hispanicized names; like kharxa, Araújo (instead of Araúxo, pron. with [ʃ]) and Fagilde or Fajilde (instead of Faxilde, pron. with [ʃ]).
  13. In the dialect of Lisbon, /e/ merges with /ɐ/ when it comes before palatal sounds (e.g. abelha, venho, jeito).
  14. ^ ا ب In European Portuguese the IPA symbol /ɨ/ denotes a near-close near-back unrounded vowel.
  15. Some of the post-stressed high vowels in hiatuses, as in frio ('cold') and rio ('river'), may vary between a reduced vowel [ˈfɾi.u] and a glide [ˈfɾiw], exceptions are verbal conjugations, forming pairs like eu rio [ˈew ˈʁi.u] (I laugh) and ele riu [ˈelɨ ˈʁiw] (he laughed).
  16. In Portuguese, word final /ɐ̃/ may diphthongize to [ɐ̃w] (note this realization occurs exclusively in verbal forms spelled with final -am: namoram, falam, ruiram).
  17. In Portuguese, word final /ẽ/ diphthongizes to [ẽj] (e.g. sem, também, nuvens). In many European Portuguese dialects (especially central and southern varieties) it has become [ɐ̃j]: sem [ˈsɐ̃j]
  18. The semivowels [w] and [j], allophones of vowels /u/ and /i/, can be combined with most vowels to form diphthongs and triphthongs. This includes nasal diphthongs such as [ɐ̃j] and [ɐ̃w], and nasal triphthongs such as [wɐ̃w] and [wõj].
  19. Sometimes, Portuguese will present "geminated" semivowels, more accurately each pair being separated to one's own syllable, with the first phone occurring as coda and the second occurring as onset. Examples of such pronunciations are saia and leio for [j.j] and doe or pessoa for [w.w]. They should be transcribed as such.