قدیم فلسفہ

آزاد دائرۃ المعارف، ویکیپیڈیا سے
Jump to navigation Jump to search

یہ صفحہ قدیم فلسفے کے کچھ روابط کی فہرست ہے۔ مغربی فلسفے میں، رومی سلطنت میں مسیحیت کے پھیلاؤ نے ہیلینیائی فلسفے پر خاتمے کی مہر لگا دی اور فلسفہ قرون وسطی کا آغاز ہوا، جبکہ مشرقی فلسفے میں، اسلام کے پھیلاؤ نے قدیم ایرانی فلسفے کا خاتمہ کر دیا اور ابتدائی اسلامی فلسفے کا آغاز ہوا۔

تعارف[ترمیم]

خالص فلسفیانہ سوچ، خلقی انفرادی بصیرت پر منحصر ہے، اس کا آغاز بہت سی ثقافتوں میں تقریباً اتفاقی طور پر ہوا۔

فلسفی[ترمیم]

قدیم یونانی و رومی فلسفہ[ترمیم]

Graphical relationship among the various pre-socratic philosophers and thinkers; red arrows indicate a relationship of opposition.
رافیل's School of Athens، depicting an array of ancient Greek philosophers engaged in discussion.

فلسفی[ترمیم]

ماقبل سقراطی فلسفی[ترمیم]

تھالیز (624 – c 546 قبل مسیح)
اناکسی میندر (610 – 546 قبل مسیح)
اناکسی مینس (c. 585 – c. 525 قبل مسیح)
فیثاغورث (582 – 496 قبل مسیح)
فلولاؤس (470 – 380 قبل مسیح)
Alcmaeon of Croton
آرکیٹاس (428 – 347 قبل مسیح)
Xenophanes (570 – 470 قبل مسیح)
بارامانیاس (510 – 440 قبل مسیح)
Zeno of Elea (490 – 430 قبل مسیح)
Melissus of Samos (c. 470 قبل مسیح – ?)
امپی دوکلیز (490 – 430 قبل مسیح)
اناکسا غورث (500 – 428 قبل مسیح)
Leucippus (first half of پانچویں صدی قبل مسیح)
دیموقراطیس (460 – 370 قبل مسیح)
Metrodorus of Chios (چوتھی صدی قبل مسیح)
پروتاغوراث (490 – 420 قبل مسیح)
Gorgias (487 – 376 قبل مسیح)
Antiphon (480 – 411 قبل مسیح)
Prodicus (465/450 – بعد از 399 قبل مسیح)
Hippias (وسط پانچویں صدی قبل مسیح)
Thrasymachus (459 – 400 قبل مسیح)
Callicles
Critias
Lycophron

قدیم یونانی فلسفی[ترمیم]

ہیلینیائی فلسفی[ترمیم]

ہیلینیائی مکتب فکر[ترمیم]

Early Roman and Christian philosophy[ترمیم]

مزید دیکھیے: Christian philosophy

Philosophers during Roman times[ترمیم]

Plotinus

Ancient Indian philosophy[ترمیم]

The ancient Indian philosophy is a fusion of two ancient traditions : Sramana tradition and Vedic tradition.

Vedic philosophy[ترمیم]

Indian philosophy begins with the وید where questions related to laws of nature, the origin of the universe and the place of man in it are asked. In the famous رگ وید Hymn of Creation (Nasadiya Sukta) the poet says:

Vyasa، at وسط picture
"Whence all creation had its origin,
he, whether he fashioned it or whether he did not,
he, who surveys it all from highest heaven,
he knows—or maybe even he does not know."

In the Vedic view, creation is ascribed to the self-consciousness of the primeval being (Purusha)۔ This leads to the inquiry into the one being that underlies the diversity of empirical phenomena and the origin of all things. Cosmic order is termed rta and causal law by karma۔ Nature (prakriti) is taken to have three qualities (sattva، rajas، and tamas

Sramana philosophy[ترمیم]

جین مت and بدھ مت are continuation of the Sramana school of thought. The Sramanas cultivated a pessimistic worldview of the samsara as full of suffering and advocated renunciation and austerities. They laid stress on philosophical concepts like Ahimsa, Karma, Jnana, Samsara and Moksa. Cārvāka (Sanskrit: चार्वाक) (atheist) philosophy, also known as Lokāyata, it is a system of Hindu philosophy that assumes various forms of philosophical skepticism and religious indifference. It is named بعد از its founder, Cārvāka, author of the Bārhaspatya-sūtras.

Classical Indian philosophy[ترمیم]

In classical times, these inquiries were systematized in six schools of philosophy. Some of the questions asked were:

  • What is the ontological nature of consciousness?
  • How is cognition itself experienced?
  • Is mind (chit) intentional or not?
  • Does cognition have its own structure?

The Six schools of Indian philosophy are:

Ancient Indian philosophers[ترمیم]

1st millennium قبل مسیح[ترمیم]

Philosophers of Vedic Age (2000–600 قبل مسیح)[ترمیم]

Philosophers of Axial Age (600–185 قبل مسیح)[ترمیم]

Buddha.

Philosophers of Golden Age (184 قبل مسیح – 600 عیسوی)[ترمیم]

Ancient Iranian philosophy[ترمیم]

Zarathustra as depicted in رافیل's The School of Athens beside Raphael who appears as the ancient painter Apelles of Kos۔

See also: ثنویت، Dualism (philosophy of mind)

While there are ancient relations between the Indian وید and the Iranian اوستا، the two main families of the Indo-Iranian philosophical traditions were characterized by fundamental differences in their implications for the human being's position in society and their view of man's role in the universe. The first charter of انسانی حقوق by کورش اعظم as understood in the اسطوانۂ کورش is often seen as a reflection of the questions and thoughts expressed by زرطشت and developed in زرتشتیت schools of thought of the ہخامنشی سلطنت of تاریخ ایران۔[3][4]

Schools of thought[ترمیم]

Ideas and tenets of Zoroastrian schools of Early Persian philosophy are part of many works written in Middle Persian and of the extant scriptures of the zoroastrian religion in اوستائی زبان۔ Among these are treatises such as the Shikand-gumanic Vichar by Mardan-Farrux Ohrmazddadan, selections of Denkard، Wizidagīhā-ī Zātspram ("Selections of Zātspram") as well as older passages of the book Avesta, the Gathas which are attributed to Zarathustra himself and regarded as his "direct teachings"۔[5]

Zoroastrianism[ترمیم]

Anacharsis

Pre-Manichaean thought[ترمیم]

Manichaeism[ترمیم]

Mazdakism[ترمیم]

Zurvanism[ترمیم]

Philosophy and the Empire[ترمیم]

Literature[ترمیم]

Ancient Jewish philosophy[ترمیم]

مزید دیکھیے: Jewish philosophy

First Temple (c. 900 قبل مسیح to 587 قبل مسیح)[ترمیم]

Assyrian exile (587 قبل مسیح to 516 قبل مسیح)[ترمیم]

Second Temple (516 قبل مسیح to 70 عیسوی)[ترمیم]

  • Malachi (پانچویں صدی قبل مسیح)
  • کتاب واعظ (پانچویں – 2nd صدی قبل مسیح)
  • Shimon ben Yeshua ben Eliezer ben Sira (2nd صدی قبل مسیح)
  • ہلل (c. 110 قبل مسیح – 10عیسوی)
  • فیلو (30 قبل مسیح – 45 عیسوی)

Early Roman exile (70 عیسوی to c. 600 عیسوی)[ترمیم]

مزید دیکھیے[ترمیم]

حوالہ جات[ترمیم]

  1. The significance of Purusha Sukta in Daily Invocations by Swami Krishnananda
  2. P. 285 Indian sociology through Ghurye, a dictionary By S. Devadas Pillai
  3. Philip G. Kreyenbroek: "Morals and Society in Zoroastrian Philosophy" in "Persian Philosophy"۔ Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy: Brian Carr and Indira Mahalingam. Routledge, 2009.
  4. Mary Boyce: "The Origins of Zoroastrian Philosophy" in "Persian Philosophy"۔ Companion Encyclopedia of Asian Philosophy: Brian Carr and Indira Mahalingam. Routledge, 2009.
  5. An Anthology of Philosophy in Persia. From Zoroaster to 'Umar Khayyam. S. H. Nasr & M. Aminrazavi. I. B. Tauris Publishers, London & New York, 2008. ISBN 978-1845115418۔
  6. Zurvan. A Zoroastrian Dilemma. Robert Charles Zaehner. Biblo and Tannen, 1972. ISBN 0-8196-0280-9۔
  7. ^ ا ب Sasanian Iran – intellectual life. A. Tafazzoli and A. L. Khromov in: History of Civilizations of Central Asia: The Crossroads of Civilization. B. A. Litvinsky, Zhang Guand-Da, R. Shabani Samghabadi. Unesco, 1996. ISBN 9231032119۔
  8. Mansour Shaki. Falsafa. Philosophy in the pre-Islamic period۔ Encyclopædia Iranica. Volume IX. 1999. ISBN 0-933273-35-5۔
  9. Prods Oktor Skjaervo. Bardesanes۔ Encyclopædia Iranica. Volume III. Fasc. 7–8. ISBN 0-7100-9121-4۔
  10. David A. Scott. Manichaean Views of Buddhism in: History of Religions. Vol. 25, No. 2, Nov. 1985. University of Chicago Press.
  11. Yarshater, Ehsan. 1983. The Cambridge history of Iran, volume 2. pp. 995–997

مزید پڑھیے[ترمیم]

  • Luchte, James, Early Greek Thought: Before the Dawn، in series, Bloomsbury Studies in Ancient Philosophy، Bloomsbury Publishing, London, 2011. ISBN 978-0567353313

بیرونی روابط[ترمیم]